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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (31):

Columbian exchange

the transatlantic flow of goods and people that began with Columbus' voyages

WHEN: 1492

between Afro-Eurasia and the Americas

-products were introduced to Europe from the Americas
-populations were wiped, or decreased dramatically, due to disease
-Europeans also carried germs previously unknown by the Americas
-ex. smallpox, measles, influenza
-death of about 80 million people after contact with Europeans
-represents the greatest loss of life in human history



city that held the largest settled community in the US until 1800
great society

WHEN: 1200

WHERE: present day St. Louis; North America

-commercial center for regional and long distance trade
-occupied much of the Miss. trade
*its hinderlands produced staples for urban consumers
*crafts were exported inland by porters and to North America markets in canoes


temple mound builders

-Mississippian people
-built great planned towns with large multiple-family dwellings in local canyons
-constructed dams and canals to gather and distribute water
-conducted trade

WHEN: (800-1500 AD)

WHERE: Cahokia

-built Pueblo Bonta
-the largest of their structures
-stood 5 stories high with over 600 rooms
-led to the Pueblo Indians(Pueblos) who established villages and perfected the techniques of desert farming



-system of colonial elites telling lower classes what to do

WHEN: before American Revolution

WHERE: colonial elite colonies

-established an even greater sense of power within the colonial elites
-diminished after the American Revolution


Plymouth colony

-colony established by 102 settlers and crew that survived the Mayflower
-blown of course for hundreds of miles
-established on abandoned Indian village whose fields had been cleared before the smallpox epidemic and were ready for cultivation

WHEN: established in September 1620

WHERE: Cape Cod, an abandoned Indian village

-survived as a colony until 1691 when absorbed into Mass.
-transformed the political structure of the Bible Commonwealth
-part of the Dominion of New England


bacon's rebellion

-led by Nathaniel Bacon, a wealthy planter
-unsuccessful revolt against Virginia governor, William Berkeley's administration because:
-of government corruption
-Berkeley failed to protect settlers from Indian raids
-Berkeley did not allow settlers to occupy Indian lands
-after a minor confrontation between Indians and colonists on Virginia's western frontier
-settlers demanded that Berkeley authorize the removal of the colony's Indians to make more land for the whites
-Berkeley refused and a series of Indian massacres quickly grew into a full-fledged rebellion
-Bacon promised freedom to all who joined his ranks
-gathered an armed force against who he referred to as "the governors protected and darling Indians"
-marched on Jamestown and burned it to the ground
-the governor fled and he became ruler of Virginia

WHEN: 1676

WHERE: Virginia

-one of the most dramatic confrontations of the era
-to some extents, the rebellion was a conflict within Virginia's elite
-the shift from having white servants to instead, black slaves happened because of this
-because of Bacon's efforts, the governor fled and he became the new ruler of Virginia


metacom's rebellion

-Metacom (aka King Philip)= Wampanoag leader, mastermind behind rebellion
- aka King Philip's War
-Wampanoag and Narragansett alliance
-Indian forces attacked nearly half of New England's 90 towns and 12 in Mass. destroyed (native americans vs. English settlers)

WHEN: (1675-76), 14 months

WHERE: southern New England

-the bloodiest and most bitter conflict; also the most dramatic and violent warfare in the region in the entire seventeenth century
-produced a broadening of freedom for white New Englanders by expanding their access to land
-but this freedom rested on the final dispossession of the region's Indians
-Metacom was executed, Indian villages destroyed, and captives were either killed or sold into slavery in the West Indies
-Narragansett: largest native American group in Southern New England


Anne Hutchinson

-midwife and daughter of clergyman
-held meetings in her home where she led discussions about religious issues among men and women
-shared a belief with Puritans, that salvation was God's direct gift to the elect and could not be earned by good works, devotional practices, or other human effort
-called out Mass. ministers who preached that church attendance and moral behavior mattered more than inner grace
-critics denounced her for Antinomianism
-term for putting one's own judgement or faith above both human law and the teaching of the church
-after her court hearing, she and a number of her followers were banished

WHEN: 1637

WHERE: Massachusetts--> New England

-she was tried in court for expressing opinions dangerous to authority
-she violated Puritan doctrine by saying that God spoke directly to her rather than through the bible or ministers
-she left her mark on the region's religious culture; took many years before religious toleration came back to Mass.


navigation acts

-passed by the English Parliament
-intended to control colonial trade and bolster the mercantile system

1651 (notes)
1650-1775 (book)

WHERE: England

-enforcement of the acts led to growing resentment by colonists
-all exports from colonies are only on English ships
-imports are on English ships and directly from producing colonies
-aimed to wrest control of world trade from the Dutch
-acts stimulated the rise of New England's shipbuilding industry


dominion of new England *

- consolidation into a single colony of the New England colonies
- done by royal governor James II

