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Flashcards in FINAL Deck (37):
1

alien and sedition acts

  • who:
    • Federalists
  • what:
    • four measures passed during the undeclared war with France that limited the freedoms of speech and press and restructed the liberty of noncitizens
    • the alien act allowed the deportation of people from abroad who were deemed "dangerous" by federal authorities
      • many believed that it reflected a fear of immigrants with radical political views 
    • the sedition act authorized the prosecution of virtually any public assembly OR publication critical of the government
      • meant that editors could be prosecuted for almost any political comment that they printed
    • the target was the Republican press
  • when:
    • 1798
  • where:
  • why it matters:
    • the greatest crisis of the Adams administration occured because of this
    • eighteen individuals were charged under the sedition act

 

pg. 232 & 265

2

american colonization society

  • who:
    • group of people
    • Quakers, slaves, free blacks?
  • what:
    • promoted the gradual abolition of slavery and the settlement of black Americans in Africa
    • the colony established the west-African colony of Liberia as these people's homeland
  • when:
    • 1816 
    • 1822-Liberia
  • where:
  • why it matters:
    • in decades before the civil war, several thousand black americans emigrated to Libera with the help of the Colonization Society
      • one emigrant states that he knew he could "never be a free man in this country"
    • many African-americans opposed the idea of colonization still 
    • the formation of the American Colonization Society galvanized free blacks to claim their rights as Americans
    • early is 1817, around 3000 black americans held the first national black convention in Philadelphia 
      • their resolutions insisted that blacks were Americans-entitled to the same freedoms and rights as whites

3

american system

  • who:
    • idea put forward by President James Madison, coined by Speaker of the House, Henry Clay
  • what:
    • plan that rested on three pillars:
      • a new national bank
      • a tariff on imported manufactured goods to protect American industry
      • federal financing of improved roads and canals
    • promoted by Henry Clay in his presidential campaign of 1824 
  • when:
    • 1824
  • where:
  • why it matters:
    • formed the core of Whig ideology in the 1830's and 1840's
      • that with these three pillars, the federal government could guide economic development

4

apprenticeship system

who: what: when: where: why it matters:

5

black codes

  • who:
    • southern goverments
  • what:
    • laws passed in southern states that attempted to regulate the lives of former slaves 
    • granted blacks certain rights such as:
      • legalized marriage
      • ownership of property
      • limited access to the courts
    • but denied them rights to..
      • testify againts whites
      • serve on juries or in state militias
      • vote
    • declared that those who failed to sign yearly labor contracts could be arrested and hired out to white landowners
      • violated free labor principles
  • when:
    • 1865-1866
  • where:
  • why it matters:
    • granted blacks some rights but still little
    • aroused the most opposition to Johnson's Reconstruction policy
    • led to the created of the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the 14th Ammendment by Congress
      • to nullify the codes

6

compromise of 1877

  • who:
  • what:
    • deal made by a Republican and Democratic special congressional commission to resolve the disputed presidential election of 1876
      • blacks had just been granted the right to vote not long before the election and many whites were unhappy
        • resorted to intimidation and violence to keep the blacks from voting and attempt to restore white supremacy
      • democrats won election and republicans accused democratic supporters of intimidating/bribing african-american voters to keep them from voting in the three southern states
        • florida, louisiana, south carolina
      • election led to bloodshed on both political party's sides
      • with both sides being accusing each other of electoral fraud, southern states submitted two sets of election returns with different results
    • to solve the dispute, congress set up an electoral commision members with 7 democrats, 7 republicans, and 1 independent
  • when:
    • 1877
  • where:
  • why it matters:
    • republican Rutherford B. Hayes was declared the winner
      • in exchange for the withdrawal of federal troops from involvement in politics in the south
      • he had lost the popular vote
    • marked the end of reconstruction
      • southern democrats promised to protect civil and political rights were not kept
      • end of federal interference in southern affairs led to widespread disenfranchisement of black voters
    • led to the development of Jim Crow Laws

7

"corrupt bargain"

  • who:
    • Andrew Jackson's supporters
      • hero of the war of 1812
  • what:
    • term used by Jackson's supporters
    • followed the 1824 election
      • marked the final collapse of the Rep-Fed political framework
        • no candidate ran as a federalist, 5 democratic-rep
      • very close election outcome
        • andrew jackson won, john quincy adams second
      • because no one recieved the majority of votes in the electoral votes, the house of representatives had to choose between the top two
        • henry clay, speaker of the house of rep, led some of his strongest attacks against jackson
          • he forged an Ohio Valley-New England coalition that secured the white house for Adams
            • who, in return, announced clay as his secretary of state
  • when:
    • 1824
  • where:
    • Washington
  • why it matters:
    • the arrangement did not prove itself beneficial for either adams or clay

