Final Flashcards Preview

Philosophy > Final > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Deck (73)
Loading flashcards...

valid argument

if and only if whenever the premises are all true, then conclusion is true


sound argument

if and only if it is valid and all its premises are true.


a "criterion" or practical test for X (the epistemology of X) vs. a definition or analysis of what we mean by X (the metaphysics of X) vs. a stipulative definition of X

metaphysics of x: what is a thing?; relationship to physical world; what makes x a thing?; what's the nature of x
epistemology of x: How can you tell?; When do you know? when do you have reason to believe?


thought experiment

an experiment carried out only in the imagination.



the use of ambiguous language to conceal the truth or to avoid committing oneself; prevarication


substance v. property

Substance dualism claims that the the mind (soul) is a separate identity than the physical human being that will live on past their deterioration of our bodies, while Property dualism claims that the mind, although different than the physical human frame, is still linked and thus will end with our death.


process-based definitions of life vs. ingredient-based definitions

being alive is about being able to do things/ functions

x is alive at t iff x produces vital fluid continually


Begging the question

Flaw in argument where you assume the conclusion is true and/or have it in premise and the conclusion proves it.


"the mind is the brain" vs "the mind is the brain's software"

Physicalism which states that all mental states only happens in physical brain vs mental states can happen by a specific program or process


Privileged access

Having special access to your mind, where only you are able to access the mind


What is a functional state? For instance, what makes something the ZERO state of a Coke machine

functionalism is the doctrine that what makes something a thought, desire, pain (or any other type of mental state) depends not on its internal constitution but solely on its function, or the role it plays, in the cognitive system of which it is a part

if something acts likke a particular mental state, then it is that mental state

mental states can be "realized" by different physical states"


Causal Theory of Mind, functionalism

mind = "brain software"

mind is composed of programs that operate mental states


examples of using Leibniz's Law to argue for dualism; examples using it to argue against dualism

If A & B are one + the same thing --> have all the same properties

The brain/body can come in different degrees, but the mind does not. Therefore the mind is not the brain


The "epistemic objections" to various proposals about personal identity

Argument against soul theory of personal identity. We can't see the soul, how do you know you are the same person as the same soul (soul could change, could have many souls, or no soul at all)



theory that what is valuable (pleasure) and not valuable (pain) are what is important


Psychological Continuity

Concept that our memories, behavior, characteristics, and thoughts continue throughout one's existence, a key concept in personal identity



An argument whose conclusions seem too absurd to be true


Examples of claims which are necessary but such that someone might be able to conceive or imagine them false

A right triangle has to be a2 + b2 = c2, but you can conceive of a triangle where this isn't true even though the Pythagorean theorem has to be metaphysically possible; the amnesiac professor wanting to kill the professor


the "psychological continuity + no competitors" view of personal identity

The theory that if you are psychologically continuous with yourself and no one else is, then you are yourself. Meant to avoid the problem that in a fission case if two duplicates arise


Mediation 6 argument that my mind is separate from my body

I can imagine my mind being possibly separate from my body, thus my mind has to be separate. Thus I am "metaphysically" distinct


Surviving in the strict philosophical sense vs. surviving in Parfit's sense (that is, having someone around who is psychologically continuous with you)

Surviving in the strict philosophical sense usually involves just myself, and when I die, I no longer survive. For Parfit, surviving can happen after my own physical death. If someone else is psychologically continuous with myself, I will continue to survive.


Representational states, intentionality

All mental states are "about" something. Mental states are intentional and are a thought or something about an object or something


Acting for your own purposes vs. acting for selfish purposes



the Deprivation Account of the badness of death

According to the deprivation account, what is bad about death is the fact that because one ceases to exist, one becomes deprived of the good things in life. Being dead is not intrinsically bad; it is comparatively bad and one is worse off only by virtue of not being able to enjoy the things one enjoyed while alive, such as watching the sunset, listening to music, and discussing philosophy.



related notion

properties like being crushable, fragile, soluble

"would be"


The "soul theory" of personal identity

Theory that you are the same soul.


Difference between the process of dying, the event of death, the state of being dead




All there is to having some mental state is being disposed to believe a certain way


Numerical identity vs qualitative identity

being one and the same thing as x


sharing intrinsic features


the "system's reply" to Searle

Argument against Searle, which states that a part of a program does not know the whole program. The whole room may understand Chinese even though the person does not