Flashcards in Final Deck (148):
Occurs when a consumer actively seeks out someone to share an opinion with regarding a negative consumption event.
May seem annoying, but can reveal weaknesses in the service offering
Features of a Complainer (4)
- More likely to return
- More likely to become a satisfied customer
- Tells others when the company responds poorly
- Valuable source of information
Features of a Non-Complainer (3)
- Unlikely to return
- May tell others about the experience
- May become a valuable customer if company responds positively, despite lack of complaint
6 ways to handle service complaints effectively
- Thank the guest for providing information
- Ask questions
- Apologize sincerely
- Show empathy
- Explain the resulting corrective action
- Follow up with the customer after the corrective action
Negative Word-Of-Mouth (WOM)
Takes place when consumers pass on negative information about a company from one to another
Positive Word-Of-Mouth (WOM)
Occurs when consumers spread information from one to another about positive consumption experiences with companies
4 ways to handle negative publicity
- Do nothing
- Deny responsibility
- Take responsibility
- Release information
Refers to the times when a consumer chooses a competing choice, rather than the previously purchased choice, on the next purchase occasion.
3 types of switching costs
The portion of resources allocated to one brand from among the set of competing brands
Situation in which a consumer tends to continue a pattern of behavior until some stronger force motivates him or her to change.
A strong feeling of attachment, dedication, and sense of identification with a brand.
Those who will do everything possible to avoid doing business with a particular marketer.
Involves both a continuing series of interactions and feelings of attachment between the customer and the firm
Represents the degree of connectedness between a consumer and a retailer.
6 Characteristics of Relationship Quality
- Customer oriented
Consumer views company and service providers as knowledgeable and capable
Consumer and firm understand each other and 'speak the same language'
Buyer and seller can depend on each other
Both buyer and seller see equity in exchange and are able to equitably resolve conflicts
Buyer treats the customer as an individual with unique desires and requirements
Strong relationships are more likely to develop when a firm practices a marketing orientation, and this filters down to a service providers and salespeople
The process that converts time and goods, services, or ideas into value
Consumed over long periods of time
Process through which cultural meaning is transferred to a product and onto the consumer.
A mild, positive emotional state resulting from a favorable appraisal of a consumption outcome.
A mild, negative affective reaction resulting from an unfavorable appraisal of a consumption outcome.
Consumer satisfaction (3)
- A postconsumption phenomenon
- Results from a cognitive appraisal
- A relatively mild emotion that does not create strong behavioral reactions
5 other postconsumption reactions
3 Theories of postconsumption reactions
- Equity theory
- Attribution theory
2 components of consumer expectations
- The probability that something will occur
- An evaluation of that potential occurrence
4 types of expectations
6 sources of expectations
- Confirmatory Bias
- Personal Factors
- Service Quality
Proposes that consumers cognitively compare their own level of inputs and outcomes to those of another party in an exchange.
Focuses on explaining why a certain event occurred
3 elements to Attribution theory
Judgments of who is responsible for an event
the extent to which an outcome was controllable or not
the likelihood that an event will occur again
AKA buyer's regret: Lingering doubts about a decision that has already been made
4 conditions of cognitive dissonance
- Consuemr is aware that there are many attractive alternatives
- Decision is difficult to reverse
- Decision is important and involves risk
- Consumer has low self-confidence
5 cognitive reducing strategies
- Return the product if possible
- Complain about the experience
- Seek positive information about an alternative selected
- Seek negative information about alternatives not selected
- Minimize the perceived importance of the decision.
3 Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction Measures
- Direct global measure
- Attribute specific
the bulk of consumers indicate being satisfied or completely satisfied
How to solve the left skew
give more choices to respond to
Any packaging that is no longer necessary for consumption to take place or, in some cases, the actual good that is no longer providing value to the consumer.
6 ways to dispose of refuse
The attributes, features, or potential benefits that consumers consider when reviewing possible solutions to a problem.
The physical component
The result of the feature
Value = Benfits - Costs
The evaluative criteria that are related to the actual choice that is made.
emotional, symbolic, and subjective attributes or benefits that are associated with an alternative.
Functional or economic aspects associated with an alternative
perfectly rational decisions are not always feasible due to constraints found in information processing.
Evaluate products based on the overall feeling that is evoked by the alternative.
Evaluate alternatives across a set of attributes that are considered relevant to the purchase situation.
Mental representations of stored knowledge about groups of products.
2 Category Levels
2 types of attributes
- Perceptual attributes
- Underlying attributes
6 factors determining evaluative criteria used
- Situational influences
- Product knowledge
- Social influences
- Expert opinions
- Online sources
- Marketing communications
Mental assessments of the presence of attributes and the benefits associated with those attributes.
Consumers make judgments about: (5)
- Presence of features
- Feature levels
- Benefits associated with features
- Value associated with the benefit
- How objects differ from each other
4 other issues affecting consumer judgments
- Just Noticeable Difference
- Attribute Correlation
- Quality Perceptions
- Brand Name Associations
Allow consumers to select products that may perform poorly on one attribute by compensating for the poor performance by good performance on another attribute.
Strict guidelines are set prior to selection, and any option that does not meet the specifications is eliminated from consideration.
The degree of personal relevance that a consumer finds in pursuing value from a given act.
