Final Flashcards Preview

Sports Nutrition > Final > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Deck (49):
1

Differences between protein and other macronutrients

Added Nitrogen to CHO
Made up of amino acids
Serve as a structural part of many tissues

2

Essential amino acids

Isoleucine (BCAA)
Leucine (BCAA)
Lysine
Methionine
Phenylalanine
Threonine
Tryptophan
Valine
Histidine

3

Examples of complete vs. incomplete protein and implications

Complete:
Eggs, fish and poultry, lean beef, milk
Incomplete:
Fruits,veggies

4

What is nitrogen balance

Nitrogen Balance = Nitrogen intake - Nitrogen loss

5

what does possitive and negative nitrogen balance indicate

Measurement that indicates either:
incorporation of AA’s into various structures (positive)
↑ oxidation of AA’s to supply fuel (negative)

6

RDA for protein & changes with varying exercise/sport group

Avg. Person - 0.8g/kg/d
Fitness Enthusiast - 1.0g/kg/d
Endurance Athlete - 1.2-1.4 g/kg/d
Power Athlete - 1.6-1.7

7

Excess protein intake amounts and implications

AA’s converted to CHO’s & fats (deamination) - yields kcals
AA’s converted to different AA’s (transamination)
N is converted to urea and excreted primarily as urine.

8

Factors affecting protein turnover

Exercise intensity
Exercise duration
Training state

9

Effect of various exercise protocols on protein storage and usage

Urea production is related to intensity of exercise
↑ leucine oxidation during high intensity (~80% VO2 max)
If calories are too high = ↑ body fat
Duration of exercise affects urea production

10

The purpose of antioxidants and how they work on oxygen free radicals

Antioxidants neutralize/prevent oxidative damage resulting from free radical formation.
Scavenge free radicals
Remove catalysts that accelerate oxidation
Repair damage resulting from oxidation
Bind free metal ions preventing them from reacting with reactive species

11

precursors to the bodies main antioxidants

Vit. E/ Vit. C/ β-carotene/ Vit. A

12

Vit. E/

RDA= 15mg; UL = 1000mg
leafy green

13

Vit. C/

DRI = 90 mg (male), 75mg (female)
citrus fruits

14

β-carotene/

No RDA but 6-10 mg/day is sufficient
ORANGE FRUITS AND VEG

15

Vit. A

700 RAE and 900 μg/day
Beef Liver.

16

fat soluble vitamins

A, D, E, and K

17

Possible interactions of vitamin E

Exacerbation, a sudden worsening, of autoimmune & immune diseases (asthma, allergies, diabetes, RA)

18

Possible interactions of Vitamin C with high iron

Kidney stones, Fe induced cardiac failure

19

Key points from supplemental readings cited above

“Innocent or unknowing ingestion of a prohibited substance is not a defence: the offence lies in the presence of the substance in the athlete’s body”
94 (14.8%) out of the 634 samples were found to contain prohormones,chemical precursors to hormone, that were not listed on the label.
The risk of contamination can be as large as 1 in 4

20

Healthy diets for long term lean tissue gain

10-15% protein
Meats
Dairy products
Legumes
Seeds
Nuts

21

Ergogenic aids & nutrition status; main EA’s discussed in class

Blood doping
EPO supplementation
Sodium bicarbonate buffering
Creatine monohydrate
Caffeine (3-9 mg/kg/bw)

22

Main nutrients of oxygen carrying components in blood

iron, copper, Folate (folic acid - B9), Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6

23

Iron

adult males and for women over 50 is 8 milligrams per day. For women aged 19-50, the RDA is 18 milligrams per day to compensate for menstrual losses.

24

copper

900 µg/d
Meats, seafood, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, & eggs

25

µg

microgram

26

Folate (folic acid - B9)

DRI male & female 400µg/d
Legumes

27

Vitamin B12

DRI male & female 2.4µg/d
Muscle meats

28

Vitamin B6

DRI & nutritional sources “TBA”

29

Nutrients important in the body’s metabolic pathways.

Iron
Copper
Folate (Folic acid - B9)
B12

30

What are the four main nutrients related to bone health

Ca
Phosphorous
Magnesium
vitamin D

31

Ca

1000-1300 mg
Dairy products

32

Phosphorus

700mg/d both genders
meats

33

Magnesium

400mg/d 19-30 year old men
420mg/d men over 30
310mg/d 19-30 year old women
320mg/d women over 30
Whole grains

34

vitamin D

AI male & female 15μg
Fatty fish ; cod-liver oil are best sources

35

Bone structures affected by exercise and nutrition

cortical bone
dense outer wall of bone
supports 80% of the total weight
trabecular bone
soft/spongy bone on the inner part of the bone

36

Bone resorption & remodeling: phases, length, purpose

Resorption
Lasts ~ 15 days to 3 weeks
remodeling
90-100 days
purpose
to repair damaged structures and replace them with more healthy structures

37

Factors affecting peak bone mass & bone density loss

Nutritional status
Estrogen deficiency due to Late onset or early cessation of menstruation, Amenorrhea.
Physical Activity (high impact, resistance)
Stimulates osteoblasts
BMI

38

osteoporosis contributing factors

factors in osteoporosis likelihood
Peak bone mass
White, post menopausal women
Secondary causes in men and perimenopausal women
Hypogonadism
Amenorrhea
Age
Estrogen deficiency
Low weight & BMI
Smoking
History of prior fracture
Family History

39

effects of osetoporosis

increased chance of fractures/breaks

40

avoidance of osetoporosis

do all of the things listed as treatments before you have the syndrome.

41

treatments of osteoporosis

Ca (1000-1500 mg/d)
Vitamin D (400-1000 IU/d)
Physical activity
Weight bearing, resistance, balance
HRT
SERMs (selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators)
Phytoestrogens
Hip protectors
Combinations

42

Female athlete triad and bone health

Intense Training + weight loss leading to: Disordered eating behaviors then leads to Amenorrhea
also includes disturbed functioning of hypothalamus, pituitary gland due to excessive exercise

43

What type of exercise has the most positive effect on bone density, specific levels of intensity?

weight bearing
4.5x body weight or more

44

Name 3 factors that affect calcium absorption and bioavailability. Tell if they have a positive or negative effect.

Acidic environment in intestines
improves bioavailability
adequate Vit. D levels
improves bioavailability
High dietary sodium
decreases bioavailability
High animal protein intake
decreases bioavailability

45

Describe the mechanisms proposed for the ergogenic effect of EPO

Erythropoietin (EPO)
Synthetic version of a hormone produced by the kidneys that stimulates the production of Erythrocytes, Red blood cells.
May ↑ RBC number 12%
Unconventional or non-medical administration may create a 66% increase
This is dangerous

46

Describe the mechanisms proposed for the ergogenic effect of caffeine.

Caffeine acts as an adenosine antagonist
adenosine
↓ Neuronal excitability & synapse transmission
↓ Release of brain excitatory neurotransmitters
Inhibits Dopamine (DA) actions
Reduces DA synthesis
Caffeine might also ↑ serotonin (which causes behavioral suppression)

47

the levels at which caffine is most effective

3-9 mg/kg BW

48

two potential problems with use of caffine during performance

Headache
Tremors (muscle twitching)
Anxiety
Insomnia

49

how are nitrogen levels measured

Blood urea nitrogen can be used in estimating nitrogen balance, as can the urea concentration in urine.