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Flashcards in Final Deck (44)
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1

Antioch (1097-8)

first major city to fall to the crusaders, took place over new years

2

Jerusalem (1099)

Final major city to fall to crusaders

3

Hatin (1187)

Decisive victory of Salahadin over the crusaders used victory to retake jerusalem

4

Constantinople (1204)

4th crusade, crusaders take over the city

5

Baghdad (1258)

Mongols take the city and sack

6

Any Jaliyah (1260)

Mongols defeated by Mamlucks and their expansion is halted

7

Acre (1291)

Mamluks take the city from the crusaders, given them a foot hold against crusaders

8

Delhi (1399)

Timur, captures Bayezid and gains allegiance of the Bayezids sons

9

Constantinople (1453)

Mahmed II, ottomans conquered Byzantine empire. Byzantines are wiped

10

Granada (1492)

Fall of Granada to Ferdinand and Isabella

11

Raymond of St Gilles

Led the first crusade, capture Jerusalem in 1099. Massacres the inhabitants of Jerusalem

12

Richard the Lionheart

Third crusade, triggered by Salahadin; He fought Salahadin to a draw, securing a beach head for the crusaders

13

'Imad al-Din

Took out the crusader kingdom of edessa. It was an easy inland target. First crusader kingdom to fall

14

Nur al-Din

Son of Imad, wanted to unify cities didn't want to take damascus by force

15

Salah al Din

Founder of the Ayyubids, Jihadist who retook jerusalem for the muslims

16

al-Kamil

Made a treaty, giving back jerusalem to the crusaders

17

Salih Ayyub

His core of slave soldiers become the Mamluks

18

al-Nasir (1180-1225)

overthrew the seljuq ruler Tughril III

19

Baybars

emerged after ayan jalut founder of the mamluk dynasty, set tone for removal of crusaders

20

Qalavun

patronized famous hospital and continued eliminating crusader cities

21

Osman

founder of the ottoman dynasty battled byzantines and took constantinople

22

Murad I

Massive expansion, took back Bakans and Anatolia, became a sultan, founded the janissries, was assassinated

23

Bayezid

increased centralization, slave system, built very large army and brought into conflict with Timur, Battle of Ankara (1402) "triumph of Timur" captured Bayezed

24

Murad II

Return of Ottomans, treaty with Byzantines created a Navy

25

Mehmed II

conquest to capture Constantinople he cast and had strong centralized government

26

Clavio

Spanish ambassador to Timur at Samurqand, was a first hand source to Timur's court

27

Timur

he has five and seven year conquests, great conqueror, descendants ruled for century over persia and central asia

28

Ibn Arabi

a mystic, the perfect human

29

Maimonides

jewish philosopher from spain, worked in egypt was a Ravi and physician

30

Sunrawadi

Sufi master in Baghdad close to caliph

31

Nasir al-Din al-Tusi

wrote textbooks on astronomy theology and math, joined ismali court and later mongol court and convinced mongols to build him observatory

32

al-Nawai

lived in damascus, was hadith scholar master jurist

33

Rashid al-Din

wrote universal history in persian for the Ilkhanids

34

Rumi

popular suffi persian poet

35

Ibn Taymiyya

critical of aspects of sunni islam lived in cairo and wrote lots of legal responses

36

Ibn Khaldun

historian on dynasties in cairo

37

Ibn al-Nadia

famous for describing circulation of blood

38

Policies of Ayyubids and Mamluks to crusaders

Ayyubids tolerant and allowed free trade and no one has to die, Mamluks aggressive and wanted to kill crusaders

39

Which three major cities in syria and egypt did crusaders fail to capture

Damascus Cairo and Aleppo

40

Ibn 'Arabi's concept of perfect human

no separation between man and god and it is like a mirror and without god we don't exist, god is a sphere and man is a branch connected to sphere

41

Impact of Mongols and impact on the Mongols

destruction of nishapur, redrew borders between muslim and european world; mongols got really rich and mongols adopted islam and persian culture

42

Muslim Palace in Granada who conquered it and fate of muslims there

Alhambra, conquered by ferdinand and isabella of spain, all muslims had to convert or leave

43

Rumi Discourse 17

there's beast angels and men is a mix, god is the beauty in men and greed is the beast in men

44

5 elements of classical sunni synthesis

union of 4 theological schools, promotion of suffi orders, hadith scholars loyalty to a single caliph