    • to jackson supporters, the adams-clay alliance symbolized a corrupt system where elite insiders pursued their own interests without concern of the people

    • the adams administration favored a strong federal role in economic development

    • even still, Jackson presented himself as a winner, and furthered the democratization of American politics

8

david walker

  • who:
    • free black born in North Carolina and now operated a used-clothing store in Boston
    • author of "An Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World"
  • what:
    • his book was a passionate indictment of slavery and racial prejudice
      • called on black Americans to mobilize for abolition (by force if necessary) 
      • warned whites that the nation faced divine punishment if it did not mend its sinful ways 
      • called on blacks to take pride in the achievements of ancient African civilizations and to claim all of their rights as Americans 
    • he used religious and secular language
      • warned that God would wreak vengance on the US for violating the principles of justice and heaped scorn on ministers who defended slavery for violating the golden rule espouded by Jesus Christ
  • when:
    • 1829- appearance of the book
  • where:
    • born in North Carolina, residing in Boston?
  • why it matters:
    • his book was the first indication of the new spirit of abolitionism 
    • called on blacks to take action

9

emancipation proclomation

  • who:
    • President Abraham Lincoln
  • what:
    • freeing the slaves in areas under Confederate control (the South) and also authorized the enrollment of black soldiers into the Union army
      • exempted areas firmly under Union control
    • allowed blacks to enroll in the military service
      • secretary of the navy asked the african americans to serve on warships
      • union army refused to accept northern black volunteers
  • when:
    • January 1, 1863- date of the final proclamation, when Lincoln signed it
  • where:
  • why it matters:
    • by making the Union army an agent of emancipation and wedding the goals of Union and abolition....
      • the proclamation sounded the eventual death knell of slavery
    • altered the nature of the Civil War and the course of American History
    • one of the more radical provisions of the proclamation was the enrollment of blacks into military service
      • black military service undermined slavery
      • congress expanded the EP to liberate black soldiers and their families
    • the evolution of Lincoln's emancipation policy displayed the hallmarks of his wartime leadership
      • his capacity for growth and his ability to develop broad public support for his administration
    • took effect on the same day as the Homestead Act

10

embargo act

  • who:
    • Thomas Jefferson
  • what:
    • attempt to exert economic pressure by banning all American ships from trading in all foreign ports
      • instead of waging war in reaction to continue British impressment of American sailors
    • britian and france had been at war for several years, and america had tried hard to remain neutral and keep up trade w/ both countries
      • france passed a law in 1806 that prohibited trade with neutral parties (us) and britain
      • british began seizing american ships and demanding that all american ships had to check in at british ports before they could trade with any other nation
        • claimed the right to board american ships at any time, taking men who they "believed" to be British military deserters- rarely had proof
    • conflict between britain and us reached its climax with chesapeake-leopard affair
      • american ship chesapeake left port and was stopped by british ship leopard
      • L's commander demanded to search C for three deserters, C's commander said no
      • L fired on C, killing 3 and injuring 18
      • C was forced to surrender, L took 4 men
    • american's furious because their neutrality and basic rights as a nation had clearly been violated and wanted to do something ab it
      • hello embargo act 
  • when:
    • December 1807
  • where:
  • why it matters:
    • americans felt their rights were clearly violated
    • devastated the economies of American port cities
    • smugglers easily found a way around the embargo act, and it was repealed two years later

11

erie canal

  • who:
    • DeWitt Clinton
      • new york governor who oversaw construction
  • what:
    • 363 mile canal that allowed goods to flow between the Great Lakes and New York City
    • the canal almost instantly attracted an influx or farmers migrating from New England
      • gave birth to cities like Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse along its path
  • when:
    • 1825
  • where:
    • connecting the Buffalo/Great Lakes to Albany, NY
  • why it matters:
    • making NYC the nation's largest port
      • gave it primacy over competing ports in access to trade with the Old Northwest
    • most important and profitable of the canals of the 1820s-1830s
    • typified the developing transportation infrastructure
    • the completion of the canal set off a scramble amongst other states to match NY's success- causing many of them to borrow money and go bankrupt in the process

12

force bill

  • who:
    • gave Andrew Jackson power
  • what:
    • consisted of 8 sections
    • extended executive power
    • was designed to deal w/ actions of South Carolina legislature
      • passed an Ordinance of Nullification
        • declared the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null and void within the borders of South Carolina
    •  authorized Jackson to use military force against any state that resisted the protective tariff laws 
  • when:
    • 1833
  • where:
    •  
  • why it matters:
    • rejected the Nullification Doctrine

      • the concept that it was within individual states' rights to nullify federal law or to secede from the Union

