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Flashcards in Final Deck (40):
1

syphilis etiology

caused by bacterium. passed from person to person through direct contact with a sore. passed on congenitally though transplacental inoculation

2

syphilis symptoms

primary stage: single sore (chancre) on lip or penis. firm, round, small, painless

secondary stage: rash, fever, swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, fatigue

latent stage: no S/S but damage to internal ogans

tertiary stage: damage to brain, nerves, eyes, heart, vessels, paralysis, blindness, dementia

newborns: congenital syphilis, stillbirth, death after birth, physical deformity/neurological complications

3

syphilis treatment

early stages: single shot of penicillin

Longer than 1 year: penicillin given IM q week for 3 weeks

penicillin cures infection but will not reverse damage already done

4

genital herpes s/s

1st outbreak within 2 weeks after viral transmission. blisters appear then break and leave ulcers that take 2-4 wks to heal. may have mild or no s/s

recurrent painful genital sores. more susceptible to HIV

newborn implication: congenital herpes, microcephaly, hepatitis, seizures, DIC

5

genital herpes treatment

antiviral drugs like acyclovir or valacyclovir can shorten outbreaks. no cure

6

genital warts HPV

caused by HPV and spread through genital contact. no cure. S/S: visible perineal warts, no S/S. can cause cervical cancer

tx: podophyllin, liquid nitrogen, trichloroacetic acid

newborn implications: podophyllin possibly teratogenic

7

hepatitis B

etiology: blood and body fluids via sex, blood exposure, sharing needles, razors or toothbrushes

s/s: no symptoms or jaundice, fatigue, anorexia, nausea, abdominal discomfort, dark urine, gray stools, joint pain

newborn implications: chronic carrier more likely when infection occurs near time of delivery

8

latent phase of labor

onset of regular uterine contractions to the beginning of the active phase of cervical dilation
abnormal is > 20 hours in nullips or > 14 in multips

9

arrest of descent

no descent of failure of progress for 1 hour. caused by cephalo-pelvic disproportion, fetal malpresentation, inappropriate use of anesthesia, excessive sedation

10

bacterial vaginosis / BV

vaginal infection
excessive amount of thin, water, white or gray vaginal discharge. foul odor "fishy", 50% of women have no S/S. increases susceptibility to other STI's and HIV. increased risk for PTL. eye infections in newborns

Tx: Flagyl/metronidazole, clindamycin

11

Candiasis

vaginal infection. viral
S/S - women: pruritis, vaginal soreness, dyspareunia, dysuria, abnormal discharge. men: itchy rash on penis

Newborn implications- thrush, breastfeeding issues

12

trichomoniasis

most common curable STI. caused by parasite. most common in vagina in women and urethra in men.

S/S = men: irritation inside penis, mild discharge, burning after urination or ejaculation
women: frothy, yellow-green vaginal discharge with odor. dyspareunia, irritation and pruritis of genitals. symptoms appear 5-28 days after exposure
increased susceptibility to HIV

Newborn implications: PROM, PTB, low birth weight

13

chlamydia

reportable disease, bacterial
S/S - often asymptomatic. abnormal discharge or dysuria. located in vagina, uterus, urethra, rectum and throat
can lead to PID, infertility, chronic pain, ectopic pregnancy

newborn implications: conjunctivitis, chlamydial pneumonia, death, PROM

14

gonorrhea

caused by bacteria. often no S/S. some men have dysuria, penile discharge, swollen/painful testicles. women could have dysuria, vaginal discharge, increased vaginal bleeding

can cause PID, ectopic pregnancy, infertility. in men it can cause epididymitis

newborn implications: opthalmia neonatorum, cornea, ulcerations, sepsis, 30-50% of SVD will be infected

15

chlamydia treatment

cured with azithromycin or doxycycline

16

gonorrhea treatment

combo of antibiotic for gonorrhea and azithromycin for chlamydia bc they often occur together

17

trichomoniasis treatment

abstain from sex and Flagyl

18

Candiasis treatment

antifungal agent like fluconazole

19

Loss

any experience in which a valued person or object can no longer be seen, touched, heard or experienced

20

Perinatal loss

loss is complicated bc fetus being "known" is typically limited to pregnany woman through fetal movements, pregnancy s/s. Partner can "know" fetus through feeling movement too

21

Disenfranchised grief

Loss and they haven't told anyone. It is not openly acknowledged, not mourned publicly, limits social support, isolated, grief is undefined and unseen

22

miscarriage

loss from conception to 20 weeks gestation

23

fetal death / stillborn

loss after 20 weeks gestation and before birth

24

early neonatal death

death less than 7 days old

25

late neonatal death

death 7 to 28 days old

26

infant death

death within the first year of life

27

Chinese diet restrictions

Avoid yin (cold food) and yang (wet-hot food, like shrimp, mango, pineapple)

28

Latino birth cultures

Abuelitas/expert woman gives advice about childrearing. Elders offer advice.

29

East Indian birth practices

no men around women during birth (including father). certain foods can cause imbalance. blood is perceived as life force and it precious

30

hydrops

severe complication of Rh neg mom and Rh pos baby. causes anemia, cardiac decompensation, cardiomegaly, hepatospelomegaly, hypoxia and edema and intra-uterine fetal death

31

Rhogam injection

turns off production of antibodies and destroys any fetal RBC in mom circulation. done at 28 weeks to every Rh- mom. Given to baby if Rh+

32

Coombs test

identifies antibodies to Rh antigen. can be direct or indirect

33

Direct Coombs test

done on newborn to detect any antibodies

34

Indirect Coombs test

done on mom to determine if antibodies exist

35

BUBBLE HER VAN

Breasts, Uterus, Bowel, Bladder, Lochia, Episiotomy, Homan's/Headache, Emotions, Rest/Reflexes, Vitals/Vision, Activity, Nutrition

36

REEDA

looking at peri area / episiotomy
Redness, Edema, Ecchymosis/Bruising, Drainage, Approximated

37

TIME

looking at peri area / episiotomy
Tissue viability, Infection/Inflammation, Moisture imbalance, Edge approximated/advancing

38

gonococcemia

gonorrhea spread to the joints or blood. can be life threatening and higher risk of contracting HIV

39

fetal lie

the fetal long axis in relation to the mother. either longitudinal or transverse

40

second stage protracted labor

> 2 hours in nullips
> 1 hour in multips
> 3 hours in nullips with regional anesthesia
> 2 hours in multips with regional anesthesia