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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (118):
1

dualism

the idea that mind and body
are fundamentally different substances
or processes

2

Monism or Materialism:

The
universe is made of only one kind of
physical material (“atoms”)

3

de la Mettrie (1748)

“L’homme Machine”
People are machines with mechanical
systems plumbing, ventilation,
temperature control, etc.

4

Darwin (ca. 1850) :

all biological structures are
“devices” that are adapted to
serve the survival of the
organism
• -> The mind is a machine

5

What is a “machine?”

A machine is a process consisting entirely of
physical, material elements that affect each
other causally—that is, via physical processes. we reduce things we DON’T
understand to combinations of things we DO
understand.

6

mechanistic theory

every element is understood in terms of the
combination of simpler, stupider, elements.

7

homonculus

an imaginary “man
inside the head”

8

Syllogism

a chain of reasoning which the conclusion follows from the premises with logical certainty

9

George Boole:

An Investigation of the Laws of
Thought (1854)
•In algebra, we can make statements about numbers
that are true regardless of the specific values of the
numbers:
x + x = 2x
•Boole proposed to do the same thing with propositions
instead of numbers.

10

Propositions

Propositions are statements that are true or false.

11

Boolean algebra

a way of “calculating” with ideas instead
of with numbers, also called Propositional Calculus

12

logical connectives

how we put propositions together

13

conjunction

A∧B “A is true AND B is true”

14

disjunction

A∨B “A is true OR B is true (or both)”

15

negation

~A, “not A” = “A is not true”

16

implication

A → B, “If A is true then B is true”.
(Equivalent to ~(A∧~B), which is equivalent to ~A∨B ....
not really a separate connective)

17

Charles Babbage

1830 - Analytical Engine

18

Alan Turing

Wrote the basis for modern computing, he described a hypothetical computer called a Turing machine.

19

A Turing machine

A Turing machine gets input symbols on an infinite paper tape, and
writes output symbols on the same tape
It can:
• Read symbols to the tape
• Write symbols to the tape
• Move the tape left or right
• Make (logical) conditional decisions about which of the above to do.

20

algorithm

a concrete procedure to solve a particular problem
(that is, give a particular output for each input)

21

A universal Turing machine

is a Turing machine that can be given the encoding of
another Turing machine and “simulate” it

22

Turing test

Can a machine “think”?
or a better yet:
What observable behavior would count as thinking?

23

Church-Turing thesis

Anything that can be computed by any system can be computed by a
computer (a Turing machine)
Any process you can create an algorithm for can be carried out on a
computer.
Any process you can’t create an algorithm for — you don’t fully
understand.

24

Logic gates

Same as connectives,
but as a piece of a circuit

25

Neuron

Neuron integrates excitation and inhibition to get total net activation;
If activation is above threshold, it “spikes” (sends an action potential down the axon)
After firing, the neuron resets (~2 or
). If it is still being stimulated over threshold, it fires again. Hence the firing rate indicates the
level of activation.

26

McCulloch & Pitts:

Logical circuits and
artificial neural networks are equivalent
• You can make logic gates out of neurons
• You can make neurons out of logic gates
• Neural networks are computationally
equivalent to computers/Turing machines
• The brain is a giant computing device

27

Empiricism

(nurture) based on experience
Blank slate/ Tabula Rasa
Associationism
Behaviorism
General learning mechanism

28

Rationalism

(nature) based on reason
innate knowledge
Nativism
Cognitivism
domain-specific innate modules

29

Watson: Behaviorism

B. F. Skinner

Stimuli / Response All learning is conditioned responses to stimuli

30

Behaviorism

Mind starts as a blank slate
- Learn associations between behaviors and reinforcement
(reward) — i.e. stimulus and response
- Do more of the behaviors that are reinforced (Law of
Effect - Thorndike)
- Only mechanism of learning is modification of S-R pairings

31

• Implications of both behaviorism/empiricism

All knowledge comes from experience
- One general learning mechanism shared among all
domains of learning, all species, all ages - rats, children,…

32

Chomsky (1959)

argued that S-R reinforcement was mathematically
insufficient to explain behavior that involves an infinite number of
possible “responses”

33

Occipital lobe

vision

34

Temporal lobe

audition etc

35

Parietal lobe

attention etc

36

Frontal lobe

executive function, decision making

37

Broca’s area

responsible for speech, left hemisphere

38

A split-brain patient

Left hemisphere sees
the RIGHT visual
hemifield and controls
the RIGHT arm
Right hemisphere sees
the LEFT visual
hemifield and controls
the LEFT arm

39

Contralateral:

opposite side

40

Ipsilateral

same side

41

Neuroimaging

brain scans

42

PET

positron emission tomography

43

fMRI

function magnetic resonance
imaging

44

BOLD signal

Blood Oxygen
Level Dependent; shows where the blood
is going

45

veridical

(true) representation

46

constancy

A constancy is an apparent
invariance of some property
of the world despite
enormous variation in the
corresponding property in the
visual image

47

shape constancy

Apparent shape
remains constant
despite changes in
3D pose

48

Lightness constancy

Apparent surface reflectance remains
constant despite changes in illumination

49

Color constancy

•Apparent surface color remains
constant despite changes in illuminant
color

50

Size constancy

Apparent physical size remains constant despite enormous
changes in retinal size as distance changes

51

Cones

3 types:
short, medium & long
wavelength

52

Rods

just 1 type, but more
sensitive, faster response

53

Fovea

central area of retina with high density of
photoreceptors, so high resolution. Mostly cones. The
fovea is what you point at something when you “look at it”

54

Periphery

low density of photoreceptors -- mostly rods

55

Color

Physics: All light has a wavelength (=1/frequency). Pure
lights of different wavelengths appear different colors.
Note: All light is “colored"
Psychology: But there is more to color than wavelength.
- Most surfaces are mixtures of different wavelengths.

