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Flashcards in Final Deck (101)
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1

Stonehenge

Megaliths; post and lintel construction; England 2000 BCE

2

In profile

Face from the side; found in Egyptian Art

3

Hierarchical scale

More important is bigger; found in Egyptian Art

4

Greek sculpture

Acropolis (Akros=top, polis=city); Hellenialism (spread of Greek sculpture); 600 BCE-480 BCE went from primitive to advanced; leaning sculptures on one foot (contrapposto); sculptures contain realism and emotion

5

Byzantine Art: San Vitale

Ravenna, Italy; built by Emporer Justinian
Circular structure, central dome, elaborate interior mosaics

6

Byzantine Art: Theodora and her attendants

In San Vitale; life size mosaic; flat; non-expressive; facing forward

7

Byzantine Art: Hagia Sophia

Istanbul 532-537 by Emporer Justinian
Central some on pendentives, half domes, mosaics (later destroyed by iconoclasts)
1453: became a mosque

8

Byzantine Art: great mosque of Damascus

705-16
Elaborate column because built around courtyard of Byzantine church

9

Mosaic

Little pieces of glass/stone glued together like a puzzle; found in Byzantine Art

10

Triumphal Arch

Arch to celebrate somebody's triumph; ride through it when back from battle
Arch of Titus, arch of Constantine, found in roman art

11

Renaissance

Rebirth; revival of interests in arts and sciences

12

Humanism

The era of the individual; we are all unique/special/powerful; idea of human greatness; see in Renaissance

13

Naturalism

Naturalistic expression with emotion; see in Renaissance

14

Emotion

Start to see again in Renaissance

15

Leonardo da Vinci

Original Renaissance man; multitalented (anatomy, engineer, artist); The last supper, Mona Lisa

16

Michaelangelo

Renaissance; Sistine chapel- book of genesis on ceiling; "The creation"; 10 years "The Last judgement" with mannerism, dramatic, chaotic

17

David sculptures

Early Renaissance: Donatello (bronze, small, just starting to show emotion)
High Renaissance: Michaelangelo (marble, huge, beautiful, perfection, more detail/muscles/expression)
Baroque: Bernini (marble, huge, high drama, dynamic, every side is interesting)

18

Baroque style

High drama, value, contrast, puts you in the action; sculpture displays in all places, twisting bodies displayed just above you

19

Peter Paul Rubens

Baroque; "disembarkment of Marie de Medici"; sensuous, colorful, full of movement; "The three graces"

20

Roccoco

Flowery; graceful, jocular; sensual, soft, flowing forms reflect decadence of elite

21

Elizabeth Vigee-Lebrum

Roccoco; soft-sensual portraits commissioned by Marie Antoinette to improve her public image

22

Neo-classical

More serious/formal, looking straight at profile, all very stable, seriousness of purpose, influence of Ancient Greece/rome, detail in anatomy

23

Jacques louis David

Oath of the horati; painted to influence French Revolution

24

Romanticism in Landscape

Turner: The Slave Ship; Snowstorm Hannibal crossing the Alps; the sublime (create a sense of power and awe), nature demonstrates gods power; color and texture more important than detail/realistic; dense, dreamy, hazy atmosphere

25

Romanticism in America

Bierstadt: Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains; Westward expansion/Manifest Destiny; images of American wilderness to put human existence into perspective; inspire national pride and justify expansion

26

Romanticism in Narrative

Géricualt: The Raft of the Medusa; dark, dramatic, passionate; combine fantasy and reality; epic scenes of true or imagined events; lighting and shadows used for emphasis

27

Lascaux Cave

Hall of the Bulls; layers of animals; 3 horses facing each other; ca 15000 BCE France

28

Realism

Typical, everyday life; common human experience; not heavily symbolic; accurate observation; value and texture

29

Courbet

Realist; burial at ornans; the stone breakers

30

Daumier

Realist; the third class carriage; emphasis on working class, classical model cannot express realities of life

31

Édouard Manet

Realistic, sincere, representative of social class- different classes of Parisian society; bridged gap between realism and Impressionism; confrontational gaze, flattened space and figures; references earlier Renaissance with contemporary figures; Luncheon on the Grass, Pastoral Sympathy, Olympia, balcony

32

Impressionism

Intuitive and spontaneous; color and light; soft brushwork; plein-air; artists impression is most important- capture the impression of the image in the movement

33

Edgar degas

Impressionist; influenced by photography- capturing a moment in time, framing everyday life, especially working class: The glass of absinthe; the dancing class

34

Claude Monet

impressionist; impression sunrise, the four trees

35

Pointillism

Post-Impressionism, lots of dots mixed, Seurat

36

Cubism

Reduced natural form into basic geometric parts; show multiple, simultaneous perspectives