13

[[,francis cabot lowell

  • who:
    • American industrial pioneer 
    • successful merchant
  • what:
    • left as his legacy a manufacturing system, booming mill towns, and a humanitarian attitude toward workers
    •  with the help of partners, created Boston Manufacturing Company
      • an American textile manufacturing industry
    • was inspired by British textile mills and wanted to create his own manufacturing enterprise in the US
    • introduced a power loom
      • based off of british model
      • but w/ significant technological improvements
    • found a novel way to raise money: sold $1000 shares in the company
      • the shareholder corporation rapidly became the method of choice for structuring new American businesses
    • built a tall brick mill building using various mechanization technologies to convert raw cotton into cloth

      • gained immediate popularity

    • Mill Girls

      • hired young farm girls to work in the mill, paying lower wages than men, but with the same benefits

  • when:
    • 1775-1817
  • where: 
    • Massachussetts
  • why it matters:
    • revolutionized the American textile industry

14

fugitive slave law

  • who:
    • federal government?
  • what:
    • law that gave federal government authority in cases involving runaway slaves
      • without benefit of jury trial or testimony by the accused
    • prohibited local authorities from interfering with the capture of fugitives, and required individual citizens to assist in such capture when called upon by federal agents
  • when:
    • 1850
  • where:
  • why it matters:
    • created considerable opposition in the North
    • the security of slavery was more important to southern leaders than states'-rights consistency

15

hartford convention

  • who:
    • New England Federalists
  • what:
    • meeting of the New England Federalists to protest the War of 1812
    • proposed seven consitutional ammendments but the war ended before Congress could respond
      • (what exactly was proposed) limiting embargos
      • changing requirements for office holding
      • declaration of war
      • admission of new states
  • when:
    • December 15, 1814
  • where:
    • Hartford, Connecticut 
  • why it matters:
    • did not call for secession or disunion, but affirmed the right of a state to "interpose" its authority if the federal government violated the Constitution

16

international slave trade

  • who: 
  • what:
    • segment of the global slave trade
    • transported between 10-12 million enslaved Africans across the Atlantic to the Americas
    • the demand for slave labor rose sharply with the growth of sugar plantations in the caribean and tobacco plantations in the chesapeake region of north america
    • many historians believe that this had devastating effects in Africa
      • economic incentives for landloards and for tribes to engage in slave trade promoted an atmopshere of lawlessness and violence
      • depopulation and fear of captivity made economic and agricultural development nearly impossible
      • large % of people were taken captive were women in their childbearing years and young men who were to be staring families
      • usually left behind elderly, disabled, or dependent groups of people
        • those who were unable to contribute to the economic health of their societies
  • when:
    • 1640's-1860's
  • where:
    • atlanticcccc
  • why it matters:
    • during American Revolution came widespread support in the Northern American colonies for prohibiting the importation of more slaves
      • however, after the rev., congress waited two more decades for making the importation of slaves illegal 
      • law was enacted w/ little dissent
        • carribean smugglers frequently violated it until it was forced by the Northern blockade of the south in 1861 during the American Civil War l

17

manifest destiny

  • who:
    • John L. O'Sullivan- first employeed the phrase
      • new york journalist
  • what:
    • phrase used to urge annexation of Texas
    • meant that the United States had a divinely appointed mission to occupy all of North America
    • he claimed that Americans had a far better title to western lands that could be provided by any international treaty, right of discovery, or long-term settlement
    • used thereafter to encourage American settlement of European colonial and Indian lands in the Great Plains and the West and as a justification for the American empire
  • when: 
    • began in 1845
  • where:
    • the west
  • why it matters:
    • many americans believed that the settlement of the west would prevent the US from following the path of Europe and becoming a society with fixed social classes and a large group of wage-earning poor

18

monroe doctrine

  • who:
    • President James Monroe's
  • what:
    • a drafted section of the president's annual message to congress
    • it expressed three principles
      • 1. the US would oppose any further efforts at colonization by European powers in the Americas
      • 2. the US would abstain from involvement in the wars of Europe
      • 3. Monroe warned European powers not to interfere with the newly independent states of Latin America
    • declared that the American continents would be closed to European colonization, and that the United States would not interfere in European affairs
  • when: 
    • December 2, 1823
  • where:
    • US & Western Hemisphere?
  • why it matters:
    • sometimes called America's diplomatic declaration of independence
    • remained the cornerstone of American foreign policy for many decades
    • based on the assumption that the old and new worlds formed separate political and diplomatic systems, it claimed for the US the role of diplomatic power in the Western Hemisphere

