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Flashcards in Final Deck (118):
1

Gender Complementarity

Communal and corporative
Can be matrilineal and/or matrilocal
Common in pre-contact aboriginal cultures

2

Extended Family

Family which is not part of your direct, nuclear, family.

3

Matrilocal

A woman remains in her mother's household after reaching maturity and brings her husband to live with their family after the marriage. Son move out of their original household after marriage to join their wives.

4

Matrilineal

Line of decent is traced exclusively through the female

5

Residential Schools

An assimilation policy which was put in place by Canadian government to essentially take away aboriginal culture. This had tremendous effects on aboriginal families which are still felt today (intergenerational).

6

Second Shift

Woman shift from staying purely at home to also working. If they decided to work they were expected to still take care of the home and children.

7

Separate Spheres

The ideology which places emphasis of women and men having different roles in the household.

8

Women's Roles

Associated with the home; domesticity becomes ideal.
There has been a decline in women's political, economic, and social power.
"Angel of the hearth"

9

Men's Roles

Associated with the public world.
Work shifter to public spaces such as factories and was associated with wages
Urbanization (moving where work was located)
Work around home reduced
Exiled from family life

10

Normative

To say that something is normative means that it is the standard against which all others are judged to be normal. For example, historically the nuclear family, consisting of a married heterosexual couple, ideally with children, was considered the normative family in Western patriarchal culture; other versions of the family were considered unusual, abnormal, or even deviant.

11

Wage-earning Family

Family which is provided for through wages and not co-providing.

12

Co-providing family

complementary work roles
less gender differentiation

13

Industrialization

Production shifts from home to urban centers

14

Urbanization

The husband had to move to where work was located and therefore was associated with the public world and exiled from the home

15

Angel of the hearth

Women who had the sole responsibility of keeping their home managed

16

LICO

Low Income Cut Off

17

3 Traits Associated with Traditional nuclear Family

Class Privilege
Compact
Heteronormative

18

19th Century Family Social Scripts were used to limit women's movements. What did they restrict access to? (4)

Voting rights
Ability to hold property
Access to education
Employment

19

What happened that changed family structure during WW2?

Women entered into the workforce.

20

After the war (1945-1950s) women were encouraged to go back into the home. What resulted from this? (4)

Higher marriage rates
Lower age of first marriages
Higher fertility rates
Low, stable divorce rates

21

During the resistance in the 1960s what id 2nd wave feminists question their existing rights to? (3)

Reproductive Choice
Marital intimacy
Cultural Representations

22

Describe both the discourses experienced by men and women that Betty Firedman describes in her book, 'The Feminine Mystique.'

Women: experienced frustration, anger, alienation, and longing to have more fulfilling options.

Men: Had a similar sense of alienation but were not limited by a economic dependence.

23

What generalizations did Kimmel and Holler make about Canadian families in the 21st Century? (5)

Families are smaller
Higher amounts of families with single parents
Legally married couples with children only represent 1/3 of all families
The number of common-law families have gone up
There are higher rates of divorce

24

Outline the struggles that Aboriginal families face dues to systematic racism and the fallout of assimilation policies. (5)

Lower life expectancy
Lower levels of education
Lower Marriage rates
Higher rates of unemployment
Higher levels of violence especially against women

25

What does research show about same-sex parenting?

That their children are generally fairly well-adjusted despite social anxieties.

26

What were 2 major milestones politically for same-sex families?

The ability to adopt children in 1995
The ability to get married in 2005

27

What are some struggles that poor families face who are living under the LICO? (4)

1 Many are headed by a single parents (generally the mother)
2 They are not resilient to sudden change (illness/loss)
3 Poor living conditions
4 Harmful consequences which can be gendered (criminal behaviour, anger/shame, women's stress)

28

Describe the gendered struggles face by disabled families.

Less likely to marry
More likely to marry older
Higher rates of divorce
higher rates of social isolation

29

What kind of discrimination to disabled people face?

A lack of access
Restrictions to physical space
Regarded as a family problem

30

What struggles do new Canadian families face?

1 Historically denied access to sustain families
2 Complexity and diversity is not fully accounted for
3 Difficult labor market conditions
4 Cultural, material, and interpersonal barriers
5 Resisting cultural homogenization

31

What is the relationship between gender socialization and parenting?

Parents possess gender-specific ideas which they socialize their children to act through and believe by placing expectations on their children

32

Hijab (2)

Broadly defined as the practice of modesty in Muslim cultures and the articles of clothing that pertain to that practice

33

Transnationalist Feminism

1. Recognizing different regions and different needs and priorities
2. Inequalities born of globalization as well as colonization
3. Emphasize connections, not necessarily similarities

34

Burden of Representation

People are often 'othered' and may have their personal work politicized to who they are stereotypically seen in the media.

