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Flashcards in Final Deck (107):
1

phonology

study of sounds of language - consonants , vowels, variations among language

2

Morphology

construction of words out of units that carry meaning (morphemes)

roots, prefixes, suffixes, affixes

3

Syntax (grammar)

ordering of words to form sentences
The dog bit the man vs. the man bit the dog

4

Semantics

meaning and logical form

5

Language involves

reducing thoughts (which may not be linguistic) to an ordering of sounds
...and decoding the order to infer the original thoughts

6

Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is used

to reconstruct the corresponding distances in the mental space

7

parse

"assign a tree structure"

8

prescriptive

how to do it :right" - Don’t split infinitives! Don’t use “ain’t”! Don’t end up a sentence with a preposition

9

descriptive

systematic, scientific characterizations of how it is actually done
Descriptives attempt to describe language scientifically

10

deduction

logically certain reasoning

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induction

probable reasoning

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reasoning

going from premises (existing beliefs) to conclusions (new beliefs)

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modus ponens

affirming the antecedent a -> b (if a then b)

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parallel

many nodes running at the same time

15

distributed

knowledge is represented as weights on the connections

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oracle

compares the actual output to the target output (supervised learning)

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fuzzy boundaries

Objects within them have a family resemblance but no clear definition

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classical view of categories

In the classical view, categories have clear definitions
A bachelor is an unmarried adult male person

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antecedent

in the implication, the thing that if it's true then the other is true

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consequent

in an implication, this is true if the antecedent is true

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The “prototype” (aka fuzzy aka family resemblance) view of human concepts

Mental concepts exhibit degrees of membership, called typicality
And are defined by their central tendencies, called prototypes
Eg birds usually have feathers, fly, lay eggs, sing, make nests, live in trees - but not necessarily

22

modus tollens

A->b if a then b
~b (false)
-------
~a is false
if b is false, and b follows a, a must be false

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exemplar model

individuals make category judgments by comparing new stimuli with instances already stored in memory. The instance stored in memory is the "exemplar".

24

subjective expected utility theory

goal of human action is to seek pleasure and avoid pain

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subjective utility

a calculation based on the individual's judged weightings of utility (value) rather than on objective criteria

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subjective probability

a calculation based on the individual's estimates of likelihood, rather than on objective statistical computations

27

heuristics

mental shortcuts that lighten the cognitive load of making decision

28

bounded rationality

we are rational, but within limits

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satisficing

we consider options one by one, and then select one that is satisfactory or just good enough to meet our minimum level of acceptibility

30

elimination by aspects

we eliminate alternatives by focusing on aspects of each alternative, one at a time

31

temporal discounting

subjective devaluation of future value (above and beyond interest and uncertainty)

32

risk aversion

preference for a certain gain over an uncertain loss

33

certain gain

most people prefer the sure thing

34

expected value

the long-run value of something

35

rational price

expected value

36

availability heuristic

we make judgments on the basis of how easily we can call to mind what we perceive as relevant instances of a phenomenon

37

illusory correlation

we are predisposed to see particular events or attributes and categories as going together, even when they do not

38

conjunction fallacy

individual gives a higher estimate for a subset events than for the larger set of events containing the given subset

39

sunk-cost fallacy

represents the decision to continue to invest in something simply because one has invested in it before and hopes to recover one's investment

40

opportunity costs

the price paid for availing oneself of certain opportunities

41

deductive reasoning

process of reasoning from one or more general statements regarding what is known to reach a logically certain conclusion

42

proposition

an assertion, which may be either true or false

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premises

propositions about which arguments are made

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conditional reasoning

the reasoner must draw a conclusion based on an if-then proposition

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deductive validity

logical soundness

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modus tollens

denying the consequent

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syllogisms

deductive arguments that involve drawing conclusions from two premises

48

categorical syllogism

the premises state something about the category memberships of the terms

49

inductive reasoning

the process of reasoning from specific facts or observations to reach a likely conclusion that may explain the facts

50

causal inferences

how people make judgments about whether something causes something else

51

symmetry

distance(a,b) = d(b,a)

52

Triangle inequality

shortest distance between two points on a straight line

d(a,b) + d(b,c) >/= d(a,c)

53

does similarity obey the distance axioms?

No (symmetry and triangle inequality)

54

featural similarity can be __________ and can ______ the triangle inequality, like

asymmetric, violate - like human similarity judgments

55

language is

a way of communicating

56

Chomsky's review of Skinner's Verbal Behavior argued

that the infinite compositionality and productivity of language makes this explanation inadequate

57

competence

the abstract knowledge held by a "competent" speaker of the language: what you must know to distinguish sentences from non-sentences

58

performance

how it works in practice: the details that deviate from the ideal competence, and the actual mechanisms for carrying it out (speaking and understanding)

59

pragmatics

practical aspects of conversation (what am I supposed to say next?)

