Flashcards in Final Deck (68):
What are the 3 roles of compensation?
What is the manager's role in compensation?
1. Understand compensation principles
2. Possess adequate knowledge of the positions managed
3. Ensure equity
What is direct compensation?
1. Base salary (salary increase, cost of living)
2. Pay incentives
- Team bonus (small team, teamwork)
- Gain sharing (plant workers, lower cost)
- Profit sharing (managers, motivation)
- Stock purchase (all employee, mobilization)
- Stock options (senior management, increase market value stocks)
What is indirect compensation?
- Retirement plan
- Insurance plan (life, sickness, medical, dental...)
- Government plan (CSST for example)
2. Paid time off (14%)
- Civic holidays
3. Employee services
- Rebates, daycare, gym...
When building a compensation program, you need to take into account...
1. Legal context
- Labour standard act : Base salary and paid time off
- Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms : Base salary (equal salary for equal or equivalent work)
- Pay equity act : Base salary, to correct salary differences caused by systemic discrimination (sexe)
2. Internal equity (evaluation of the value of each position)
- Job analysis, description, evaluation
3. External equity based on:
- salary survey, ranges
4. Individual equity
- Individual performance, competency, seniority, experience
5. Collective equity
- groups contribution to the success of the org.
How to set base salary (Internal equity)?
*attribute a relative value to the job based on its importance to the organization
*Definition of factors (weighting system)
- Qualifications and experiences required
- Intellectual and physical effort
- Working conditions
1. Job analysis
2. Job description
3. Job evaluation
How to set a base salary (External equity)?
4. Choose benchmark (market, location, size..?)
5. Salary survey (information about wages supplied by companies in the benchmark)
6. Salary positioning (lead, lag, match)
7. Salary ranges
What are the 4 goals of competency development?
1. Ensure integration of new employees
2. Consolidate your present operational position
3. Support (present or future) organizational change
4. Support career path of employees
What is a competency?
What is a competency employee?
- Composite of knowledge, skills and attitudes
- Master knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to perform their jobs in an effective manner
- Have the ability to solve problems
- Have the ability to adapt to change
- Predictable performance
What is the life cycle of a competency?
2. Optimization (fully operational, daily basis)
3. Obsolescence (lost of relevance)
What is the crocodile syndrome?
With time -> increase of complexification and obsolescence, leading to an increase of the non-competency zone and individual and organizational vulnerability
What is the promotion of workforce skills development and recognition?
- Administered by Emploi-Québec
- Applies to all categories of employees
- Employers whose total payroll is 1 million$ or more must invest 1% of the total payroll in competency and skills development activities
- Declare the amount to Revenue Quebec
- Pay the difference if less than 1%, or receive credit for future if more than 1%
What is the manager's role in competency development?
1. Reflect (question on operations and professional growth)
2. Determine competencies to develop
3. Choose learning strategies
-> development activities
4. Support transfer of learning
-> competencies and effect?
5. Evaluate development activities
-> improvement of overall system
What are the 3 levels of learning?
1. Knowledge (cognitive perspective - thinking)
- Knowledge (remembering something previous)
- Comprehension (grasping the meaning)
- Application (using)
- Analysis (breaking down into components)
- Synthesis (putting together)
- Evaluation (judging the value)
2. Skills (psychomotor perspective - doing)
3. Attitudes (affective perspective - feeling)
What are the methods for identifying competencies?
- performance evaluation (Analysis of performance indicators, evaluation interview, direct observation)
- competency assessment
- potential assessment
- Group interview
- Matrix approach
What are the learning strategies?
1. Outside work
- Courses, seminars, webinars
- College, university studies
2. At work
- Tutoring, mentoring
- Behaviour modeling
3. During work
- Hands-on training
- Job rotation
- Increased responsibilities
Advantages of learning strategies within the company and outside the company.
- Better fit between learning and job situation
- Possibility of remaining on job site or close
- Supervision easier
- Learning transfer more complete and faster
- Less time lost and replacement time
- Possibility of having tutors
- Design time is often shortened
- Wider variety, varied contexts
- More specific and complexe
- Less expensive foe standardized training
- Recognition of training
What are the 8 important variables for learning strategies?