19

nat turner

  • who:
    • Nat Turner
    • slave preacher & religious mystic 
    • best known of all slave rebels
  • what:
    • believed that God had chosen him to lead a black uprising
    • traveled widely in Southampton County, Virginia, conducting religious services 
      • told of seeing black and white angels fighting in the sky and the heavens running red with blood 
    • leader of Nat Turner Rebellion
      • he and a handful of followers marched from farm to farm assaulting the white inhabitants 
      • by the time the militia put down the rebellion, 80 slaves had joined and 60 whites had been killed 
      • he and 17 other rebels were captured and sentenced to die
        • when asked before his execution if he regretted it, he asked, "was not Christ crucified?"
  • when:
    • 1831
  • where:
    • Southampton County, Virginia
  • why it matters:
    • Nat Turner Rebellion was most important slave uprising in nineteenth-century America
      • sent shock waves through the entire south 
    • a panic followed the revolt
      • hundreds of innocent slaves were whipped and scores executed 
      • virginias legislatures debated whethers steps out to be taken to do away with "peculiar institution"
        • BUT a proposal to commit the state to gradual emancipation and the removal of the black population from the state failed to win legislative approval 

20

nicholas biddle

  • who:
  • what:
    • head of the Bank of the United States
      • bank symbolized the hopes and fears inspired by the market revolution
    • strong-willed like jackson, and unwilling to back down in a fight
    • effectively used the institutions power to curb the overissuing of money by local banks and to create a stable currency throughout the nation
    • the bank's charter was to expire in 1836, and Biddle asked for a bill extending it 20 years
      • president jackson saw the bill as a form of blackmail
        • if he did not sign it, the bank would use its considerable resources to oppose his reaction
        • jackson insisted that it was unacceptable for Congress to create a source of concentrated power and economic privilage unaccountable to the people
          • "the rich and powerful too often bend the acts of gov. to their own selfish purposes"
  • when:
    • 1820's
  • where:
    • Pennsylvania
  • why it matters:
    • the bank of the US was the central political struggle of the Age of Jackson
    • led to the Bank War
    • President Jackson's veto message is perhaps the central document of his presidency

21

paternalism

  • who:
    • mainly women and slaves
  • what:
    • concept used to justify the legitimacy of slavery
      • slavery was the thread that held the south together and define the "southern woman"
    • slavery defined women's location in society
      • they associated paternalism with feminine power in the homes and in their communities and the belief that it could provide them with upward mobility
      • the social hierarchy in the south placed white women above the slave population based on race
        • gave women a sense of societal superiority that wasnt as prevalent is social structure of north
        • viewed themselves as maternal guardian, saviors to the slaves
      • in the south, because slave ownership provided women with the opportunity to fulfill their role to the fullest of their abilities-- it was moral
        • this was used to advocate slavery
    • allocated men as not only heads of their families, but also of their slaves 
      • became father figures to the community as a whole, treating the slave population as a benevolent father would
        • saw themselves as caring overseers, rather than ruthless masters
  • when:
  • where: 
    • north and south, but definitely played more of a role in south because of their social structure differences
  • why it matters:
    • women were critical to showing a man's masculinity and the purchase of a slave directly, and positively, affected this delicate balance of morality and status

      • they also became a key element in the pro-slavery movement- justifying paternalism

      • This position gave them superficial power in Southern society.

22

seneca falls convention

  • who:
    • organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Coffin Mott
      • veterans of the antislavery crusade
  • what:
    • first womens rights meeting 
    • genesis of the women's suffrage movement
    • Stanton modeled the Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments on the Declaration of Independence
      • condemned the entire structure of inequality that..
        • denied women access to education and employment
        • gave husbands control over the property and wages of their wives
        • gave husbands custody of children in the event of divorce
        • deprived women of independent legal status after they married 
        • restricted them to the home as their "sphere of action"
      • only added "and women" to the "all men are created equal" and condemned the "injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward woman" 
        • first to be listed, denying her right to vote
          • the argument was "either the theory of our gov. is false, or women have a right to vote"
  • when:
    • July 1848
  • where:
    • in a church in Seneca Falls, NY
  • why it matters:
    • raised the issue of woman's suffrage for the first time 
    • Seneca Falls marked the beginning of the seventy-year struggle for woman suffrage
    • equal rights became the rallying cry of the early movement for women's rights and equal rights  

23

shakers

  • who:
    • founded by Mother Ann Lee
  • what:
    • influential religious community
      • these communities attracted those who sought to find a retreat from a society permeated by sin
    • believed that God had a "dual" personality
      • male and female
      • the sexes were spiritually equal
    • "Virgin purity" was a pillar of their faith
    • they completely abandoned traditional family life
      • men and women lived separately in large dormitory like structures and ate in communal dining rooms
    • increased their numbers by attracting converts and adopting children from orphanages,
      • instead of through natural increase
  • when:
    • peaked in 1840's
    • 1774
  • where:
    • Watervliet, NY
    • stretched from Maine to Kentucky during their peak
  • why it matters:
    • most successful in religious communities who also had a significant impact on the outside world 
    • even though they rejected the gradual accumulation of private property, they proved remarkably successful economically 
    • first to...
      • market vegetables and flower seeds and herbal medicines commercially
      • breed cattle for profit
    • beautifully hand crafted furniture is still admired today
    • survived well into the 20th century

