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Fredrick Church


Hudson River School: 1820-1865

Is done from the Canadian side

Represents the falls without any buildings

The tower in the background was built in 1830 and blown up in 1870

Niagara Falls was called the wonder of wonder

Rainbow in the left. (represents noah's ark)(during that time God promised to never cause that kind of terrible thing again)


Thomas Cole


Hudson River School: 1820-1865

Painted based on his visits there

Is included in the painting with an easel

Cole is facing away from the man altered landscape

Is also called View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, MA after a thunderstorm


Thomas Cole

Voyage of Life: Youth

Hudson River School: 1820-1865


Asher Durand

Kindred Spirits

Hudson River School: 1820-1865

Landscape is the Katskill Mountains in NY

Thomas Cole (holding a red portfolio and wearing a yellow hat)

William Colom Briant (american poet)

Has to do with the Clauden Formula

Threesome(holy trinity)(art,nature,religion)(cole,briant,durran)

Was painted a year after cole died (bird flying is said to be him)


Jasper Cropsey

Autumn-On The Hudson River

Hudson River School: 1820-1865


Fredrick Church

Heart Of The Andes

Hudson River School: 1820-1865

Was done in his studio 

Is a bunch of scenes he saw in South America

Christian shrine on the left

Signed and dated the painting on the tree trunk on the left that is very bright

Is described as the right place at the right time


Alexander von Humboldt


Hudson River School: 1820-1865

Deticated to the landscape painter (told people to go to the equater)


Charles Darwin

On The Orgin of Species by the Means of Natural Selection

Hudson River School: 1820-1865

Went to Golopigoes Islands off of the ewador in South America

Found creation happening over a long long time

Was taking God out of nature (didn't mean to)


Fredric Church


Hudson River School 1820-1865

Are celebrated mountains in the Andes

Is a volcano

Is a fiction painting (never saw it arupt)

Got bright colors from fresh paints from the art store

Civil War going on (political metaphor)


Fredric Church

Twilight in the Wilderness

Hudson River School: 1820-1865

Political metahpor (the calm before the storm)(storm=civil war)

In the Aderondacks (North America)


Albert Bierstadt

The Rocky Mountains, Landers Peak

Hudson River School: 1820-1865

Can tell its American by indians in forground

Clauden Formula

Butchering bear in the front

The body of water is very bright (looks like a Copley table top)


Albert Bierstadt

Among The Sierra Nevada Mountains, CA 

Hudson River School: 1820-1865

Deer identifies it as North American

Clauden formula used

Exaderaded the mountains

The Civil War ended, the country is trying to find itself


Fredrick Law Olmsted and Vaux

Central Park

Romantic Landscape Design: 1776-1865

In Manhattan

In 19th century was thought to be unusable

William Bryant said its necessary to have a park like this in NY

Was meant to be perly demecratic

Walking, bike, carriage trails

Bow Bridge goes through park (largest)


Robert Smithson

Spiral Jetty

Earthwork: 1960-present

Walls built to protect beach aroshon

Is site specific

150,000 ft long and 15 ft wide

Was the site of an abandon oil rig

When the water pulls it turns pink

Was full demicrated art


Christo and Jeanne-Claude

Running Fence

Earthwork: 1960-present

Was only visible for two weeks

September 10-23

Was site specific

North of San Fransico on CA coast

Was 24.5 miles long crossed 59 private ranches

Was meant for pleasure



Christo and Jeanne-Claude 

Central Park Gates

Earthwork: 1960-present

Only up for 16 days

Used a saphran color nixlon fabric for each gate

7,503 gates placed on the walkways


Walter DeMaria

New York Earth Room

Earthwork: 1960-present

3rd Earth room, only still intact

Used earth from NY state nursery 

200,080 lbs of Earth, 22 inches deep

holy relic, religious object that was used that is put on display


John Fredrick Kensett

Beacon Rock, Newport Harbor

Luminism: 1850-1875

A visual contiment to transindentilism



John Fredrick Kensett

Shrewsbury River

Luminism: 1850-1875

A visual comtiment to transindentalism 

Emerson said the health of the eye demans a horizon

Kensett heard Emerson's lecture

Emerson said the sky is the daily bread of our eyes (provides nurishment)



Owl's Head, Penobscot Bay

Luminism: 1850-1875

Is the coast of Maine

Shown still and quiet

Has a golden glow

3/4 of the painting is the sky (Emerson)

Would grid the scooter boats to get more detailed design

Emerson wanted the exact and the vas



Brace's Rock

Luminism: 1850-1875

In Glouster Massaschusets

Arranged the rocks in a horizontal format

Wanted the empheses of light to relate to God



Thunder Storm on Narragansett Bay

Luminism: 1850-1875

Men are bringing in their equitment before storm

Very dark

Cross like object on left

Sky covers 2/3 of painting (luministic characteristic)


William Sydney Mount

The Truant Gamblers

Romanticism: 1776-1865

Older man carrying a pitchfork

Kids look like they are drinking and gambling

Mount would talk to the dead and talked to Rembrandt

Used a lot of Rembrandts techniques


William Sydney Mount

The Painter's Triumph

Romanticism: 1776-1865

Viewer can't see painting

Historic painting in background (shows education)

Mount in the painting

Golden glow (rembrandt technique)


William Sydney Mount

Eel Spearing at Setauket

Romanticism: 1776-1865

People in boat

Very luministic

Boat seats to be sitting on water

Two adults and an animal


George Bingham

Fur Traders Descending the Missouri

Romanticism: 1776-1865

People in boat

Very luministic

Boat seats to be sitting on water

Two adults and an animal


George Bingham

Jolly Flatboatman

Romanticism: 1776-1865

People dancing on a boat

The pole makes strong horizontal

manufest destiny (concurring the west)


John Rogers

Slave Auction

Romanticism: 1776-1865

Made in plaster

Would be painted bashe or gray (to look like stone)

Did genre paintings

Would put title on base

Mother holding child and other child holding her while father was being sold


Thomas Jefferson

Virginia State Capitol

Neoclassicism: 1776-1865

First true neoclassism building on a surviving ancient Roman Temple

Has pediments

Used ionic collums

Used a house he found as a refrence

Was white to look like marble

Masconari was the temple he went off of

Had front entrance staircase


Doric - strong and sterty. (Greeks prefered)(most simple)

Ionic - a little more detailed (has base)(two scrolls on top)

Corinthian - Roman prefered (rows of leaves on top)(used acantus leaves)