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Flashcards in Final Deck (40):
1

What are 4 things from the environment that need to be controlled?

Dust, Odor, Flies, and Water Quality

2

What are the 5 ways to control environmental factors?

1) Removal of manure regularly
2) sprinkler systems
3) runoff holding ponds
4) compost manure
5) parasitic wasp- biological control

3

What is the largest environmental factor?

Water Quality

4

What must feedlots follow, regarding water quality?

Confined Animal Feeding Operation part of the Clean Water Act. Regulated by the EPA

5

What 3 things go into calculating the break even cost of feeder cattle?

Price of Feeder Cattle
Cost of Gain
Sale Price of Fed Cattle

6

How are the break even prices of cattle applied?

Calculated on an individual lot of cattle as a unit

7

What is the Breakeven Price Per CWT of Live Weight formula for feeder cattle?

(cost of feeder cattle + feed cost + non-feed cost)/ estimated final weight of fed cattle

8

What is the Breakeven Price for cost/lb of carcass formula?

(cost of weaned calf + yearling stocker cost + feedlot cost) / carcass weight

9

What are the 3 factors that change of the profitability of a pen of cattle?

Poor health management
Poor rates of gain
Carcass discounts

10

What are there high levels of when health management is poor? (3)

Morbidity
Mortality
Realizers (chronically sick and perform poorly)

11

What are the discussed carcass discounts? (3)

Dark cutters
Poor Quality Grades
YG 4 and 5

12

What two factors go into calculating the cost of feeder cattle?

Feed
Yardage (overhead)

13

Factors that influence cost of gain? (2)

Feed and non-feed cost/lb of gain
Breakeven Cost

14

Factors affecting feed cost per pound of gain? (3)

Ration costs
Purchase cost of feeder animal
Daily gains (feed efficiency) (expect 6:1)

15

7 ways to improve feed efficiency?

Energy density of food
Processing grains (steamflaking and reconstituting)
Feeding growth additives and growth stimulants
Feed cattle to proper composition of gain
Control stressors
Select for genetic ability to gain rapidly
Sex of feedlot cattle

16

What are the factors that affect non-feed costs? (4)

Gaining ability
health
yardage
interest rates

17

What are the two factors that influence revenue?

sale price of market steers and heifers
sales (live basis vs carcass)

18

Why are implants and additives used?

to improve rate of gain and efficiency

19

How many time can they be given to an animal?

1-3 times based on the animal

20

What is the trade off for aggressive implants?

increase in pounds for a lower quality grade

21

When do aggressive implants work best?

when the Choice- Select spread is small

22

What is the objective of a vaccination program?

prevention, not treatment

23

What are three things a good herd health program should have?

Vaccination or immunization schedule
Internal and External Parasite program
Emergency procedures in case of disease outbreak

24

What can be gained from reading the label on a vaccination?

dosage, timing, route of administration, warnings. withdrawal, storage, disposal, expiration date

25

How should vaccines be stored while working?

cool and away from the sun

26

What are two things to remember when using a MLV (modified live vaccine)?

do not mix too much at one time
don't use disinfectants to clean

27

How often should syringes be exchanged?

every 7-10 animals

28

Where should the animal be injected unless specified otherwise?

In the neck

29

How much should be given per injection, and how far apart should injection sites be?

no more than 10 mL
4 inches or a hands width apart

30

When should young calves get their first round of vaccinations?

3-4 months

31

What respiratory diseases are commonly vaccinated for?

IBR, PI3, BRSV
Pasturella
Haemophilus somnus

32

What are other diseases calves are vaccinated for at 3-4 months?

Leptospirosis
clostridial diseases

33

When should a booster be given to calves?

3-4 weeks before weaning

34

What should be covered with the booster round of vaccines?

Respiratory diseases
BVD
Vibriosis and Brucellosis
Treatment for internal and external parasites

35

Beef cattle need nutrients to support what?

Maintenance, reproduction, lactation, and growth

36

Nutrient needs for beef cattle vary by what?

Age, class, stage of production, performance level, and weight

37

What factors influence dry matter intake?

weight, condition, stage of production, milk production level, environmental conditions, forage quality, and amount and type or forage or feed offered

38

What affects forage intake capacity?

stage of production and forage type and maturity

39

Average quality forage has how much total digestible nutrients?

52-59%

40

How much dry matter intake should cattle get from forage?

2.2%
2.5% if lactating