24

shay's rebellion

  • who:
    • Daniel Shay
      • Massachusetts farmer
      • one of the leaders of rebellion
      • veteran of the War of Independence
  • what:
    • crowd of 1,200 debt-ridden farmers closed the courts in Western Mass. to prevent the seizure of their land for failure to pay taxes
      • called themselves the "regulators"
    • the group modeled their tactics on the crowd activities of the 1760's & 70's, and employed liberty trees/poles as symbols of their cause
  • when:
    • 1787
  • where:
    • western Massachusetts
  • why it matters:
    • the uprising was the culmination of a series of events in the 1780's that persuaded an influential group of Americans that the national gov. must be strengthend so that..
      • it could develop uniform policies 
      • protect pwners from infringements on their rights by local majorities

25

tallmadge amendment

  • who:
    • James Tallmadge
    • republican congressman from NY
  • what:
    • proposed that..
      • the introduction of further slaves be prohibited
      • that children of those already in Missouri be freed by the age of 25
    • passed the House
      • where most northern congressmen supported it over the objections of southern representatives
    • BUT died in the Senate
    • Senator Thomas of Illinois proposed a compromise- CONGRESS passed as the Missouri Compromise
      • missouri was able to draft a constitution without tallmadge's restriction
      • maine (which prohibited slavery) would be admitted to the union to maintain the sectional balance between free and slave states
      • slavery would be prohibted in all remaining territory without the LA Purchase north of Missouri's southern boundary
  • when:
    • 1819
  • where:
    • Missouri
  • why it matters:
    • sparked over two years of controversy
      • during which Republican unity shattered among sectional lines 
    • led to the Missouri Compromise

26

tecumseh

  • who:
    • one of the two Shawnee brothers
    • chief who sought to revitilize Indian life
  • what:
    • a militant message was expounded by the two brothers
    • he had refused to sign the Treaty of Greenville in 1796
      • his brother called for complete separate of the whites, the revival of indian culture and resistance to federal policies
        • believed that whites were the source of all evil in the world
    • he traversed the mississippi valley- stating that the alternative to Indian resistance was extermination
    • he repudiated chiefs that sold land to the gov. 
    • called for attacks on American frontier settlements in 1810
  • when:
    • 1800-1812: age of prophecy
  • where:
    • Mississippi Valley?
  • why it matters:
    • called for attacks on American fronteir settlements in 1810
    • in 1811, when he was absent, American forces under William Henry Harrison destroyed Prophetstown in the Battle of Tippecanoe

27

total war

military conflict in which the contenders are willing to make any sacrifice in lives and other resources to obtain a complete victory

28

trail of tears

  • who:
    • Cherokee's own term for their forced removal
    •  
  • what:
    • most tribes adopted a policy of passive resistance
      • except for one faction of a tribe who had agreed to cede their lands
    • federal soldiers forcibly removed them during the presidency of Jackson's successor, Martin Van Buren
      • army herded 18,000 cherokee men, women, and children into stockades and then forced them to move west
    • removal route from Georgia to present-day Oklahoma
    • 15,000 forced to march, 4,000 died on the way
  • when:
    • 1838-1839
  • where:
    • from Southeast to Indian lands (later Oklahoma)
  • why it matters:
    • at least one quarter of the people forced to move died 
    • people were forced out of their homes as a result of Worcester v. Georgia

29

universal manhood suffrage

  • who:
    • men
  • what: 
    • form of voting rights in which all adult males within a political system are allowed to vote, regardless of...
      • income
      • property
      • religion
      • race
      • or any other qualification.
    • sometimes summarized by the slogan, "one man, one vote."
  • why it matters:
    • grants every male the right to vote- INCLUDING non-white males

30

whiskey rebellion

  • who:
    • western Pennsylvania farmers
    • federalists
  • what:
    • violent protest by western Pennsylvania farmers sought to block collection of the new tax on distilled spirits (alcohol)
    • the "rebels" invokes the symbols of 1776, displaying liberty poles and banners reading "Liberty or Death" 
    • Washington and 13,000 of his military men went to western Penn. and the "rebels" offered no resistence
  • when:
    • 1794
  • where:
    • western Pennsylvania
  • why it matters:
    • this was the only time in American history that a president has actually commanded an army in the field
    • the federalists may have been the only major party in American history forthrightly to proclaim democracy and freedom dangerous in the hands of ordinary citizens