5 Types of risk
Consumer perceives a difference between actual and desired state
4 types of search behavior
Includes the gathering of information from external sournces
4 factors considered in external search
- Ease of obtaining information from the source
- Objectivity of the source
- Trustworthiness of the source
- How timely the information can be obtained
The individual attributes or elements of a product or decision that are used by consumers in making a decision.
Two evaluative criteria used across almost all consumer decision
External Search and The Internet (3)
- Lowers search costs
- Provides hedonic value
- Information control
Contextual effects independent of enduring consumer, brand, or product characteristics.
Ad Buys that include a schedule that runs the advertisement primarily at times when customers will be most receptive to the message
The set of value producing consumer activities that directly increase the likelihood that something will be purchased.
4 types of shopping activities
Personal Shopping Value (PSV)
the overall subjective worth of a shopping activity considering all associated costs and benefits.
2 types of personal shopping value
represents how sensitive a consumer is to immediate rewards.
a tendency for consumers to inhibit outside, or situational, influences from interfering with shopping intentions.
high capacity to self-regulate.
low capacity to self-regulate.
the emotional nature of an environment or more precisely, the feelings created by the total aura of physical attributes that comprise the physical environment.
the physical environment in which consumer services are performed.
Two factors that help create a competitive advantage
appropriateness of the elements for the given environment.
consistency of the elements with one another.
4 Atmospheric Elements
- Social Settings
Consists of societal and professional standards of right and fair practices that are expected of marketing managers as they develop and implement marketing strategies.
A term used to describe the activities of various groups to protect basic consumer rights.
Consumer Bill of Rights 1962 (4)
- The right to safety
- The right to be informed
- The right to redress and to be heard
- The right to choice
4 types of product categories
- Deficient Products
- Salutary Products
- Pleasing Products
- Desirable Products
Products with little or no potential to create value of any kind.
Products that are good for both consumers and society in the long run and offer high utilitarian but little hedonic value.
Products that provide hedonic value but may be harmful in the long run.
Products that deliver high utilitarian and hedonic value and also benefit both consumers and society in the long run.
Corporate Social Responsibility
An organization's activities and status related to its societal obligations
Societal Marketing Concept
Considers not only the wants and needs of individual consumers, but also the needs of society.
Deceptive Advertising (2)
-Contains or omits information that is important in influencing a consumer’s buying behavior.
- Is likely to mislead consumers who are acting “reasonably.”
- Marketers are often criticized for harming the environment.
- Consumption leads to waste and pollution.
- Environmental issues are complicated.
- Environmental Protection Agency plays a key role
The practice of managing and intentionally setting discontinue dates for products.
Cash Advance Loans (3)
- Also known as “payday loans.”
- Fees associated with the service usually amount to an extremely high interest rate.
- Truth-in-lending laws require disclosure, but many consumers don’t consider these costs.
4 Manipulative Sales Tactics
- Foot-in-the-door technique
- Door-in-the-face technique
- Even-a-penny-will-help technique
- “I’m working for you!” technique
Consumers are completely unaware that they are being marketed to.
Consumers can win a legal action against a firm if they can demonstrate in court that an injury occurred and that the product associated with the injury was faulty in some way.
Situational characteristics that a consumer brings to information processing
Density of people and objects within a given space
Retail positioning that emphasizes the tangible things like a wide selection of goods, low prices, guarantees, and knowledgeable employees
Way a retail store is defined in the mind of a shopper based on the combination of functional and affective qualities
Regularly occuring conditions that vary with the time of year
Physical environment in which consumer services are performed
Set of alternatives of which a consumer is aware
Alternatives in the awareness set that are deemed to be unacceptable for further consideration
Alternatives in the awareness set about which consumers are indifferent or do not hold strong feelings
Alternatives that are considered acceptable for further consideration in decision making
Total collection of all possible solutions to a consumer problem
Situation in which consumers are presented with so much information that they cannot assimilate the variety of information presented
Practice of using decision-making shortcuts to arrive at satisfactory, rather than optimal, decisions
perceived relationship between product features
Noncompensatory decision rule where the option selected must surpass a minimum cutoff across all relevant attributes
Noncompensatory decision rule where the option selected is thought to perform best on the most important attribute
Attributes that are visually apparent and easily recognizable
Mental representations of stored knowledge about groups of products
Attribute that consumer uses to infer something about another attribute
Attributes that are not readily apparent and can be learned only through experience or contact with the product
Tendency for expectations to guide performance perceptions
Number of times a product or service is consumed in a given period of time
Process through which cultural meaning is transferred to a product and onto the consumer
Theory that states that consumers are motivated to act in accordance with their attributes and behaviors
Overall goodness or badness of a service experience, often measured by SERVQUAL
Way of measuring service quality that captures consumers disconfirmation of service expectations
Number of firms competing for business within a specific category
Device that keeps track of the amount of purchasing a consumer has had with a given marketer
Share of wallet
Damages that are intended to cover costs incurred by a consumer due to an injury
Damages that are sought to punish a company for behavior associated with an injury
Practice of using sales techniques that are aimed at satisfying the salesperson's own needs and motivates for short-term sales success
Way of doing business in which the actions and decision making of the institution prioritize consumer value and satisfaction above all other concerns
Personal standards and beliefs used to guide individual action
Situation whereby an injured consumer attempts to show that a firm could forsee a potential injury might occur and then decided not to act on that knowledge
Extent to which businesses are held responsible for product-related injuries
Practice of making exaggerated claims about a product and its superiority