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Flashcards in Final 5 Deck (48):
1

What causes DNA fragmentation during apoptosis?

Endonucleases

2

Primary mechanism of destruction is due to the activation of what protease?

Caspases

3

How are activation cascades set in motion?

Initiator procaspases activated

4

WHat do initiator caspase cascades lead to?

Executioner caspases

5

Two receptors of extrinsic apoptosis induction

TNF and Fas

6

What protein do Fas receptors recruit?

FADD

7

Recruitment of three procapases form this complex

DISC

8

What does released cytochrome c bind to?

Apaf-1

9

Wheel-like heptamer that apaf-1 forms

Apoptosome

10

WHat does Apaf-1 bind to and activate?

Caspase-9

11

2 Bcl-2 family members that inhibit apopttosis

Bcl-2, Bcl-Xl

12

Two Bcl-2 family members that promote apoptosis

Bax, Bac

13

How many BH domains do anti-apoptotic members of Bcl contain?

4

14

How many BH domains do pro-apoptotic members of Bcl contain?

3

15

3 pro-apoptotic family members with only 1 BH domain

Bad, Bim, Bid

16

Form a pore in the OMM

Bax, bak

17

Stays located in the cytosol and translocates to mitochondria in response to apoptotic singal

Bax

18

How do Bcl-2 and Bcl-Xl work to prevent apoptosis?

Bind to bax to prevent oligomerization

19

How do BH3 only protein work to promote apoptosis?

Inhibits Bcl-2 activity

20

Proteins that direct caspase inhibitors

IAPs

21

Cells that counteract IAPs

Anti-IAPs

22

Family of transmembrane anchors that mediate cell-cell interactions

Cadherin

23

Family of transmembrane anchors that mediates Cell-matrix interactions

Integrin

24

Connect cytoskelton of a cell to the cytoskeleton of its neighbors or ECM

Anhcoring junctions

25

4 types of anchroing junctions

Adherens junctions, desmosomes, hemidesmosomes, actin-linked cell-matrix adhesion

26

Main function of cadherins

Cell-cell adhesion medaited by calcium

27

Connect actin filaments from cell to cell

Adherens junctions

28

WHat transmembrane adhesion proteins do adherens junctions use?

Cadherins

29

Connection between IFs from one cell to another

Desmosomes

30

Connect IFs to basal lamina

Hemidesmosomes

31

What type of transmembrane adhesion proteins do hemidesmosomes use?

Integrin family

32

Primary intracellular anchor protein of hemidesmosomes

Plectin

33

Mediate cell-cell adhesions in bloodstream

selectins

34

Proteins that help organize junctional complexes

Scaffolding proteins

35

FOrms selective permeability barrier across epithelial sheets

Occluding jiunctions

36

COmpletely encircle each cell in an epithelial sheet

Sealing strands

37

Each span the bilayer 4 times and interact iwht one another across cells

Claudin, occludin

38

Allow small molecules to pass directly from cell to cell

Gap junctions

39

Membrane-spanning channel-forming proteins of gap junctions

connexins

40

How many connexin subunits make up a connexon?

6

41

Plant version of gap junctions

Plasmodesmata

42

Main composition of basal lamina

Fibrous proteins and GAG polysaccharides

43

What organizes the sheet-like structure of the basal lamina?

Laminins

44

What does the gamma chain of laminin interact with?

Nidogen

45

What do the alpha-chains of laminin interact with?

Integrin

46

specialized signaling forms of actin-linked cell matrix adhesion

Focal adhesion

47

Signaling protein found at focal adhesion

FAK (focal adhesion kinase)

48

speicalized ECM for eggs

Zona pellucida