31

william lloyd garrison

  • who:
    • author of "The Liberator" & "Thoughts on African Colonization"
  • what:
    • some of his ideas were rejected by many abolitionists
      • his suggestion that the North abrogate the Constitution
      • & dissolve the Union to end its complicity in the evil of slavery
    • but his call for immediate abolition of slavery echoed throughout antislavery circles
    • his pamphlet "Thoughts on African Colonization" persuaded many foes of slavery that blacks must be recognized as part of American slavery
      • NOT viewed as aliens to be shipped overseas
  • when:
    • 1831
  • where:
    • Boston
  • why it matters:
    • because of his book, new breed of abolitionism found its voice

32

worcester v. GA

  • who:
    • the court?
  • what:
    • Georgia tried to seize Cherokee land and nullify the tribe's laws
    • the court proclaimed that Indian nations were a distinct people with the right to maintain a separate political identity
    • believed that they must be dealt with by the federal government, not the states, and Georgia's actions violated the Cherokee's treaties with Washington
  • when:
    • 1832
  • where:
    • Georgia & Washington?
  • why it matters:
    • because of this and events that took place after- led to the Trail of Tears
    • this case seemed as if the Court changed its mind about Indian nations and their rights to maintain a separate political identity

33

Trace the development of American nationalism from the colonial era (starting in 1607) through Reconstruction, using specific examples from lecture. National unity was strong at some times and weak at others. Consider the ups and downs of national unity from the following historic periods: the establishment of British colonies, the colonial era, the Revolution, the early Republic, the antebellum era, the Civil War, and Reconstruction.

AMERICAN NATIONALISM

  • Consider the ups and downs of national unity from the historical periods
    • The establishment of British colonies
      •  the US traces its origins to the 13 Colonies founded by Britain in the 17th and early 18th century
        • residents identified with Britain until the mid-18th century when the sens of being "American" emerged
      • The Albany Plan (of Union) 1754 
        • plan to create a unified government for the colonies
        • failed because unions were afraid of losing their own autonomy or self-government
        • british also dropped the plan because they wanted to make the management of the colonies simple
      • colonies soon faced several common grievances over acted passed by the British gov
        • ex. taxation without representation
        • americans were in agreement that only their colonial legislatures could pass taxes
      • Boston Tea Party
        • political protest
        • destroyed an entire shipment of tea
        • the London gov. punished Boston for the BTP

      • Colonies united to create the Continental Congress

        • congress unanimiously issued the Declaration of Independence

          • declaring a new nation was fomed- USA

    • The Colonial Era
      • first colony founded in Jamestown, VA
        • many people who settled there came there to escape religious persecution or political oppression
        • in both VA and Mass. the colonies all flourished with assistance from Native Americans
    • The Revolution
      • growing political and philisophical differences put a strain on the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies
      • protests against taxation without representation followed the stamp act and then the boston tea party
        • SA: imposed a direct tax on the colonies of British America and required that many printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London
      • british attempts to disarm Massachusetts militia at Concord led to open combat
      • forces seiged boston, forcing a british evacuation
      • american attempt to invade Quebec failed
      • Continental congress voted for independence
      • Sir William Howe launched British counteroffensive
        • captured New York and left American moral at a low
      • victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence
      • British launched an invasion of Quebec, intending to Isolate the New England colonies
        • was defeated in Saratoga
      • France then allied with America and entered the war
      • Spain entered a year later as an ally of France but not as an ally of the US
      • Britain scored a victory over the French navy
      • Treaty of Paris
        • agreed to formally end the war
    • The Early Republic
      • period of transition
      • The Bill of Rights is ratified
        • designed to protect the basic rights of U.S. citizens
        • 12 ammendments for US constitution
        • guaranting freedom of speech, press, assembly, and exercise of religion, bear arms
      • Bank of the United States is established
      • The Whiskey Rebellion
        • tax put on whiskey to pay off some debt from Revolutionary war
        • farmers accustomed to using crops to be distilled into whiskey were pissed
        • violent riots and protests break out
      • Alien and Sedition Acts
        • four bills passed that made it harder for immigrants to become citizens, and allowed the present to deport or imprison non-citizens who seemed dangerous
        • many believed it violated rights in the constitution
      • Lousiana Purchase
        • doubled the size of America
        • increased aggriculture, trade, and exploration
        • dependency on foreign countries could be vanished
        • sparked a sense of american pride that had been dormant for many years
      • New Jersey ends slavery
      • Lewis and Clark expedition
        • first american expedition to cross western portion of the US
        • to explore the newly aquired territory and establish american presence
        • created a sense of union and american pride when they returned home
          • something/one to be proud of
      • African Slave Trade ends
      • War of 1812
        • US took on Great Britian, greatest naval power
        • Americans did suffer at the hands of British in war, including capture and burning of capital- washington dc
        • BUT they were able to repulse british invasions in NY, Baltimore, and NOLA
          • boosted national confidence and fostered a new patriotic spirit
      • Missouri Compromise
      • Monroe Doctrine
    • The Antebellum Era
      • Treaty of Ghent
        • ends the war of 1812
      • Panic of 1837
        • depression beginning with financial panic
      • panic of 1839
      • John Tyler becomes president?
      • Mexican-American war
      • Gold Rush
      • Seneca Falls Convention
      • Republican Party founded
      • Panic of 1857
      • Married woman gain rights
      • Lincoln elected?
    • The Civil War 
      • North's triumph in Civil War
      • ratification of the 14th ammendment
    • Reconstruction