37

Picasso

Cubist; collage, guernica

38

Braque

Cubist; collages

39

Fauvism

Emphasis on unnatural color and value; inspired by Post-Impressionism; Les Fauves=wild beasts because wild colors used

40

Matisse

Fauvism; used blue to signify distance and volume; later was bed ridden so did paper cut outs

41

Dada

Based in cubism and abstraction; anti-art, avant-garde, experimental, innovative, conceptual; pivotal for placing ready mades in a gallery setting

42

Duchamp

Urinal, Mona Lisa with mustache

43

Surrealism

Unnerving, illogical scenes painted with photographic precision; dreams, hallucinations, questioning reality

44

Dali

Surrealism; influenced by Renaissance and Freud

45

Magritte

Realism; nothing is as it seems

46

Abstract expressionism

Action painting to express how artist feels or views the world; influenced by WW2 and previous artists

47

DeKooning

Abstract expressionism; gestural, thick painting; layers

48

Jackson Pollock

Abstract expressionism; dripped and splattered paintings, many layers, gestural, house paint, very physical painter

49

Pop art

Focusing on popular visual culture; transforming the everyday into icons

50

Andy Warhol

Fame; objects, death "15 minutes of fame" "I want to be a machine"

51

Robert Rauschenberg

Bridging the gap between Abstract expressionism, pop art and minimalism; radical blending of materials (collage, assemblage)

52

Barbara Kruger

Feminism in art; combining text and image to deal with issues of power, identity, sexuality, gender and consumerism; limited color schemes and graphic quality allow for confrontational message

53

Cindy Sherman

Photographs herself in many identities; gender is an unstable and constructed position; encourages self reflection in the viewer

54

Assemblage

Challenges stereotypes of African Americans and women in particular

55

Betye Saar

Uses assemblage for African American stereotypes

56

David Hammons

Assemblage and body prints; addresses African American struggle for equality

57

Faith Ringgold

Protests racism, questions american identity and equality

58

Earthworks

Large scale outdoor environments; influenced by Native American earthworks; temporal works, ephemeral, vulnerable, circles and cycles

59

Robert smithson

Earthworks

60

Richard long

Earthworks

61

Post-modernism

Mixing media, techniques, imagery; and influences; borrowing and recycling images and concepts into something new

62

Yasumasu Morimura

Post-modernist; Performance and photography; challenging culture, gender, and art norms

63

Appropriations

Taking cues from former works; post-modern

64

Viewer experience

Manipulated space, sound, light to transform perception of a site

65

Installation

Breaking away from traditional 2D work and inventing the public to share intentions and emotions as a physical experience

66

James turrell

Installations; physical and physiological effects of light

67

Anne Hamilton

Installation; sound, light, movement invite visitors to work publicly and intimately

68

Line

Posses direction, can divide or connect

69

Contour line

Outside and inside

70

Cross contour line

Use lines to show round

71

Volumetric

Helps you see volume

72

Implied line

Hinted at

73

Qualities of lines

Expressive, autographic, gestural

74

Space

Positive: thing it's a picture of
Negative: all the stuff around it

75

Primary colors

Red, yellow, blue

76

Secondary colors

Orange, green, violet

77

Tertiary colors

Yellow-green, blue-green, blue-violet, red-violet, red-orange, yellow-orange

78

Complementary color

Lie opposite on color wheel

79

Analogous color

Neighbor each other on color wheel

80

Local color

What something is in real life

81

Perceptual color

Based off conditions at that moment

82

Arbitrary color

Whatever color the painter wants

83

Value

The relative lightness/darkness of an object/area

84

Tint

Hue + white

85

Shade

Hue + black

86

Intensity

Relative brightness/dullness

87

Texture

Surface quality of a work

88

Pattern

A repetitive motif or design

89

Motif

A single design of a pattern

90

Time/motion

Sequence of action; illusion of movement

91

Balance

Even distribution of weight in a composition

92

Absolute symmetry

When each side is exactly the same

93

Bilateral symmetry

Minor discrepancies but still symmetry

94

Symmetrical

Can draw a line down the middle

95

Asymmetrical

Balance achieved but lacks symmetry

96

Emphasis/focal point

Draws in viewers attention

97

Rhythm/repetition

Elements repeated

98

Unity

Tied together

99

Variety

Some contrast/focal point

100

Art criticism steps

1. Reaction
2. Description
3. Interpretation
4. Evaluation

101

Elements of Art

Line, space, color, value, texture, pattern, time/motion, balance, emphasis, rhythm/repetition, unity, variety