56

reflectance function

The reflectance function of a surface is a characteristic
of the surface, just like the reflectance of a surface.

57

What is the relative response of the 3 cone
types?

The brain infers the reflectance function from the ratio of
responses of the 3 types.

58

Opponent processes

Blue-Yellow, Red-Green,
(hue)Light-dark, (Saturation)

59

lateral inhibition

“Spot detector”

60

Perceptual grouping

Perceptual grouping is the organization of
the raw elements of visual image into
larger units, like contours, surfaces, and
objects.

61

Gestalt perceptual organization

“The whole is different from the sum of its
parts

62

Figure and ground

Each boundary separates one
region that is closer (figure)
and another that is farther
(ground)

63

Border ownership

The figural (blue) side of the boundary “owns” the
boundary, because
1. the figure actually ends there, while
2. the ground side continues behind the figure

64

Cells in Visual Area 2 (V2) are sensitive to

figure/ground

65

Good continuation

Elongated contours are
created by communication
among adjacent receptive
fields

66

Prägnanz

prefer the simplest or most
coherent interpretation

67

Principle of proximity

close objects are grouped

68

Principle of similarity

similar objects are grouped

69

Principle of common fate

objects moving together are grouped

70

Generalized cylinder

axis (= space curve)
• radius (= variable function)

71

Cylinder

axis (= straight line)
• radius (= constant)

72

Canonic view

preferred view, when an object can be identified most easily

73

Viewer-centered coordinate system

The tail is to the right of the wings)
→ implies viewpoint dependence

74

Object-centered coordinate system

(The tail is at the rear of the body)
→ implies viewpoint independence

75

Geons

(=“geometric ions”)
Individual part types that are combined in various
ways to form unique 3D object models

76

Object recognition is

viewpoint-dependent

77

Dichotic listening

Each ear gets a separate channel
Subjects typically can follow one but not the
other

78

Cocktail party effect

Highly salient stimuli can get through the nonattended
channel

79

Cueing experiments

Subject never moves their eyes
Cue is valid on 80% of trials, invalid on 20%
Dot detection is faster in cued location.

80

Attention is

like a spotlight that moves
about the visual field, enhancing perception

81

popout

• Some visual features seem to be detected (no attention required)
everywhere in parallel

82

Perception without attention

Some visual features seem to be detected
everywhere in parallel
Objects with the target feature “pop out”
without apparent search

83

Visual search paradigm

Response Time (RT) to detect the target as a
function of the number of distractors

84

Conjunction search

a visual search process that focuses on identifying a previously requested target surrounded by distractors possessing one or more common visual features with the target itself.

Feature search:
Target has feature X
Distractors don’t
No effect of #distractors
→ Parallel search

85

Parallel search

Searches all areas at once
Feature search:
Target has feature X
Distractors don’t
No effect of distractors due to popout

86

Serial search

Searches one area at a time, requires attention
Target: feature conjunction (shares a feature with distractors)
Linear effect of #distractors (the more distractors, the less likely you are to find the object)

87

What combines in the attentional window?

feature maps (orientation, color, size, motion, etc.)

88

The success of Samuels’ checker program suggests that

computer programs can exceed the abilities of their programmer

89

If an OR gate gets two inputs and one is ON and one is OFF, what is the output?

ON

90

One of Turing’s examples of an “argument from a disability” is that

a computer can't enjoy strawberries and cream

91

If an AND gate gets two inputs and both are ON, what is the output?

ON

92

Consider the logical expression “1+1=2” OR “1+1=3”. Using the Boolean definition of OR we discussed in class, is this expression TRUE?

Yes

93

If a neuron has two excitatory inputs, and has a threshold of 1

it acts like an OR gate

94

One of my cats is always nervous. According to Locke, this is probably due to

her experience as a kitten

95

What does a split-brain patients left hemisphere see?

the right visual hemifield

96

Behaviorism assumes that learning proceeds by learned associations

between stimulus and response

97

If you ask a split brain patient what she sees, she is most likely to name

what is in her right visual hemifield

98

A single, general mechanism that works the same way in all learning contexts is an idea associated with

behaviorism

99

The two hemispheres are connected by the

corpus callosum

100

To empiricists, the human mind begins as a

blank slate

101

Behaviorism descends from

Empiricism

102

‘Depth ambiguity’ refers to the fact that

the depth dimension is missing in the proximal stimulus

103

A grandmother cell is

a neuron that only knows about your grandmother

104

Photoreceptors are found in




the retina

105

Which are more sensitive to light?

Rods

106

The Ames room illustrates a

failure of size constancy

107

Where is the density of photoreceptors the highest?

The fovea

108

A brain scan indicating the localization of a particular cognitive function probably shows

brain activity in an experimental task

109

A mental representation that matches the distal stimulus is

veridical (true)

110

“Inverse optics” corresponds to the

formation of the distal image of the retina

111

Which side completes behind the nearer object?

Ground

112

Dark red and light blue differ in both

hue and saturation

113

Edge detector cells are found in


primary visual cortex

114

If you stare at a blue path for a minute and then look at a white field, what color will the afterimage be?

Yellow

115

An off-center-surround cell responds most to

dark spot on a light background

116

An on-center-surround cell responds most to

a bright spot on a dark background

117

What principle says to prefer the most coherent interpretation of the proximal stimulus?

Pragnanz

118

The principle of common fate says to

group items with common motion together