WHEN: 1685 (notes)-1686 (book)

WHERE: Connecticut, Plymouth, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, New York, East and West Jersey

- created a single, super colony
- dominion reverted to individual colonial governments three years later
-Edmund Andros, appointed governor of New York
-seized by Boston militia, along with other officials
-military man, not democratic


Common Sense

-pamphlet anonymously written by Thomas Paine
-supports American independence
-attacked the English principles of hereditary rule and monarchial government

WHEN: January, 1776

WHERE: Philadelphia

-targets King George III, "the royal brute of England"
-Paine pioneered a new style of political writing
-quickly became one of the most successful and influential pamphlets in the history of political writing (150,000 copies sold)
-gave shares of his earnings to buy supplies for the Continental army


tabula rasa

WHAT: term used by John Locke to describe the human mind before it begins to acquire ideas from experience
-French for "clean slate"/"blank slate"
-all born with a blank slate

-says that we are all born equal, and that our experiences will shape our lives
-very big thing for colonial elite; they think that America resembles a blank slate
-make a better world
-optimistic view embraced by founding fathers over time


fur trade

-trading of animal pelts (especially beaver skins) by Indians for European goods in North America
-as settlers fenced in more land and introduced new crops and livestock, the natural environment changed in ways that undermined traditional Indian agriculture and hunting


WHERE: North America*

-fur trade on the frontiers of settlement sometimes married Indian women as a way of gaining access to native societies and the kin networks essential to economic relationships
-rapid expansion of fur trade diminished the population of beaver and other animals


George Whitefield

-English minister
-declared that "the whole world his parish"
-sparked the Great Awakening
-declared that God was merciful; people can save themselves by repenting of their sins
-sermons were reported to the American press, tens of thousands of people in the audience
-in his footsteps, a host of traveling preachers or "evangelists" held revival meetings

WHEN: (1714-1770)

WHERE: Georgia to New England, all over

-inspired the emergence of numerous Dissenting churches
-travels through all 13 colonies, very influential
-starts Great Awakening, which threw into question many forms of authority and inspired criticism of aspects of colonial society
-revivals encouraged many people to trust their own views rather than the views of established elites


William Pitt

-secretary of state: british government
-raised huge sums of money and poured men and naval forces into the war
-Britain captured

WHEN: (1708-1778), took office in 1757

WHERE: Britain

-british secretary of state
-founded Pennsylvania
-1759: Britain captured pivotal French outposts, and French army was defeated by September of that year
-British forces also seized nearly all of the islands in the French Caribbean and established control of India


Pontiac's Rebellion

-known as Pontiac's rebellion after an Ottawa war leader
-Indians of the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes launched a revolt against British rule
-rebellion owed much of its teachings to Neolin, a Delaware religious prophet
-during a vision, the Master of Life instructed Neolin that his people must: (=new pan-Indian identity)
-reject European technology,
-free themselves from commercial ties with whites and dependence on alcohol
-clothe themselves in the garb of their ancestors
-drive the British from their territory

WHEN: 1763

WHERE: eastern North America

-named after Ottawa Chief, Pontiac
-Neolin created this new idea of pan-indian identity
-preached that all Indians were a single people and only through cooperation could they regain their lost independence


Samuel Adams

-John Adams 2nd cousin
-one of the most prominent political leaders of the twelve mainland colonies
-member of the Continental Congress

WHEN: (1722-1803)

WHERE: Massachusetts

-"brace of Adamses"
-congressional leader


coercive acts

-four parliamentary measures in reaction to the Boston Tea Party that
-forced payment for tea
-disallowed colonial trials of British soldiers
-forced British soldiers to stay in private homes
-reduced the number of elected officials in Massachusetts

WHEN: 1774

WHERE: Massachusetts

-parliament empowered military commanders to lodge soldiers in private homes
-united the colonies in opposite to what was widely seen as a threat to their freedom


tea act

-The East India Company governed recently acquired British Possessions in India.
-numerous people invested heavily in this stock
-prices of stock begin to rise sharply and then collapse
-to rescue the company, the British gov, decided to help it market its enormous holdings of Chinese tea in North America
-Frederick North Lord offered the company a series of rebates and tax exemptions
-as tea shipments arrived, resistance developed in the major ports- then the Boston Tea Party took place

WHEN: 1773

WHERE: Boston, Mass.