34

Trace the development of democracy in America from the colonial era (starting in 1607) through Reconstruction, using specific examples from lecture. You should begin by describing the ideal notion of class relations in the colonial era, the breakdown of class relations in the beginning (especially in Virginia), and explain how class differences became more important by the American Revolution (think George R.T. Hewes). Then discuss gradual efforts to make America more democratic during and after the Revolution, noting that some efforts succeeded, while others failed. Your answer should end with Reconstruction.

DEMOCRACY

  • Describe the ideal notion of class relations in the colonial era
    • Colonial Elite 
  • Describe the breakdown of class relations in the beginning (especially in Virginia) 
    • Colonial Elite
      • the men of province controlled colonial government
        • high status most likely obtained through family connections
      • richest- South Carolina planters
        • lived lavish lifestyles
          • imported furniture, fine wines, silk clothing, and other items from England
      • wealth enabled the class to enjoy the social life of Charleston
        • the richest city in British America
      • their rights:
        • to vote
        • worship as they pleased 
      • modeled their lives on British etiquette and behavior 
      • viewed work as something reserved for the common folks and slaves
      • freedom from labor was the mark of the gentleman
    • Colonial Middle Class 
      • by 18th century, colonial farm families viewed landownership as a right, the social precondition of freedom
      • strongly resent efforts to limit their access to land
      • had an understanding of freedom as not relying on others for a livelihood 
    • Poverty/Slavery
      • visible feature of 18th century colonial life 
        • growing numbers
      • lived in impoverished conditions
      • viewed as lazy, shiftless, and responsible for their own plight
  • Explain how class differences became more important by the American Revolution (think George R.T. Hewes)
    • George R.T. Hewes
      • acquantaince of John Hancock
        • leading merchant of boston, signed Dec. of Independence
      • their first meeting was a perfect example of social/class roles prior to the revolutionary era
        • whoever was in the lower class was expecter to express their deference to their social betters without question
      • however, within a decade, the system of deference no longer appeared to be the social norm

      • During the Tea Party, he was selected as one of the leaders of his boarding party

        • DESPITE his low social status

      • people began to act to gain their human rights, and deference gradually became a thing of the past

  • Discuss gradual efforts to make America more democratic during and after the Revolution, nothing that some efforts succeeded while others failed.
    •  

 

 

YOUR ANSWER SHOULD END W/ RECONSTRUCTION

35

Most Americans did not care about the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. Some people did care. Briefly discuss the complaints of the groups who were directly hurt by, or were unhappy with, the government. Why did these groups push for reform of the national government? Discuss how and why some members of the Washington Administration promoted these reforms. Cite at least two examples to support your answer. 

ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION

  • AOC
    • the articles sought to balance the need for national coordination of the War of Independence

      • with widespread fear that centralized political power posed a danger to liberty

      • declared the new national government to be a "perpetual union"

      • 13 states retained their individual "soverignty, freedom, and independence"

  • Briefly discuss the complaints of the groups of people who were directly hurt by/unhappy with the government
    • Indians
      • americans spoke of their territories as "empty" but there were 100,000 indians within the region
      • congress took the position that by aiding the British, indians forfeited the rights to their lands
      • american reps demanded and recieved large surrenders of Indian land norh of the Ohio River
        • similar treaties soon followed with the Cherokee, Choctaw, and Chicksaw tribes
          • the treaties secured national control of a large part of the country's western hemisphere
    • farmers
      • the confederation government faced conflicting pressures
        • many believed that the economic health of the new republic required that farmers have some access to land in the west
        • BUT they also saw land sales as a potential source of revenue
        • Shay's rebellion
    • group of Ohioans
      • asked that the preference in land ownership be given to "actual settlements"
        • their motto was "grant us liberty"
  • Why did these groups of people push for the national government?
    • they believed that liberty had lost some of its luster
      • they believed the danger to individual rights now arose from the people themselves
        • not a tyrannical central gov
  • Discuss how and why some members of the Washington Administration promoted these reforms. Cite two examples
    • the articles sought to balance the need for national coordination of the War of Independence
    • Land Ordinance of 1784
      • established stages for self government in the west
      • regulated land sales in the region north of the Ohio River by dividing land into sections and selling
        • in each township, one section would be set aside to provide funds for public education 
    • Northwest Ordinance of 1787
      • pledged that the "utmost good faith" would be observed toward local indians and their land would not be taken without consent
      • also prohibited slavery in the old northwest

