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Perceptual activity arising from proprioceptors that reside in muscles, tendons, joints and skin


4 bits of info kinesthesis provides

1. Ability to discriminate position of body parts

2. Ability to discriminate amplitude/speed of movement

3. Ability to discriminate movement of body parts

4. Ability to discriminate pressure differences



Sensory receptors responsible for detecting body and limb positions and movements


5 types of receptors

1. Ruffini receptors:
- Heat sensitive
- Deep in skin (lips & oral cavity)

2. Golgi tendon organs:
- Junction of tendon and skeletal muscle
- Detect force through tendons due to lengthening of skeletal muscle
- Works with muscle spindles
- Aid in spatial positioning

3. Muscle spindles:
- All skeletal muscles
- Detect change in muscle fiber length, limb movement, velocity and acceleration, and limb spatial position

4. Vestibular apparatus:
- Located in temporal lobe or inner ear
- Head position, linear/angular acceleration of head
- Visual fiction aid

5. Joint receptors (pacinian corpuscles):
- Muscle corpuscles & ligaments of synovial joints
- Helps to detect joint spatial position, joint velocity, end joint detection
- Detects leigh of flexion or extension


5 Generalizations of Kinesthesis

1. Kinesthesis in final autonomous phase

2. Improved Kinesthesis improves performance

3. Kinesthesis is related to amount and rate of learning

4. Improves with practice and systematic training that is task specific

5. Reaches full Kinesthetic access at puberty


How to use Kinesthesis

1. If it's safe, blindfold or restrict the vision of your clients

2. Manual manipulation (physically moving the individual)

3. Using feel language

4. Use videotape feedback

5. Use mirrors


4 examples of Kinesthetic after effects

1. Elbow flexion with weights then removing the weight

2. Overweight and/or oversized basketballs

3. Using weighted shoes or ankle weights

4. Vertical jumping with weighted vest


In almost every study of Kinesthetic illusions, the participants reported improvements but there was no data to support actual improvements. Why is this?

No measurable improvements were made due to the fact that motor skills are temporal and spatial and the changes from the kinesthetic illusions throw off spatial and temporal aspects


When are Kinesthetic illusions beneficial?

If they lead to strength gains, however, there are many other more convenient ways to gain strength.



Perceptual process that represents an individual's response to noxious or injurious stimuli


Pain tolerance

Individual, highly variable and represents the highest amount of noxious or injurious pain stimuli


Pain threshold

Lowest level of pain stimuli that a human perceives as pain


Pain augmenters

- Psychological coping mechanism

- People who engage in cognitive and/or behavioral practices to heighten the experiences of pain


Pain reducers

- Psychological coping mechanism

- People who engage in cognitive and/or behavioral practices to lessen the experience of pain


5 variables of pain tolerance

1. Past experience:
- Social learning theory
- Experiences with family and coaches
- How they were treated as a child when they experienced pain

2. Training state:
- The meaning you attach to pain
- Example: childbirth is painful but it means more than the pain

3. Personality

4. Nature of task:
- If pain is fundamental to the activity
- Example: Playing football or rugby, knowing you will get tackled and possibly hurt
- Example: Playing tennis and getting hurt, it's the end of the world

5. Expectations:
- Expect to endure pain


5 generalizations of pain

1. Almost all humans have the same pain threshold

2. There's a low correlation between pain tolerance and severity of the injury (an athlete suffers extreme injury but doesn't experience the pain)

3. Contact-sport athletes have higher pain tolerance than non-athletes

4. Anticipation of pain can heighten anxiety and could cause increased perception of pain (completing physical therapy and being physically ready to go back to practice but emotionally and mentally unprepared to go back - worried about getting hurt again)

5. Higher-skilled performers have higher pain tolerance than lower-skilled performers (this could be the reason they became higher skilled performers)


2 types of fatigue perception

1. Objective fatigue:
- A specific, measurable, biochemical (lactic acid) or structural change (frayed cells)
- Need to look "under the hood" to see objective fatigue

2. Subjective fatigue:
- Arbitrary, subjective, perceptual, highly variable, varies person to person and situation to situation
- Saying "I'm tired"
- "Our minds slow us down"


5 generalizations of fatigue

1. Very low correlation between objective and subjective fatigue

2. Moderate fatigue will impair activities that involve strength and endurance but not those who involve balance and accuracy

3. Fatigue caused by one task doesn't necessarily impact fatigue of another

4. General fatigue on occasion can actually improve learning that task (having children run laps to get out excess energy so they can focus and learn the task at hand)

5. For most tasks, moderate fatigue imparts performance but not learning (learning to perform under fatigued conditions - practicing while fatigued leads to better performance while fatigued)


4 Pre-practice and practice variables

1. Speed/accuracy trade off

2. Early vs. late learners & prediction of success

3. Warm up

4. Skill vs. ability


Speed/Accuracy trade off - Solley's Law

1. In skills in which speed is a prime factor, the best results occur when speed is practiced at the beginning - which decreases accuracy

2. In skills in which accuracy is a prime factor, the best results occur when accuracy is practiced at beginning - which decreases speed

3. If BOTH speed and accuracy are prime factors, then both need to be emphasized equally in practice


5 generalizations regarding speed and accuracy

1. Skills need to be performed under game-like conditions and pressure

2. An early emphasis on speed is better than an early emphasis on accuracy BECAUSE **there is a stronger transfer set from speed to accuracy than accuracy to speed**

3. At the proper speed, there are no movement variations

4. An early emphasis on accuracy can actually be detrimental

5. An extreme emphasis on either speed or accuracy is detrimental


Fitts Law

As the target size decreases and the distance increases, the movement speed will decrease in order to allow more accurate movements

Example: a shortstop takes an extra step toward the target to decrease the distance to allow for a more accurate throw to first base


3 Exceptions to generalizations of speed and accuracy

1. If safety is a factor - go with accuracy

2. If there are severe performance problems, go with accuracy and slow it down

3. Understand that different abilities are related to different stages of development


Early vs. Late learners and prediction of success

1. Never write your learners off
2. Prediction is more difficult unless 50% of the practice trials have been achieved
3. At least 95% of your clients' potential should be achieved before you can make a prediction that's accurate - which is impossible
4. Prediction is enhanced when predictor task finally represents the final task
5. Frequently, early success is misleading
6. Early success has 0 correlation with final achievement
7. Rate of learning has 0 correlation with the amount that is learned
8. Different abilities contribute to different learning stages
9. In most studies, late learners achieve same level of proficiency, or higher, than early learners
10. In a cognitive setting, when asking a question to students, wait 6-7 seconds before calling on someone


Brophy says that early expectations form subsequent treatment. What does this mean?

That hearing what other people think about a certain individual causes us to form judgments about that individual.


3 circumstances where predictions are more difficult to make

1. Task is not complex
2. Not allowed ample practice time
3. If it's a homogenous group


Each individual has a unique and optimal ___________ ______

Learning rate


Identify the caveat to warm up research

Research is equivocal, meaning that studies have shown warm up to help learning and performance and to not help learning and performance


4 benefits of warm up

1. Helps increase or decrease the performer's state of arousal or activation
2. Help decrease warm up detriment or performance decrement
3. Increases readiness set to perform
4. Any combination of the first three


Warm up decrement

A decrease in performance or a loss in retention from a lay off in performance

Example: putting in starters right after warming up but subs sit on the bench after warm up, creating warm up decrement.