35

Difference

Points of divergence, characteristics, and qualities that make one person or group of persons distinguishable from others

36

Othering

To turn someone into a stereotype of someone (or sometimes something). Focus on race, class, and binaries

37

Labelling

Implications of disempowerment that one has had from being labelled due to 'othering'

38

Privilege

An advantage that nor everyone has the ability of having.

39

Unearned Privilege

Accident of birth/luck which works systematically to over empower certain groups and disempower other.

40

Intersectionality

A way of taking into consideration all of the factors that together make up our political identities: our gender, our race and ethnicity, our class and status in society, our sexuality, our physical abilities, our age, our national status, and so on.

41

Oppression Olympics

When different forms of oppression are placed into a hierarchy. Groups compete to prove that they are move oppressed than one another which makes the 'more' oppressed people feel worthier.

42

Whiteness

Supplies the norms and categories against which all groups are measured. Defines itself by what it is not and is the standard from which other are judged (white-centred, white-identified, white dominated). Thought of as morally neutral, an invisible backpack of unearned assets.

43

What has mainstream feminism been critiqued for?

Failing to recognize differences amongst women, including within groups of women.

44

Why according to Ruby, might women choose to wear the hijab? (5)

Respect, dignity, and protection
Connecting with religion
Resisting assimialtion
Connecting with the Muslim community
Expression of self-discipline

45

Why might women choose not to wear the hijab? (5)

May be considered oppressive of ones sexuality
May be 'othered'
May be tied to 'anti-canadian)
May be connected to violence
Oppressive if forced upon someone

46

What did Hoodfar find about Iranian women's experiences with the hijab?

They expressed skepticism about the hijab and its ability to be empowering. They actively sought to resist it.

47

how are transnational feminists different from earlier feminists?

Early feminism was criticized for its ethnocentrism and classism.

48

Describe early feminism interpretation of reproductive rights.

A focus on access to birth control and abortion rights for white, upper class women but no focus on the forced sterilization of Black and Indigenous women.

49

Describe early feminist interpretation of rights to work.

A focus on upper class women being allowed to work in better jobs and not as much attention paid to women who had jobs but were treated poorly based on intersections of race and gender.

50

Describe early feminists involvement with policies and state.

Many early feminists wanted better representation for upper class, white women and did not want that same representation for lower class black and indigenous women.

51

What are generally the effects of having white privilege? (3)

Unearned assets that put white people at an advantage.
Taught to think of themselves as morally neutral, normative, or svn ideal.
Trying to make 'them' more like 'us'

52

Goals of Liberal Feminism (5)

1. Ending women’s legal, economic, and social dependence on men
2. Assuming women’s freedom and opportunity for education
3. Promoting open, competitive, and noninterventionist marketplace in which women can participate fully
4. Supporting principle of meritocracy amongst women as well as men
5. Enacting laws and policies that guarantee the equality of choice and opportunity for women

53

What are some critiques of liberal feminism? (4)

1. Assumes state always has the best interest of the individual in mind
2. Whose values are being accepted and propagated
3. Does changing law change peoples minds?
4. Limitations of the law to actually create social change

54

Goals of Socialist Feminism (4)

1. Critiquing role of household in propping up capitalism by reproducing gender, race, sexual, and class relationships. Argues that the public and private spheres overlap.
2. Discusses women’s wages in the labour force and their unpaid labour in the home
3. Dissecting relations between women and social class; women have contradictory class statuses as wives and workers: class differences amongst women
4. Dissecting stereotypical behaviour expected of women and men under capitalism and how traditional values are indicated through marriage and family

55

Criticisms of Socialist Feminism (3)

1. Overemphasis on economics as main sour e or sole source of oppression under capitalism; ignores patriarchy
2. Emphasis on traditional marriage and family as a source of economic oppression. Doesn’t take into account diverse family arrangements.
3. Oppression that women face under capitalism doesn’t disappear in socialist states

56

Criticisms of Socialist Feminism (3)

1. Overemphasis on economics as main sour e or sole source of oppression under capitalism; ignores patriarchy
2. Emphasis on traditional marriage and family as a source of economic oppression. Doesn’t take into account diverse family arrangements.
3. Oppression that women face under capitalism doesn’t disappear in socialist states

57

Radical Feminism

Emphasizes patriarchy as the sole cause of oppression
Believes woman's oppression is the most widespread form of oppression.

58

Radical Feminism

Emphasizes patriarchy as the sole cause of oppression
Believes woman's oppression is the most widespread form of oppression.

59

Essentialism

Assumes all women share the same goals (has narrow priorities and overlooks transnationalist feminism)

60

Describe Anti-racist feminism

It critiques the 'whiteness' and ignored racial oppression from other feminist theories. Emphasizes race as a category that supersedes sexisms in realized communities. Racism is a systematic problem which deals with 'power over'.