-lead to the Boston Tea Party



-Wahunsonacock, called powhatan by settlers after the Indian word for both his tribe and title of paramount chief
-shrewd and forceful leader who consolidated his authority over the region, and collected tribute from some thirty subordinate tribes
-threatened with execution and is rescued by Pocahontas, his favorite child among his many children by dozens of wives
-probably apart of an elaborate ceremony by Powhatan to demonstrate his power over the colonists and incorporate them into his realm

WHEN: (ca. 1550-1618)

WHERE: Jamestown, Virginia

-the most prominent Indian leader in the original area of English settlement in Virginia
-died the following year after his daughters death


short answer (3-5 sentences):

Explain what life and society was like for Native Americans living in both North America and South America before European contact. How did these people live and what differences and similarities did they share?

life for North American Indians:
-lived on corn, squash, beans, with fishing and hunting deer, turkeys and other animals
-tribes frequently warred with one another to obtain goods, seize captives, or take revenge for killing of relatives (conducted diplomacy and made peace)

life for South American Indians:
-established villages and perfected techniques of desert farming

-religious and spiritual beliefs; held the idea that one single Creator stood atop the spiritual hierarchy
-gender roles
-social organizations
-cultural customs
-all saw land as a common resource, not an economic commodity; unclaimed land open to everyone
-status DID matter

-North had not developed the scale, grandeur, or centralized organization of the Aztec and Inca societies to their south.
-North American Indians lacked the technologies such as metal tools, machines, and gun powder
-No society north of Mexico had achieved literacy

-irrigation systems
-extensive trade networks
-large pyramid-like sculptures for beauty
-population of about 250,000

-linked by complex systems of roads and bridges that extended 2,000 miles along the Andes mountain chain
-12 million


short answer (3-5 sentences): **

What expectations did Europeans bring with them about the New World and how do the images from Chapter 1 in your "Going to the Source" book reflect what Europeans expect to find in the New World? Did the reality they encountered in the Americas match the expectations that they brought with them?

what expectations?
-Europeans dreamed of a land of abundance, riches and ease. Envisioned America as religious refuge, a society for equals, source of power and glory. Searched for golden cities and eternal youth.

how do the images from GTS reflect what Europeans expect to find in the New World?
-the "Birds and Fish of New England" image shows Captain John Smith, an English man, explaining what life is like in North America for him.
narratives say:
-"nature and liberty furnish us freely that which in England costs us dearly"
-"..but their skins are so rich that they will recompense day's work with captain pay"

Did the reality they encountered in Americas match the expectations they brought with them?
-Some of their dreams of golden cities and such were fulfilled but not many.
-The New World also became the site of many forms of unfree labor, forced labor, and plantation slavery.
-monsters & marvels of the new world made Europeans unsure of the foundations that they new about the world around them.


short answer (3-5 sentences):
What event started the Salem Witch Trials? How can the hysteria of the trials be explained?

pg. 7 & 8 (VM)

what started it?
-a group of young girls who believed to be possessed by the devil (suffering of fits and nightmares) began accused several women of witchcraft
-Abigail Williams and cousin, Betty Parris
-believed to be possessed by three witches, one named Tituba

how can the hysteria of the trials be explained?
-"spectral evidence"
-series of hearings and prosecutions of people being accused of witchcraft, "The Devil's Magic"
-local feuds, property disputes, and a tool being used against independent women
-people over-believing in superstitions and condemning others, especially those who were believed to have healing powers, of withcraft


short answer (3-5 sentences):

Who were the members and non-members? What distinguished the two groups from one another? Briefly explain these differences by describing an example from each group.

-owners of productive property
-imperial and colonial elite
-middling sorts
-yeoman farmers (make enough to be middling class)
-artisans and craftsmen

-working: living paycheck to paycheck
-servants: after several years, become free
-slaves: slave for life, only of African descent

what distinguished these two from one another?
-members were owners of productive property, primarily wealthy merchants
-non-members were lower-status workers

one example (from both groups) of the differences between the two:
-an example of a member would be a South Carolina planter, living a lavish lifestyle.
-an example of a non-member would be someone who is a slave.


short answer (3-5 sentences):

Which groups found the Enlightenment appealing? How did the movement contribute to the support for representative government?

pg. 12 my notes (vm)

which groups found Enlightenment appealing?

how did the movement contribute to the support for representative gov.?
-created a sense of American nationalism
-having faith in America as a blank slate


short answer (3-5 sentences):

Which groups found the Great Awakening appealing? How did the movement promote democracy in the colonies?

pg. 13 my notes (vm)

which groups found Great Awakening appealing?
-middling and lower classes

how did the movements promote democracy in the colonies?


