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Flashcards in final Deck (62)
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1
Q

positive correlation

A

the relationship is such that a high score on one variable is associated with a high score on the second variable

-a low score relates to a low score

2
Q

negative correlation

A

an inverse relationship

-high scores on one variable are associated with low scores on the second variable, and vice versa

3
Q

assumption of linerarity

A
  • the relationship between variable X and Y is linear - neither increasing nor decreasing (monotonic) (when the line “levels” out)
  • violation of this would have the effect of reducing the size of the correlation
4
Q

restricting the range

A
  • limit the data in a population to some criterion (i.e., SAT scores 1200 and higher), or use a subset of data to determine whether two pieces of information are correlated, or connected. so…“SAT scores will produce higher college GPA”
  • of one or both of the measured variables weakens the correlation
  • not representational information/data
5
Q

coefficient of determination

A
  • a better interpretation of a correlation
  • found by squaring the Pearson’s r – coefficient will always be a positive number, regardless if the correlation is positive or negative
  • the portion of variability in one of the variables in the correlation that can be accounted for by variability in the second variable (i.e., SAT scores and the correlation to GPA)
6
Q

regression analysis

A
  • making predications on the basis of correlational research
  • correlational research provides the foundation for using psychological tests to make predictions
  • if you a statistically significant correlation exists between two variables, then knowing a score on one of the variables enables you to predict a score on the other
7
Q

basic formula for regression lines

A

Y = a + bX

y: criterion variable; value you’re attempting to predict
a: y-intercept of the regression line
b: slope of the regression line

X: predictor variable; known value

8
Q

directionality (correlations and causality)

A

-the casual relation could occur in either direction

A causing B or vice versa

-one cannot decide the direction of the causality

9
Q

cross-lagged panel correlation technique

A

a type of correlational research designed to deal with the directionality problem

-if variables X and Y are measured at two different times and if X preceded Y, then X might be causing Y but Y cannot cause X

10
Q

third-variable problem

A

if there is a strong correlation between X and Y, it is possible that X caused Y or Y caused X OR something else cause both X and Y

11
Q

partial correlation

A

statistical procedure that allows you to remove the effects of the value of some know “third-variable” from the equation in order to see what correlation remains after that removal

12
Q

Psychometric correlation use

A
  • establish reliability of a test/measurement

- establish validity of a test/measure

13
Q

Personality and Abnormal psychology correlation use

A
  • trying to figure out if one attribute leads to another
  • i.e., are attractive people happier or is it the happier you are, the more time you spend on appearance, or does an aspect of personality (i.e., extraversion) influence attractiveness, etc.
  • e.g., Sleman: learned-helplessness
  • attributional style questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory

Results: severity of depression significantly correlated with pessimistic explanatory style

14
Q

Nature-nurture correlation us

A
  • heritability of IQ?

heritability of shyness?

15
Q

bivariate analysis

A

a statistical analysis investigating the relationship between two variables

16
Q

multivariate analysis

A

a statistical analysis investigating the relationships among more than two variables

i.e., multiple regression and factor analysis

17
Q

factor analysis

A

type of statistical procedure that is conducted to identify clusters or groups of related items (called factors) on a test

18
Q

basic research

A

goal is to increase our core knowledge about human behavior and mental processes in psychology

-usually takes place in a laboratory

19
Q

applied research

A

designed primarily to increase our knowledge about a particular real-world problem with an eye toward directly solving it

-conducted in clinics, social service agencies, jails, gov’t agencies, and business settings

20
Q

quasi-experimental designs

A
  • used if subjects cannot be randomly assigned
  • “quasi” means lack of control and therefore have a lower status of being “true”
  • great value in applied research
21
Q

non-equivalent control group

A
  • two groups are compared
  • no random assignment bc participants cannot or should not be separated (i.e., at a mental health institute, you can’t give one group therapy and not the other– that’s unethical but you can give them “new” therapy vs. “old”therapy)
  • groups are not equal at the start of the study

Schematic:

O (obs) X (manipulated) O
O O

22
Q

interrupted times series design

A

special type of time series where treatment/intervention occurred at a specific point and the series is broken up by the introduction of the intervention.
–If the treatment has a causal impact, the post- intervention series will have a different level or slope

O1 O2 O3 X O4 O5 O6
initial obs/manip / followup

allows for the analysis of trends in the data, both before and after the manipulation

23
Q

archival research

A

a method in which existing records are examined to test a hypothesis

i.e., census data, gov’t files, diaries, medical records, etc.

ADV: used for gathering historical data, not hard to get, low reactivity

DISADV: access to private records may be more limited, make due with what is in the data, no control over the manner of data collection

24
Q

formative evaluation

A

form of program evaluation that monitors the functioning of a program while it is operating to determining if it is functioning as planned

25
Q

summative evaluation

A

form of program evaluation, completed at the close of the program, that attempts to determine its effectiveness in solving the problem for which it was planned

26
Q

needs analysis

A

form of program evaluation that occurs before a program begins and determines whether the program is needed

27
Q

cost-effectiveness analysis

A

form of program evaluation that assesses outcomes in terms of the coasts involved in developing, running, and completing the program

28
Q

small N designs

A

make important contributions to our knowledge of behavior of individuals

  • potential subjects are rare or hard to find or not a lot of money to conduct research
  • they are normally studied over time – no control or experimental group but rather compared before and after interventions
29
Q

What was Skinner’s dependent variable of choice?