61

Anti-racist Feminism Critiques (2)

1. Dangers of obscuring the critiques by early feminists
2. Dangers of assenting an essentialist ideal for certain groups of women (not all women from specific radicalized groups have the same ideals)

62

Modernism

Sees self as being stable, coherent, and rational. Emphasizes reason and refers to scientific knowledge as neutral and socially beneficial. Believe there is only one ruth that will lead to social progress.

63

Postmodernity

Believes modernism to be unattainable and constitutes a flawed way of understanding human behaviour, progress, ability to discern truth about anything.

64

Postmodern Feminism

A response to modernism, a period of history leading up to WW1 and a way of understanding the world.

65

Poststructuralism

A branch of postmodernism which focuses on how language constructs reality. Sees power a dichotomous because one group is oppressing another ad treats it with more sensitivity to complexity.

66

Critiques of Poststructuralism

Very loose approach and it destabilizes things to a point where there is no longer nay meaning. Too much emphasis on abstracts and theories.

67

List the 5 Principles of Power

1. Power is a relationship: more complex than the notion of one group coercing another into doing what they want.
2. Not simply regressive, can also be progressive
3. Not uniform
4. We act within relationships of power which provide opportunities for agency and resistance.
5. Relationships of power exist in a broader context.

68

Third-wave Feminism

Emphasis on diversity, activism, and on individual contributions to social activism.

69

Describe 3rd wave feminism in a Canadian context

Contributions to marriage equality.
Changes laws in relation to parental benefits.
Ongoing cultural critique of social and economic structures which create systematic injustice.

70

Goals of 3rd wave feminism

Commitment to feminism as a process of theorizing, rather than a privileged body of knowing. There is also a commitment to diversity. Making sense of the experiences of women whilst respecting those to whom the experiences belong.

71

Goals of 3rd wave feminism

Commitment to feminism as a process of theorizing, rather than a privileged body of knowing. There is also a commitment to diversity. Making sense of the experiences of women whilst respecting those to whom the experiences belong.

72

Evolution of the term Queer

1. peculiar
2. derogatory to wards the LGBT community
3. queer identification

73

History of Queer Theory

Outgrowth of feminist theory, reclaimed the 'queer nation'. 1992: 'year of queer' represented a shift in terms of empowerment and questions heteronormative binaries.

74

What does queer theory do?

Influenced about feminist theorizing about gender, sex, and sexuality. Interested in normative binaries. Focuses on sexual identities but not exclusively whilst feminist focus on gender.

75

Themes of QT

People who don't follow the heterosexual norms have been devalued both in society and in feminist thinking. Challenges binaries that pertain to sexuality and assumes sexual identities are constructed. Sexual identities aren't abnormal until they are defined that way through repetition.

76

Critiques of QT

Hard to tell what gender trouble really looks like. It is very elitist.

77

Identity Politics

Politics that stress strong group identities as the basis of political analysis and action. These groups include ethnic minorities, religious groups, lesbian women, and gay men.

78

Global Feminism

Closely aligned with post colonialism and colonial theory. Concerns itself with the forward movement of women's rights on a global scale.
Different from transnational feminism because it is very ethnocentric.

79

Difference between transnational feminism and early feminist approaches.

Emphasizes connections and not necessarily similarities. Pays attention to inequalities born of globalization as well as older histories of colonization.

80

Diaspora

Refers to the experience of populations which have been displaced by slavery, colonialism, or forced migrations.

81

Discourse

The term applied to linguistic systems of representation through which our perception of reality is constructed.

82

Liberalism

A philosophical tradition and political orientation based in enlightenment thinking that stresses change through social reform rather than revolution. Given equal opportunities, people can and will achieve equal goals.

83

Metanarrative

Means a story about a story. A way of creating universal truth about knowledge and experience.

84

Signifier

A word, utterance, or image that expresses meaning. What a word signifies is coloured by the experiences of the person speaking/reading/interpreting it.

85

Dichotomy

Classification by the division into two, a way of thinking which divides us into 2 categories.

86

Heterosexism

Descrimination on the basis of sexuality rather than homophobia.

87

Heterosexism

Descrimination on the basis of sexuality rather than homophobia.

88

Homonormative

Explains how certain aspects of the queer community can perpetuate assumptions, values, ad behaviours that hurt and marginalize many folks within this community, as well as those with whom the community should be working in solidarity.

89

Heterosexual Imaginary

The image or representation of reality which masks the historical and material conditions of life.

90

Sexology

The medical study and treatment of sexual attitudes and practices. Especially 'perverse' ones.

91

Sexuality Scripts

Sexuality has not been constructed in a unified manner and different scripts have been developed for different groups of people.

92

Stonewall Riots

Riots from the Gay community because of actions taken by the police when they raided a bar and attempted to arrest any gay/transgendered members.

