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1

recommended percentage of daily total kcals from carbohydrates?

woman should be between 225-300 grams and 300-375 grams for men

2

recommended percentage of daily total kcals from fats?

the average fat gram need for women(1) is 40-65 grams and 65-95 grams for men

3

UL

Tolerable Upper Intake Level

4

DRI

dietary reference intake

5

AI

Adequate Intake

6

EAR

Estimated Average Requirement

7

RDA

recommended daily allowance

8

monosaccharides

glucose
fructose sweetest
galactose

9

disaccharides

Sucrose
Maltose
Lactose

10

sucrose

glucose + fructose
table sugar

11

Maltose

glucose + glucose
found in some cereals

12

lactose

galactose + glucose
found in milk

13

Carbohydrate recommendation to encourage adequate glycogen storage in physically active males and females

4.5 g/kg per day

14

greatest fluid loss occurs where while dehydrated?

blood plasma

15

causes of dehydratoin

Diarrhea

Vomiting

Sweating

16

important body functions related to water

regulates body temperature, lubricates joints, carries oxygen and nutrients in blood plasma, helps dissolve minerals and make them available for the body, protects body organs and tissues, moistens tissues.

17

satiety

the quality or state of being fed

18

average stores of kcal stored in fat

Average male has 50,000 to 100,000 kcal of energy in fat

19

average store of glycogen in muscle and liver.

1-2 % by weight in muscle
8-10% in liver.

20

electrolytes

An electrolyte is a substance that conducts electricity when dissolved in water

21

why are electrolytes important?

because they regulate neural activity in the body and can lead to certain problems that can be harmful but are often not deadly unless chronic.

22

how do electrolytes affect fluid in the body

the water follows where the electrolytes are, more electrolytes = more water

23

hormones important in storage and use of carbohydrates and fats

insulin, leptin, ghrelin, glucagon

24

leptin

hunger suppressant

25

ghrelin

hunger inducing hormone

26

glucoagon

It works to raise the concentration of glucose and fat in the bloodstream

27

types of fat best to worst

monounsaturated
polyunsaturated
saturated
trans

28

unsaturated

Unsaturated fats, which are liquid at room temperature, are considered beneficial fats because they can improve blood cholesterol levels

29

saturated fats

Saturated fat is mainly found in animal foods increase HDL

30

transfats

made by heating liquid vegetable oils in the presence of hydrogen gas and a catalyst, a process called hydrogenation.

31

Glycemic index

a system that ranks foods on a scale from 1 to 100 based on their effect on blood-sugar levels.

32

What is the rationale and recommendation for CHO use during exercise?

start 30 min prior to fatigue

0.1-0.2 g/kg of body weight every 20 min.

Little evidence it improves performance under 1 hour

Something that would be digested fairly quickly

Liquid is better and more easily digested

33

What is the rationale and recommendation for CHO feedings immediately prior to exercise

30-15 min prior

Needs practice

● Conflicting studies

● Hypoglycemic individuals should avoid CHO intake 0-60 minutes prior to exercise

-This is magnified by high GI foods
Really depends other individual

34

What is the rationale and recommendation for CHO feedings immediately post exercise

- 0.75 - 1.5 g/kg every hour for first 4 hours (GI upset?)

35

Recommended percentage of daily total kcals from carbohydrates and fats

20-35% of energy from fat

55-60% from carbohydrates (5-10 g/kg/day)

6-8 g/kg for women

(8-10 g/kg) for men

36

RMR

resting metabolic rate

37

TEF

thermic effect of eating

38

factors affecting RMR

Body mass

Body composition

Age

Gender

Hormones

Nutritional supplements

Nicotine.
Pharmaceuticals

Prescription

Stress/emotional excitement

stress

Exercise

39

factors influencing TEF

temperature of environment, meal make up, activity level

40

recommendations of PA

150 minutes of moderate-intensity
or least 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity

41

benefits of PA

reduce your risk of a heart attack.
manage your weight better.
have a lower blood cholesterol level.
lower the risk of type 2 diabetes and some cancers.
have lower blood pressure.
have stronger bones, muscles and joints and lower the risk of osteoporosis.

42

obesity causes

Behavior
Physical Activity
diet
Community Environment
Genetics
Diseases and Drugs

43

recommended fat percentage for men and woman

Recommended amount for woman 20% - 25% ; for men 8% - 14%

44

essential amount of fat

woman 10-13% men 2-5%

45

health related effects of obiesty

Heart disease and stroke.
High blood pressure.
Diabetes.
Some cancers.
Gallbladder disease and gallstones.
Osteoarthritis.
Gout.
Breathing problems, such as sleep apnea