A

rate of response

30
Q

applied behavior analysis

A
  • the applications side of the experimental analysis of behavior
  • includes any procedure that uses behavioral, especially operant, principles to solve real-life problems
31
Q

Reversal/withdrawal design (small N design)

A

if a treatment goes into effect and behavior changes but the change is due to maturation, history, or regression, then it is unlikely the behavior will return to its original form if the treatment is subsequently removed or withdrawn

A-B-A design

32
Q

Multiple baseline design

A
  • a return to baseline conditions is not always desired
  • that is, once we produce the desired change we may not want to risk returning to the original condition (problem)

A-B-A-B procedure: the behavior will not return to baseline but will remain high

33
Q

Changing criterion design

A

-reinforce successive approximations of a final desired behavior (i.e., shaping, lever pressing for food)

Rats in the Skinner Box were conditioned to push a lever for food

-target behavior is too difficult or complex for the person to reach it all at once, so it must be done in increment

34
Q

why do researchers prefer ABAB studies over ABA studies

A

ABAB studies are studies (like the ADHD study in book) where the person receives a baseline, followed by treatment, a withdrawal from treatment, and then the reinforcement of treatment

-if behavior changes accompany the intro and removal of treatment, confidence is increased bc that means the treatment is causing the change – confidence is further strengthened if reintroducing the treatment brings out another change in behavior (ABAB)

35
Q

AB vs ABA

A

ABA is the withdrawal of treatment after it’s been in effect for awhile

-able to see if behavior changes after treatment is removed

36
Q

case studies

A

refers to a detailed description and analysis of a single individual

37
Q

advantages of case studies

A
  • can provide a level of detailed analysis not found in other research strategies
  • well-chosen cases can provide prototypical descriptions of certain types of individuals

-can provide inductive support for theory, suggest hypotheses for further testing with other methods, and serve the purpose of falsification

38
Q

limitations of case studies

A
  • conclusions drawn on the basis of a single individual may not generalize (problems with external validity)
  • ample opportunity exists for the theoretical biases of the researcher to color case study descriptions
39
Q

observational research

A

to provide clear and accurate descriptions of behavior

40
Q

naturalistic obervation

A

the goal is to study the behaviors of people or animals as they act in their everyday environments

41
Q

participant observation

A

researchers will join a group being observed, or at least make their presence known to the group

  • gets investigator as close to the study as possible
42
Q

Problems with Observation methods

A

Absence of control
Observer bias
Participant reactivity
Ethics

43
Q

Absence of control

A

some degree of control occurs in observational studies, but, in general, the observational researcher must take what circumstances provide

44
Q

Observer bias

A

having preconceived ideas about what will be observed and having those ideas color one’s observations

45
Q

Participant Reactivity

A

behavior is influenced because participants know they are being watched

-want to act in a way that they think the researcher want them to act

46
Q

Ethics

A

it’s hard to keep reactivity low while still trying to be ethical

-can influence study

47
Q

Unobtrusive measures

A

Erosion measures
Accretion measures
Archival measures

48
Q

Erosion measures

A
  • interpret the “wearing away” of something as an index of behavior
    i. e., Chicago Museum of Science and industry – where the floor is more worn that is a popular exhibit (what about class trips?)
49
Q

Accretion measures

A

interpret the “buildup of physical matter” as an index of behavior

i.e., do politicians obey “dry laws”?

50
Q

Archival measures

A

analysis/categorization of data from existing public and/or private records (“file study”)

i.e., gov’t files, diaries, medical records, census data, etc.

51
Q

naturalistic observation with intervention

A

-observer intends to be part of the situation, but without letting others know he/she is an observer

can manipulate the environment without anyone knowing

52
Q

survey

A

relies on people’s observations of their own behaviors and attidtudes

53
Q

interview survey

A
  • can cover all topics about which data are needed

- yields highly detailed info

54
Q

phone survey

A
  • costs less and more interviews per unit of time spent (adv)
  • must be brief and the response rate is lower (disadv)
55
Q

written survey (questionnaires)

A
  • can ask many questions and people can complete them on their own time (adv)
  • return rate may not be as high (disadv)
56
Q

electronic surveys

A
  • quick way to gather a lot of data
  • scoring can be done by the computer almost instantaneously (adv)

-available only to those with computer access and some computer skills (disadv)

57
Q

social desirability bias

A

a type of response bias in survey research

-occurs when people respond to a question by trying to put themselves in the favorable light

58
Q

sample frame

A

list of individuals from whom a sample will be drawn

-with cluster sampling, a list of groups from which a sample of groups will be selected

59
Q

experimenter bias

A

occurs when an experimenter’s expectations about a study affect its outcome

60
Q

double blind

A

a control procedure designed to reduce bias

  • neither the participants nor the person conducting the experimental session knows what condition of the study is being tested
  • often used in studies evaluating drug effect (i.e., placebos)
61
Q

pseudoscience

A

a field of inquiry that attempts to associate with true science, relies exclusively on selective anecdotal evidence and is deliberately too vague to be adequately tested

62
Q

characteristics pf pseudoscience

A
  • try hard to associate with true science
  • rely primarily on anecdotal and testimonial evidence
  • sidestep all the important falsification criterion
  • take complex phenomenon (i.e., character, personality) and try to convince you these phenomena can be understood by relying on simple-to-undersatnd concepts (head shape, handwriting shape)