1. Strategic importance of the development activity and the necessity of changing behaviour
2. Goals of the development activity
3. Nature of the competencies to be acquired and increased (field, level of complexity)
4. Characteristics of the learners (motivation, cognitive abilities, previous experiences)
5. Context in which the competencies are to be implemented (urgent work, availability of equipment, possibility of replacing employee)
6. Skills that can be mobilized in your department or within the company
7. Budget and time available to reach to goals that have been set
8. Energy that you are ready to invest
How to support the transfer of learning?
1. Before the activity
- Plan the activity
- Help your employee and prepare the environment
2. During the activity
- Stay close
3. After the activity
- Help create a climate
- Adequate supervision
- Adequate equipment
What are the 3 essential elements that improve the quality of the learning transfer?
1. Employee (experience, capacity of learning, self-confidence, professional aspiration, willingness)
2. Development activity (when, How, teaching support, content, level of difficulty, pace)
3. Work environment (workload, availability of resources, support from co-workers, workplace climate, possibilities for recognition and promotion)
How to evaluate the quality of development activities?
1. Reactions - % of satisfaction (immediate reactions)
2. Learning - Learning assessment (use feedback devices or pre-pro tests to measure what have been learned)
3. Transfer - Expected impact on work performance (make sure learners apply new skills and knowledge)
4. Results - Overall assessment of cost-benefit ratio (using objectives measures, good or bad investment)
What is a performance appraisal?
An evaluation process usually performed annually by a supervisor to help employees understand their roles, objectives, expectations and level of performance success.
*Continuously throughout the year, but formalized once a year
What is performance management?
The process of creating a work environment in which people can perform to the best of their abilities.
What are the purposes of performance appraisal for the organization?
- Facilitate the implementation of the strategic plan and help attain corporate global objectives
- Improve productivity
- Identify training and development needs
- Update the competencies inventory
- Provide feedback on training programs
- Shed light on staffing process
- Improve one-on-one communications
- Enhance work atmosphere
- Make high and low performers stand out
- Help with staffing decisions when there is a merger, acquisition of downsizing
What are the purposes of performance appraisal for supervisors?
- Justify salary increases
- Identify employees strengths and weaknesses (on basis of job tasks and KSAO)
- Pinpoint the group's strengths and weaknesses
- Define the objectives for the coming period
- Reinforce the credibility of line management
- Justify personnel movements
- Allocate responsibilities among group members
- Validate staffing process
What are the purposes of performance appraisal for the employee (Proaction, follow-up, feedback, correction) ?
- Clarify what is expected with respect to objectives, responsibilities, results and behaviors
- Indicate the supervisors view of past employee performance
- Confirm employees strengths and weaknesses
- Give opportunity to employees to express themselves
- Provide a framework for setting in place a plan of action for coming year
What is the process of performance management?
1. Evaluate performance
2. Propose an action plan
3. Define expectations
4. Support performance
5. Interim review meeting
6. Support performance
*while considering employees as strategic partners
How to treat employees like strategic partners?
1. Know the strategic context of your company
2. Master the business plan
3. Convince your staff of the importance of the business plan by providing them with an overview
4. Listen to employees reactions and use their suggestions to improve the business plan
5. Give the team a stimulating project based on the business plan
6. Make each person responsible for the success of the project
7. Provide ongoing follow-up to maintain interest in the projects success
To evaluate performance, you must...
- Use effective tools
- Maximize the effectiveness of these tools by ensuring that they are:
• Easy to use
• Quick to use
• Appropriate for measuring the competencies in question
• Based on realistic goals
• Approved and supported by upper management
- Use criterias that are SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, timely)
What are the two common mistakes in setting performance expectations?
1. Deficiency = not clearly specifying at the outset the expectations that will later be used to evaluate an employee performance.
2. Congamination = means that some factors outside an employees control that can influence his performance are not taken into consideration
What are the most common methods for appraising performance?