93

Importance of the Stonewall Riots

Created a sense of community.

94

Stonewall

Did not discriminate and was inclusive of the transgendered community.

95

Thinking Straight

Occurs when individuals begin to perform according to the scripts of heterosexual imaginary. It involves engaging in binary thinking and complying with prevailing meanings/messages about heterosexuality.

96

Essentialist view of sexuality

You are born into your sexuality
It is an instinct that defines s and our identity
It is attributed to hormones, genetics, and biological impulses

97

Social Constructionist View

Sexuality is a set of behaviours based on ideas
Sexuality is intersectional
Biological drives are insufficient
Sexuality doesn't appear in a unified manner
People in power decide what social scripts are used to regulate sexuality to meet economic and cultural needs

98

Sexuality

Not something you were just born into, subject to social scripts. You are born with a set of desires, behavioural expression is shaped by socialized agents.
Sexual needs/desires are not experienced as accidental, or as a product of society, they are deeply ingrained onus but we act on them depending on context.

99

Sexuality

Not something you were just born into, subject to social scripts. You are born with a set of desires, behavioural expression is shaped by socialized agents.
Sexual needs/desires are not experienced as accidental, or as a product of society, they are deeply ingrained onus but we act on them depending on context.

100

Heterosexual/homosexual binary

See heterosexuality as the norm and homosexuality as the 'other' and it completely ignores all other forms of sexuality as being nonexistent.

101

Sexuality and Sexual Norms

Insistence on the 'true' sex is problematic (e.g. when Alexina/Herculin an interest individual was forced to goose a sex and commented suicide.)

102

Social Dimensions of Sexuality

Recurring historical debates over moral degeneracy and various types of sexuality

103

Sexuality and power

Sexuality and stereotypes of class, race, and gender

104

Institutionalization of Heterosexuality

Homosexuality seen as a disease
Women who wanted to vote were seen as sexually perverse
Homosexuality was only seen as something for men
Homosexuality was seen as a mental disease in the DSM and was treated by chemical castration, shock therapy, mental hospitals, and drug therapy
It was replaced by Gender identity disorder and then by gender dysphoria

105

What resulted from the charges placed on Oscar Wilde?

Public interest in homosexuality increased, it threatened the success of the British empire.

106

Implications

Sex, gender, and sexuality are shaped in social contexts including language
Draws attention to how sexual activity is conceptualized over time.

107

Implications

Sex, gender, and sexuality are shaped in social contexts including language
Draws attention to how sexual activity is conceptualized over time.
Links to how we understand family

108

What are the 4 ground that Weeks uses to support his belief in the social construction of sexuality?

1. Sexuality and sexual norms
2. Social dimensions of sexuality
3. Sexuality and Power: Stereotypes of Race, Class, and Gender
4. Institutionalization of Heterosexuality

109

Name 4 examples of the institutionalization of heterosexuality according to Ingraham.

1. Media Programming: 'heterosexuality as a spectator sport'
2. The wedding industry
3. Law: e.g. defines against marriage act
4. Religion

110

Discuss Themes of Queer Theory

Influenced by feminist theorizing abut sex, gender, and sexuality
Predicated on the notion of the social construction of sexuality, sex, and gender our biological state and its cultural context.
Distinct from, but overlap feminist theories
Feminism focuses on gender while queer theory focuses on sexuality

111

Performativity of Gender

Butler's term for the concept of 'doing gender'
An umbrella term for people whose gender identity and/or gender expression differs from what is typically associated with the sex they were assigned at birth

112

Passing

referes to gender performance that convinces others that you are a different gender (Billy Tipton)

113

Category Crisis/ Gender Trouble

A violation of social codes of scripts of gender caused by cross-dressing, which reveals the constructed-ness of masculinity and femininity. Butler used the term 'gender trouble' to describe the same thing.

114

Cross-dressing

Men who prefer to dress in female clothing but do NOT undergo sex reassignment surgery.
Preferred to the term transvestite.

115

PArod

A form of imitation which diminished the significance of the original being copied

116

Social Fictions

Butler's term or scripts of gender that were are taught from birth about how to perform our gender (Baby X)

117

What 5 things do QTs have in common?

1. Assumes that all sexual identities are socially constructed and can therefore be disrupted and changed -- though not without consequences
2. Believes that people who do not follow the heterosexual norm have been devalued both in society and in feminist thinking
3. Challenges binaries that pertain to sexuality
4. Sexuality is produced in the context of social relationships and identities--that is, sexual identities are not necessarily abnormal until they are defined that way through social repetition and reinforcement
5. Thus, minorities are an important part of maintaining dominant identities

118

QT by Gauntlett and Butler

Identity not fixed
Accumulation of expressions or perceptions of yourself. There is no inner self, only a socially constructed self