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Describe 10 of the 15 characteristics of an ideal performance mgmt system

Thorough- all employees and all major job responsibilities are evaluated
Practical- available, easy to use and acceptable to decision makers
Meaningful- standards are important and relevant, results have consequences
Specific- concrete and detailed guidance to employees
Reliable- consistent, free of error, inter-rater reliability.
Valid- relevant (measures importance), not deficient
Acceptable and fair- perception of distributive justice; work performed
Inclusive- represents concerns for all involved like what should be measured right up to employees input
Open- no secrets
Correctable- recognizes that human judgment is fallible


With examples from your group Project describe the performance mgmt process

1. Prerequisites- knowledge of the mission and strategic goals and knowledge of the job in question
-archenland created a misssion with a vision statant staying the strategic goal, as well as conducted a job analysis that led to a job description listing out duties, competencies, and requirements of the admin assistant job.

2. Planning- the first discussion about the performance mgmt system including a consideration if results, behaviours, and a development plan.
-this would be the first meeting out of three archenland principles have with their employee

3.performance execution- employee does what was discussed and displays behaviours and performance that were outlined.
-our group had a section on the appraisal form where employees can say how they think they are doing and an area for managements observations.

4. Performance assessment- both the employee and supervisor must evaluate employee performance
-this is why we in our appraisal forms we have a section for the employee and a section for the manager

5. Performance Review- a review of employees assessments with their supervisors
- this would be archenlands third and final meeeting with secretary

6. Performance renewal and recontracting- uses insights and info from the other phases
-where archenlands evaluation of performance appraisal sheets come in


With examples describe the purpose of strategic planning

It helps the organization plan for the future. Archenland has objectives for economic, opportunity, environmental and learning with goals for the organization in each.


What is gap analysis? How would you use SWOT analysis for an opportunity within your organization?

Gap analysis analyzed the external environment of an organization which is opportunities and threats. It also analyzed the internal environment which is strengths and weaknesses.

Using SWOT:
Opportunity + strength =leverage
Opportunity +weakness = constraint
Threat +strength = vulnerability
Threat + weakness = problem


With examples describe procedural and declarative knowledge

Procedural knowledge is a combination of knowing what to do and how to do it and includes cognitive, physical, perceptual, motor and interpersonal skills.

Declarative knowledge ya information about facts and things including information regarding a given tasks requirements, labels, principles, and goals.


Describe the training approach of measuring performance

Emphasizes the individual performer and ignores the specific situations, behaviours, and results. Can include personality.


In the context of performance management and with examples from your group exercise, describe the terms “objective” and “standards”

Objectives are statements of important and measurable outcomes. On our performance appraisal we have objectives laid out with a 1-5 rating scale

Standards is a yardstick used to evaluate how well employees have achieved objectives. Our rating scale laid out in the performance appraisal form


Describe the advantages and disadvantages of forced distribution

Advantages: categorizes employees into specific performance group

Disadvantages: assumes performance scores are normally distributed


Describe types of rater errors and eaters motivation to do so

An intentional error of providing inflated ratings to employees to encourage them

An unintentional error due to the complexity of a task because supervisors want to shock employees to demonstrate a problem


What are the components a rater training program should cover?

Identifying, observing, recording, and evaluating performance
How to interact with employees when they receive performance information


Describe cognitive biases that affect communication effectiveness

Selective exposure- tendency to expose our minds only to ideas which we already agree

Selective perception- tendency to perceive a piece of information as meaning what we would like it to mean even though the information, as intended by the communicator, may mean the exact opposite

Selective retention- tendency to remember only those pieces of information with which we already agree



Eaters assign high ratings to employees



Eaters assign low ratings to employees


Central tendency

Eaters use the middle point on the scale and avoid using the extremes


Similar to me

Tend to favour those who are similar to us


Contrast error

Supervisors compare individuals with one another instead of against predetermined standards


Halo error

Eaters fail to distinguish among the different aspects of performance being rated


Primacy error

Influenced mainly by information collected during the initial phases of the review period


Recency error

Influenced mainly by information gathered during the last portion of the review period


Negativity error

Raters place more weight on negative information than in positive and neautral info


First impression error

Eaters make an initial favourable or unfavourable judgement about an employee and then ignore subsequant info that does not support the initial impression


Spillover error

Scores from previous review periods unjustly influence current rating


Stereotype error

Supervisor has an over simplified view of individuals based on group membership


Attribution error

Supervisor attributes poor performance to an employees dispositional tenednecies (personality, abilities) instead of features of the situation (malfunctioning equipment)


Describe developmental activities “on the job”

In the job training- training at workplace in specific role

Mentoring- one on one relationship with senior and junior staff

Job rotation- another way to gain necessary skills, learn a different job on a temporary basis

Temporary assignments- opportunity to work on a challenging temporary assignment and gain skills in a specific time period