1. Graphic rating scale
- Most used (simple and quick)
- Grid that has predefined criteria related to job
- Behaviour, personality or competencies (1-5)
- Form uniform to everyone, so easy to compare
- Some criteria difficult to apply to every job
2. Behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS)
- Certain number of criteria using a rating scale, each rating associated with a behaviour
- Uniformity and precision of each performance level, reduces possible differences
- Very costly to develop
3. Behaviorally observation scale (BOS)
- Based on observing behaviour
- How frequently a behaviour is exhibited
- Success based on discipline of manager
4. Management by objectives (MBO)
- More often used to evaluate management
- Work consist of coordinating activities and completing projects
- Objectives generally set jointly
What is a multi-source appraisal or 360° appraisal?
- Cusomers and suppliers
Tell their opinion about the employee
What are the advantages of 360° appraisal?
1. The system is more comprehensive because of the multiple perspectives
2. Quality of information is better. Quality > QTY
3. It complements TQM initiatives by emphasizing internal/external customers team
4. May lessen bias/prejudice
5. Feedback from peers and others may increase employee self-development
What are the disadvantages of 360° appraisal?
1. System is complex in combining all responses
2. Feedback can be intimidating and cause resentment
3. There may be conflicting opinions
4. The system requires training to work effectively
5. Employees may collude
6. Appraisers may not be accountable if their evaluations are anonymous
What are the key criteria for 360° appraisal?
1. Treat other with respect
2. Give credit to others who have contributed or performed well
3. Show consistency (words and actions)
4. Model the core values
5. Treat team based of knowledge of their strengths and weaknesses
6. Take actions to build high level commitment
How to prepare for a evaluation meeting?
1. Choose a neutral place
2. Choose an appropriate time
3. Reserve enough time (45-90min)
4. Help employee preparation in advance
- Provide the employee with a blank copy of the evaluation form
- Inform the employee a few days before the evaluation
How to conduct the evaluation meeting?
1. Review of the objectives and the way the meeting will be conducted
2. Suggest that the employee give their own evaluation first
3. Begin the conversation with new employee
4. Encourage employees comments, ideas, suggestions...
5. Listen actively and provide feedback
6. Draw attention to the agreement points
7. Show understanding of divergences and try to come to an agreement
8. Treat major points in depth
9. Talk about overall performance aspect
10. Adopt an attitude of openness and respect
How to propose an action plan?
- Focus on the future
- Highlights managers role as a coach
- Links with pertinent performance factors
- Highlights employee self-development with respect to experience and stepping out of comfort zone
What are the assessment biases?
1. Halo effect (one specific criterion strongly influenced the evaluation of overall performance)
2. Contrast effect (very different performance profile one after the other)
3. Similarity effect (shared personal characteristics or interests between manager and employee)
4. Restriction-of-range bias (hesitation to five very good or very bad grade, all evaluation reflect average)
5. Tendency-to-extremes bias (too generous or too strict with everyone)
6. Last impression effect (evaluation on the basis of recent behaviour)
What are the conditions of success of a perfomance appraisal?
1. Top management provides support
2. Evaluation simple and understood by users
3. Evaluation non-discriminatory
4. Criteria used that are job related and well explained
5. Evaluators trained
6. Employees informed
7. Process clear and uniform
8. Evaluation supported by a policy
What are the reasons a appraisal program fails?
1. Inadequate preparation on the part of the manager
2. Employee not given clear objectives at the beginning of performance period
3. Manager not able to observe performance or have all information
4. Performance standards not clear
5. Inconsistency in ratings among supervisors
6. Manager rating personality rather than performance
7. Assessment biases
8. Inappropriate time span
9. Overemphasis on uncharacteristic performance
10. Inflates ratings because managers do not want to deal with bad news
11. Subjective of vague language in written appraisals
12. Organizational politics or personal relationships cloud judgment
13. No thorough discussion of causes of performance problems
14. Manager may not be trained to evaluate or give feedback
15. No follow-up or coaching after evaluation
What is discipline and its objectives?