60

generative grammar

system for producing all and only the legal structure in the given language

61

____ ____________ experiments seemed to confirm the "psychological reality" of syntax boundaries

tone localization

62

rewrite rules

describe ways in which certain symbols can be rewritten as other symbols

63

parse (syntax)

assign a tree structure

64

principle of minimal attachment

for each new phrase, attach it to the existing tree in the simplest way possible

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Garden path sentences

a grammatically correct sentence that starts in such a way that a reader's most likely interpretation will be incorrect; the reader is lured into a parse that turns out to be a dead end or yields a clearly unintended meaning

66

phonemes

individual sound classes (tooth = /t/ /oo/ /th/

67

Phonemes are distinguished by a number of parameters

manner of articulation, place of articulation, voicing characteristics

68

place of articulation

bilabial (p,b) vs labiodental (f,v) vs various other types

69

manner of articulation

stop (p,b,t,d) vs fricative (f,s,th) vs various other types

70

voicing characteristics

voiced/voiceless: f/v. s/z, th/th

voice onset time (vot)

71

voice onset time (vot)

when the voicing starts relative to the onset of the articulation

72

after the critical period for learning, speakers are sensitive to distinctions ________ categories, but "deaf" to distinctions ______ their native categories

between, within

73

Early network models

Pandemonium and Perceptron

74

Parallel

Many nodes that run at the same time

75

distributed

knowledge is represented as weights on the connections

76

Back-propagation algorithm (connectionism)

1. Feed an input through the network, obtain an output

2. an oracle compare the actual output to the target output (supervised learning)

3. using the "error" (discrepancy), update the weights on all the connections

77

Parallel distributed processing

input layer - > hidden layer -> output layer

78

ALCOVE model of categorization

Nodes represent exemplars

Changing the weights (learning) means changing which stimulus features tend to activate which exemplars and thus which categories

Stimulus dimension nodes -> learned attention strengths - > exemplar nodes -> learned association weights -> category nodes

79

Past tense neural network

Learns the correct input-output by backpropagation

in a parallel distributed fashion

without rules

without morphemes

without any distinction between regulars and irregulars

80

McClelland and Rumelhart proposed to explain the most rule-like and symbolic phenomenon _______ _____

without rules, thus past tense learning would be an application of general learning mechanisms not specific to language

81

Symbol systems side (connectionism wars, rationalist/nativist)

the brain uses rules operating on symbols to understand the world

different learning mechanisms in different domains

some knowledge is innate

connectionist systems can't represent the full infinite productivity of human thought

82

Connectionist side (connectionism wars, empiricist, associationist)

rules and symbols are just epiphenomenal (side effects)

all knowledge is implicit in the connections between neurons

one general mechanism explains learning in all domains

only connectionism systems are biologically plausible

83

reasoning

going from premises (existing beliefs) to conclusions (new beliefs)

84

interference

competition between items, decreasing the likelihood of consolidation

85

rehearsal

repetition of an item to facilitate consolidation

86

encoding

representation of information in order to facilitate storage

87

consolidation

movement of information from working memory to long-term memory

88

primacy effect

suggests that rehearsal is required to consolidate items into long term memory

early items are recalled better (because of less interference)

89

recency effect

last few items are recalled better (because they are still in working memory)

suggests that items are temporarily held in a small, short-term buffer

90

dunning-kruger effect

overconfidence bias

91

library metaphor

access cues are like indexes in the card catalog

92

what is forgetting?

failure to consolidate vs. failure to retrieve

interference among access cues - generally not "decay"

93

Declarative memory

knowledge of "facts"

94

episodic memory

personal experiences; subjective point of view

95

procedural memory

how to do things; especially motor skills

96

mental imagery

memory for visual appearance

97

What is a "chunk"?

a link to long-term memory

a pattern or group

98

Capacity of visual short-term memory

7+/- 2 items, or 3+/- 1 chunks

99

imagistic representation

stores the sensory experience

100

propositional representation

stores the abstract relation (under(cat,chair)

101

Mental rotation

involves a mental analog of physical rotation

a spatially organized analog of a real picture is progressively transformed

it is different from propositional or declarative info because it encodes info that hasn't been verbalized

102

mental image

representation of a visual scene

stored in ltm

retrieved and placed in a short-term visual buffer

examined by the visual system

103

mental scanning

mental distance is an analog is actual distance

104

mental imagery (kosslyn)

representations of mental images are quasi-pictorial analogs of real images

evaluation is performed by part of the visual system

105

mental imagery (pylyshyn)

representations of images are propositional or descriptive

scanning time results are due to cognitive expectations of subjects

106

association networks

knowledge is stored in the associations (locke, freud)

107

hierarchical representation of knowledge

Collins and Quillian semantic network: superordinate to subordinate - living thing -> is_a animal -> is_a bird -> robin -> has_property red, sings