ESSAY: not done

MAYBE pg. 1 my notes (no recording), 5 (vm), 7 (vm), 9

The English established North American colonies for a variety of reasons, which can be demonstrated by comparing and contrasting the development of Virginia, New England, and Pennsylvania. Why were each of these colonies originally established? Who came to these colonies and why? Discuss the interaction of Native American groups with the three colonies. What was the effect of English settlement on the world of American Indian and how did American Indians respond to English settlers?

why were each of the North American colonies originally established?
development of Virginia:

development of New England: (pg.43-44)
-economic conditions in England were so bad
-diseases decimated populations
-people emigrated into the New World

development of Pennsylvania:

*Who came to these colonies? Why?*
-New England: emigrants, families, young, single men who had little to lose from emigrating

*Discuss the interaction of the native American groups with the three colonies.*
- Virginia:
-New England: exchanged goods with native populations, and Indians often traveled through colonial settlements

*What was the effect of English settlement on the world of American Indians?*
-expelled from ancestral lands/intruding on Indian hunting grounds
-Iroquois resistance
-puritans subdue the wilderness
-epidemic disease zz

*How did American Indians respond to English settlers?*
-Uprising of 1622, war
-were required to move to tribal lands


ESSAY: not done

The American Revolution affected all groups in colonial society, but some groups gained while others lost. Compare and contrast the Revolutionary experiences of common workers, like George Robert Twelves Hewes, with those of the colonial elite, like John Adams. Why did these groups get involved in the struggle for American independence? What major events did Hewes and Adams participate in? How did the Revolution affect common workers, like Hewes, and the colonial elite, like Adams? Did the Revolution dramatically change the lives of American women, slaves or Native Americans? Why or why not?

Compare and contrast the Revoluntionary experiences of common workers (like George Robert Twelves Hewes), with those of the colonial elite (John Adams).
-John Adams, son of a farmer, well respected graduate from Harvard

*Why did these groups get involved in the struggle for American Independence?*

*What major events did Hewes and Adams participate in?*
-John Adams participated in the movement agains the Stam Act

*How did the Revolution affect common workers, like Hewes, and the colonial elite, like Adams?*
- the colonial elite were the winners, now in charge; but now deference is gone
-country becomes more dependent on slavery and less receptive to slavery, especially further south

*Did the Revolution dramatically change the lives of American women, slaves, or Native Americans? Why or why not?*
WOMEN: most positive change
-Republican Motherhood becomes a thing
-women should be educated so that children can be educated

INDIANS: suffer one of the biggest losses
-sided with British; colonists are increasingly invading home territories
-British tried to play nice enough so that Indians would still trade with them, and there wouldn't be open war
-British played the Indians and gave the land away to the Americans
-Indians eventually either have to learn English, become farm holders, and be involved in church OR migrate west



ESSAY: not done

The colony of Virginia struggled to achieve order and community from its origins. What were the various strategies colonial leaders employed in their attempt to establish order in Virginia? What led to the establishment of order in Virginia? Finally, using the runaway ads from Chapter 3 of your Going to the Source book compare and contrast the worlds of indentured servants and slaves. In what ways were they similar? What were the most significant differences between them?

what were the various strategies colonial leaders employed in their attempt to establish order in Virginia?
-headright systems*

what led to the establishment of order in Virginia?

*using GTS: how are indentured servants and slaves similar?*
-both live within the same general areas
-both refer to their bosses as "master" and endure whipping as punishment
-in the masters eyes, servant or slave, if you run away, you have questionable moral character

*how are their most significant differences?*
-slavery was a hereditary, lifetime status
-servitude was contractual
-race made the experience of running away much different for African slaves than white servants


ESSAY: done

The successful conclusion of the Seven Years’ War or the French & Indian War resulted in mounting tension between Britain and her North American colonies. Why did Britain adopt new revenue acts after the Seven Years’ War? Who did the British intend to tax with the Stamp Act and the Townshend Acts? How did elite and common colonists respond to the Stamp Act and the Townshend Acts? Why did many elite and common colonists support independence from Great Britain by 1776?

Why did Britain adopt new revenue acts after the seven years' war?
-because they borrowed from banks and individual investors during the war, which lead to the equivalent of tens of trillions of dollars in debt today

Who did the British intend to tax with the Stamp Act and the Townshend Acts?
-everyone at once

How did elite and common colonists respond to the SA and TA?
-everyone was offended by the SA, regardless of social status, and agitated by the TA

Why did many elite and common colonists support independence from Great Britain by 1776?
-began to believe that membership in the empire jeopardized their liberty; sought out independence


short answer (3-5 sentences):

Why did the Glorious Revolution matter to the colonies?

-until the mid-1670's the North American colonies had essentially governed themselves, without interference from England
-James II ousted; End of the Dominion of New England
-local rule returns and more self-sufficiency
-reinforced among the colonists the sense of sharing a proud legacy of freedom and Protestantism with the mother country