46

ATP-PC

Substrate: Creatine kinases

Duration: 2-10 sec

End product: ADP Creatine

Efficiency: 28%

Location: Cytoplasm

47

Glycolysis

Substrate: glucose

Rate limt factor: Phosphofructokinase, PFK

Duration: 10-20 sec

End product: 2 ATP pryuvate/lactate
NADH

Efficiency: Low 30%

Location: Cytoplasm

48

Glycogenolysis

Substrate: pyruvate

Rate limt factor: Phosphofructokinase, PFK

Duration: 40 sec -2 min

End product: 2 ATP pryuvate/lactate
NADH

Efficiency: mid 30%

Location: Cytoplasm/Liver

49

Kreb Cycle

Substrate: Pyruvate/ Actal-coA

rate limit factor:
Isocitrate drogenase

Duration: 2 min+

End product: 3 NADH, 1FAD 1 ATP

Efficiency: 45

Location: Mitochondria

50

Electron transport system

Substrate: NADH, FADH

Rate limiting factor: Cytochrome Oxidase

Duration: 2 min +

End product: 36 ATP , H20

Efficiency: 45%

Location: mitochondria

51

Glouconeogenisis

Substrate: keytones

Duration: 2min +

End product: 3 NADH, 1FAD 1 ATP

Efficiency:45%

Location: liver

52

How does endurance training improve fat burning capacity physiologically?

Exercise training ↑ ability to work harder, longer, at a low VO2
↑ mitochondrial content & # of enzymes within mito.
↑ concentration

↑ MT-LPL, &
fatty acyl-CoA

↑ muscle TG storage & oxidation

↑ capillary density ↑ blood flow


↑ HSL


↑ cardiovascular & respiratory system that ↑ O2 delivery to muscle for fat oxidation (↑ capillarization)

53

Pre-game meal rationale and recommendations


● Provide adequate hydration

● Takes 4-6 h to digest a meal completely

- Recommendation is 2-6 h prior to competition

- Allow full diaphragm expansion

● Provide carbohydrates to "top off" liver stores

● Avoid the sensation of hunger

● Minimize GI tract problems

-Small & easily digested

-Familiar to individual

● High in carbohydrate

- ~200-300 g (~500-1200 kcal)

- 4-5 g/kg of body weight

● Low in fat & fiber

● Moderate in size

- Depends on size of athlete &
nature of sport

● Athletes engaging in early AM activities may want to schedule a very early morning (2:30-4:30 AM) snack or CHO drink

● Always take individuality into consideration

54

Why or why not would CHO use during exercise help recreational athletes that workout 4-10 hours/wk.?

It depends on intensity and duration

if an individual is exercising for over 90 may be important to replenish CHO store

prevention of gluconeogenins

Glycogen depletion can occur after 2-3 hours of continuous exercise at 60-80% max VO 2 or after intermittent 90-130% of max VO 2

If not there is really no need

evidence dose not support <1 improvement during exercise

55

What are the recommendations for hydration pre, during, and post exercise longer than 1 hour?

● 1-2 hours before - ~500 ml (16 oz) of water in a 4-8% CHO solution

● 15-30 minutes before 300-500 ml (10-16 oz) of water in a 4-8% CHO solution

● Drink ~250 ml (6-8 oz) of water with 4-8% CHO every 10-15 min
-Na & Cl may help depending on osmolality

● Recovery - immediately & every 2 hours, 1g of CHO/kg of body weight, fluid to replace body losses: 500•0.5kg lost ( or 2 c•lb lost)

56

Fat mobilization and utilization during exercise. What does the research say in regards to fat feeding and mobilization during exercise? Does it spare glycogen stores? Why or why not?

Evidence dose not support fat as an ergogenic aid

Dose not have an effect on glycogen stores

fat burning capability is based on athletic training, duration, & intensity not amount

57

6 key strategies for successful weight control.

- engaging in high levels of physical activity
- eating a diet that is low in calories and fat;
-eating breakfast
- self-monitoring
- weight on a regular basis
-maintaining a consistent eating pattern
-catching "slips" before they become habits

58

Based on the research (mention specific studies) presented in class, what arguments could you make that obesity is caused more by lifestyle than genetics?

Major differences in the tendency of individuals toward obesity

25% of variability is due to genetic factors

30% of variability is due to cultural factors

Twin study

59

What is the physiological rationale and specific nutritional recommendation for carbohydrate use during exercise, over 1 hour, under 1 hour

- 0.1-0.2 g/kg of body weight (0.05-0.1 g/lb ) every 20 min.

-Starting 30 minutes before fatigue

-initiated 30 minutes into exercise

Something that would be digested fairly quickly

ex: Glucose, sucrose, maltodextrin, etc....

60

How might CHO loading help athletes? Why and when is it appropriate?

● Muscle glycogen loading
("supercompensation")

-Goal is to maximize muscle glycogen

● Normal glycogen levels

-Trained male athlete on mixed diet are
~130-160 mmol/kg of muscle

-Untrained male ~80-100 mmol/kg of muscle

-Super Compensated male ~200 mmol/kg of muscle
Used for individuals preparing to be exhausting

61

In exercise lasting 2-4 hours, how does the use of glucose and lipids change in skeletal muscle during moderate intensity endurance exercise (70% VO2max)? How do blood concentrations of energy substrates change

Long duration type of exercise utilizes more lipids rather than blood glucose.

if not adequately fed gluconeogenosous occurs and utilizes keytones (protein) for energy along side fat