=Method to correct employees behaviour when they have broken a rule or not followed a procedure correctly
1. Modify the objectionable behaviour
2. Acknowledge the satisfactory behaviour of other employees
3. Preserve group productivity
4. Maintain a stimulating atmosphere
5. Restore harmony to the group
6. Oversee the health and safety of employees
7. Respect the dignity and integrity of the difficult employees
8. Act in compliance with legislation and be able to justify your decision
What are the possible negative impact of difficult employees?
For the difficult employee
1. Decreases productivity
2. Poor performance evaluation
3. Loss of credibility within the team
5. Warning, verbal or written
For the supervisor
1. Wasted time
2. Too much attention given to the difficult employee
3. Too little attention given to other employees
4. Unfair treatment of employees
6. Decreased productivity
For the group
1. Poor work climate
2. Imitation and spread of un-satisfactory behaviours
3. Deterioration of situation
5. Increased absenteeism
6. Increased turnover
7. Decreased productivity
What are the differences between a difficult employee and an employee in difficulty?
1. Persistent performance problem
2. Persistent behaviour problem
3. Hard to identify trigger problem
4. Customary behaviour foe the individual
5. Little support from co-workers
6. Lack of motivation to change
7. Manager intervention possible
1. Temporary performance problem
2. Temporary behaviour problem
3. Identifiable trigger for problem
4. Atypical behaviour
5. Loyal support network at work
6. Inability to change without outside support
7. Recourse to external resources
What are the steps to the resolution of problems caused by difficult employees?
1. Documentation of problem
-> specific action with employee if in difficulty
2. Meeting with employee
3. Action plan
4. Maintenance plan or sanctions
How to manage discipline?
Take into account:
1. Circumstances (proper communication, tolerance, manager's attitude, type of employee, seniority)
2. Appropriate sanction with the offence
3. Progressive discipline
- First offence : verbal reprimand
- Second offence : written warning placed in employee's file
- Third offence : suspension with pay for one day
- Fourth offence : suspension without pay for a short period of time
- Fifth offence : long-term suspension without pay
- Sixth offence : dismissal
What is a conflict?
1. A natural and inevitable part of organizational life
2. When managed openly and respectfully, can lead to new understandings, stronger relationships, and richer outcomes
3. However, more often than not, avoided or not handled constructively, which leads to stress, confusion, a breakdown in communications, and a complete failure of relationships
What are the three objectives in dealing with conflicts?
1. Resolve conflicts quickly and at a minimum cost
2. Ensure that all parties are satisfied with the agreement so that employee motivation is preserved
3. Ensure a minimum level of reconciliation between the parties involved in order to promote harmony in the work environment and prevent the conflict from reappearing in another form
What are the types of conflicts based on the nature of the adversaries and the two others?
1. Individual (interpersonal) = personality conflict (example)
2. Individual-collective = conflict between an employee and the employer (example)
3. Intraorganizational = conflict between two departments (example)
4. Interorganizational = conflict between a company and a sub-contractor (example)
5. Cognitive conflict (ideas, who's responsible, how will it be done, what resources...)
6. Interpersonal conflict (values and personalities)
What are the sources and causes of conflicts?
- new technology
- new economic conditions
- diversity of labour
- promotion of individual rights
- type of organisational structure
- scarcity of resources
- organizational ambiguity, inadequate comm
- excessive workload
- management style (authoritarian, conciliatory)
3. Interpersonal relationships
- negative emotions and intentions
- weak interpersonals skills
- inadequate communication or perception
- personal problems
When should a manager intervene in a conflict?
1. The conflict impacts productivity
2. It impacts the productivity of co-workers
3. Encourages the formatuon of oppising clans
4. Impacts the quality of customer service or the organizations public image
5. Encourages the spread of rumours
Balance between satisfying one's own needs and considering the needs of others?
+,+ = collaboration (problem solver)
-,- = avoidance (impersonal complier)
+ own need, - others = competition (tough battle)
- own need, + others = accommodation (friendly helper)
Middle = compromise (maneuvering conciliator)
How to prevent and resolve conflicts?
- employee survey
- HRM indicators
- mediation process
- arbitration procedure
What are the Quebec Legislation ensuring employees physical and psychological well-being?
