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syphilis etiology

caused by bacterium. passed from person to person through direct contact with a sore. passed on congenitally though transplacental inoculation


syphilis symptoms

primary stage: single sore (chancre) on lip or penis. firm, round, small, painless

secondary stage: rash, fever, swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, fatigue

latent stage: no S/S but damage to internal ogans

tertiary stage: damage to brain, nerves, eyes, heart, vessels, paralysis, blindness, dementia

newborns: congenital syphilis, stillbirth, death after birth, physical deformity/neurological complications


syphilis treatment

early stages: single shot of penicillin

Longer than 1 year: penicillin given IM q week for 3 weeks

penicillin cures infection but will not reverse damage already done


genital herpes s/s

1st outbreak within 2 weeks after viral transmission. blisters appear then break and leave ulcers that take 2-4 wks to heal. may have mild or no s/s

recurrent painful genital sores. more susceptible to HIV

newborn implication: congenital herpes, microcephaly, hepatitis, seizures, DIC


genital herpes treatment

antiviral drugs like acyclovir or valacyclovir can shorten outbreaks. no cure


genital warts HPV

caused by HPV and spread through genital contact. no cure. S/S: visible perineal warts, no S/S. can cause cervical cancer

tx: podophyllin, liquid nitrogen, trichloroacetic acid

newborn implications: podophyllin possibly teratogenic


hepatitis B

etiology: blood and body fluids via sex, blood exposure, sharing needles, razors or toothbrushes

s/s: no symptoms or jaundice, fatigue, anorexia, nausea, abdominal discomfort, dark urine, gray stools, joint pain

newborn implications: chronic carrier more likely when infection occurs near time of delivery


latent phase of labor

onset of regular uterine contractions to the beginning of the active phase of cervical dilation
abnormal is > 20 hours in nullips or > 14 in multips


arrest of descent

no descent of failure of progress for 1 hour. caused by cephalo-pelvic disproportion, fetal malpresentation, inappropriate use of anesthesia, excessive sedation


bacterial vaginosis / BV

vaginal infection
excessive amount of thin, water, white or gray vaginal discharge. foul odor "fishy", 50% of women have no S/S. increases susceptibility to other STI's and HIV. increased risk for PTL. eye infections in newborns

Tx: Flagyl/metronidazole, clindamycin



vaginal infection. viral
S/S - women: pruritis, vaginal soreness, dyspareunia, dysuria, abnormal discharge. men: itchy rash on penis

Newborn implications- thrush, breastfeeding issues



most common curable STI. caused by parasite. most common in vagina in women and urethra in men.

S/S = men: irritation inside penis, mild discharge, burning after urination or ejaculation
women: frothy, yellow-green vaginal discharge with odor. dyspareunia, irritation and pruritis of genitals. symptoms appear 5-28 days after exposure
increased susceptibility to HIV

Newborn implications: PROM, PTB, low birth weight



reportable disease, bacterial
S/S - often asymptomatic. abnormal discharge or dysuria. located in vagina, uterus, urethra, rectum and throat
can lead to PID, infertility, chronic pain, ectopic pregnancy

newborn implications: conjunctivitis, chlamydial pneumonia, death, PROM



caused by bacteria. often no S/S. some men have dysuria, penile discharge, swollen/painful testicles. women could have dysuria, vaginal discharge, increased vaginal bleeding

can cause PID, ectopic pregnancy, infertility. in men it can cause epididymitis

newborn implications: opthalmia neonatorum, cornea, ulcerations, sepsis, 30-50% of SVD will be infected


chlamydia treatment

cured with azithromycin or doxycycline


gonorrhea treatment

combo of antibiotic for gonorrhea and azithromycin for chlamydia bc they often occur together


trichomoniasis treatment

abstain from sex and Flagyl


Candiasis treatment

antifungal agent like fluconazole



any experience in which a valued person or object can no longer be seen, touched, heard or experienced


Perinatal loss

loss is complicated bc fetus being "known" is typically limited to pregnany woman through fetal movements, pregnancy s/s. Partner can "know" fetus through feeling movement too


Disenfranchised grief

Loss and they haven't told anyone. It is not openly acknowledged, not mourned publicly, limits social support, isolated, grief is undefined and unseen



loss from conception to 20 weeks gestation


fetal death / stillborn

loss after 20 weeks gestation and before birth


early neonatal death

death less than 7 days old


late neonatal death

death 7 to 28 days old


infant death

death within the first year of life


Chinese diet restrictions

Avoid yin (cold food) and yang (wet-hot food, like shrimp, mango, pineapple)


Latino birth cultures

Abuelitas/expert woman gives advice about childrearing. Elders offer advice.


East Indian birth practices

no men around women during birth (including father). certain foods can cause imbalance. blood is perceived as life force and it precious



severe complication of Rh neg mom and Rh pos baby. causes anemia, cardiac decompensation, cardiomegaly, hepatospelomegaly, hypoxia and edema and intra-uterine fetal death