36

Discuss the development of the Market Revolution and its effect on the lives of the new American middle class. What produced the economic changes that we call the Market Revolution? What attitudes and values did the new middle class promote and why? Finally, using the sources from Chapter 8 in your Going to the Source book, explain how the advice literature of the early 1800s described the characteristics and behavior of the ideal father, mother, and child

MARKET REVOLUTION

  • Discuss the development of the Market Revolution and it's effect on the lives of the new American middle class
    • women
      • household declined as a center of economic production
        • many of their traditional roles were undermined by the availability of mass-produced goods previously made at home
      • woman's "place" was in the home
        • supposted to remain cloistered in the private realm of the family
      • her role was to sustain non-marker values like love, friendship, and mutual obligation
        • providing men with a shelter from the competitive market place
      • with more men leaving home for work..
        • women did exercise considerable power over personal affairs within the family
        • had the consious decision to limit the number of children they bore-rapid decline in American birthrates
        • during the expanding middle class, staying home became a badge of respect
      • women in work
        • could not compete freely for employement
        • only low paying jobs available to them
        • husbands controlled the wages of their wives because..
          • they could not sign independent contracts
          • sue in their own names
    • blacks
      • most blacks were slaves, but even FREE blacks found themselves excluded from new economic opportunities
      • blacks living in free states suffered discrimination in every phase of their lives
      • majority of blacks lived in the poorest, unhealthiest sections of cities
        • subject to ocassional violent assaults by white mobs
      • banned from schools and other public facilities
      • federal law barred them from access to public land
  • What produced the economic changes that we call the Market Revolution?
    • *War of Independence*
    • the power of the federal gov. grew under the American System
      • led to many improvements like expanded road ways and canal systems
      • system consisted of three parts
        • tarriff to protect and promote american industry
        • national bank to foster commerce
        • federal subsidies for roads, canals, and other internal improvements to develop profitable markets for agriculture
  • What attitudes and values did the new middle class promote and why?
    • women
      • some women expressed new definition of feminity
        • glorified her ability to create a private environment shielded from the competitive tensions of the market economy
          • NOT the woman's contribution to the family's economic well-being
  • Use sources from ch. 8 Going to the Source- Explain how the advice literature of the early 1800s described the characteristics and behavior of the ideal father, mother, and child
    • father
      • typically breadwinner
      • holds power over the family almost like a king and his subjects
      • fathers began taking jobs outside of the home, and mother's role greatened
      • before 1800, advice literature written on child bearing was written mostly by men 
        • as well as advice on family gov
    • mother
      • typically stay at home mother
      • notion of Republican Motherhood gave women the social authority to write and publish their own opinions on the family and domestic life 
        • encouraged female education because they had to be able to teach their kids school subjects
      • when husbands took jobs out of home, mothers roles greatened
        • role in child rearing became more pronounced and the family's domestic life grew under her authority
    • child
      • should be seen but not heard
      • boys
        • dutiful to mother and father
        • obedient to master
        • loving to all his play fellows
        • dilligent in learning and takes pleasure in improving his mind
        • wakes up early, makes himself clean and decent, and says his prayers
        • if he is ever at fault, he confesses and is sorry for it 
        • he is always ready to answer the question that is asked of him
      • girls
        • pretty
        • well behaved 
        • expected to read books and celebrate the roles they would assumes as wives and mothers
        • must be acustomed to taking share in household duties
          • knows how to sew, knit, cook
          • should consider it her department 
        • at age 12
          • begin superintending the household
          • keeping up with weekly expenses 
          • learn anything effectually, not stand by and watch others do them

37

The issues of Jackson’s presidency revealed the lingering conflict for power between the states and the federal government. How did the issues of nullification and Native American removal reflect this tension? Which side did Jackson support in each case and why? Using Chapter 9 of your Going to the Source book, how did Elias Boudinot and Jeremiah Evarts use the idea of civilization to argue against removal and to cast the supporters of removal as uncivilized? What stereotypes about American Indians did Boudinot and Evarts try to overcome?

JACKSON'S PRESIDENCY

  • How did the issues of nullification and Native American removal reflect this tension?
  • Which side did Jackson support in each case and why?
  • Using ch 9 of GTTS- How did Elias Boudinot and Jeremiah Evarts use the idea of civilization to argue against removal and to cast the supporters of removal as uncivilized?
  • What stereotypes about American Indians did Boudinot and Evarts try to overcome?