1. Occupstional health and safety act (AOHS) = To eliminate, at the source, dangers to the health and safety of workers
2. Industrial accidents and occupational diseases act (AIAOD) = To provide compensation for employment-related injuries and the consequences they entail for beneficiaries
3. Psychological harassment labour standards act
4. Criminal Code = Attributes part of the responsibility to managers at all hierarchical levels from the board of directors down to supervisors
What are the employers obligations?
1. Evaluating accident risks at work stations
2. Ensuring that employees use safety equipment properly at all time
3. Helping to implement accident prevention programs
4. Investing accidents
What is the difference between accidents at work and occupational disease?
- normally sudden, unforseen, event related to environment, equipment or an individual
- usually caused by human errors
- ex. burn, cut, shock, bone fracture or death
- develops over a period of time after substantial exposure to a product ir an unhealty environment
- identified only when malfunctioning of human organism is diagnosed and traced to working conditions
- damage develops slowly, but begins early
What are the two specific roles of the CNESST?
- promote health and safety
- eliminate dangers
- perform inspections
- compensate injured or sick employees
- provide care to injured or sick employees
- provide rehab to injures or sick employees
What are the managerial roles and responsabilities in health and safety?
1. Supplying protective equipment to employees
2. Informing employees and providing them with proper training (chemical, biological, physical, psycho-social and mechanical dangers)
3. Ensuring safety and maintaining sanitary work conditions
4. Ensuring work organization, procedures and techniques are safe
5. Setting up prevention programs
6. Conducting accident investigations
7. Knowing workers rights and obligations
8. Preventing stress and burnout
9. Protecting employees from psychological harassment
What are the employer responsibility with respect to protective equipment?
1. Provide individual or group protective equipment
2. Ensure that employees use protective equipment correctly
What are the workers rights?
1. Right to refuse to perform work
2. Right to protective reassignment
3. Right to receive rehabilitation
4. Right to return to work
What are the workers obligations?
1. Know the prevention program
2. Do their best to protect their own health and safety
3. Do their best to protect the health and safety of coworkers
4. Have medical examinations if required by the AOHS
5. Help identify and eliminate risks
6. Cooperate with health anf safety committee or with employers health and safety representative
What are the 4 phases of stress and burnout?
2. Mild symptoms
3. Entrenched cumulative stress
4. Serious symptoms indicating debilitating cumulative reactions to stress
What is psychological harassment?
Any vexatious behaviour, in the form of repeatedly hostile or unwanted conduct, with verbal comments and/or physical actions or gestures, that affects an employee's dignity or his or her psychological or physical integrity and that results in a harmful work environment.
What are the reasons for major transformations in the work environment?
1. Organizational changes (automatization, globalization of economy, performance increase, complex organizational structure)
-> people will have to constantly work on their competencies to improve and beat machines
2. Nature of work environment changes (major modifications in employees work, fewer supervisory level, reduced administration)
3. Work force changes (aging population, multiculturalism, feminization, education, multigenerationnel)
What are the steps from respect of work contract to collective mobilization?
1. Performance in prescribed roles
2. Ethical and councienciousness behaviors
3. Work dedication
4. Skills development
5. Help provided to others
6. Interpersonal facilitation
7. Coordination with others
9. Continuous improvement
10. Participation in internal life of organization
11. Organizational loyalty
12. Customer oriented
What are the 4 levers of HRM? ***
1. HRM practices
2. Vision, mission, values, objectives
3. Work organization
4. Leadership provided by managers (60%) (he's often the one explaining the vision, mission, values, objectives...)
The manager is the one :
- Who motivates employees
- You refer to the most
- Implicated in staffing
- The example
What are the 5 psychological conditions that foster mobilization?
1. Trust (personal attributes, past and present behaviours, time related, perceptions)
2. Support (mutually dependent with trust)
3. Justice (distributive, procedural, interpersonal)
4. Recognition (easy in performance appraisal, but all year long. For person, work practice, work investment, results)
5. Empowerment (structure (work organization, information, resources, opportunities), psychological (perception, competency, self-determination, impact))