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Flashcards in FINAL Deck (32):
1

a'soka

  • who:
    • 3rd emperor of the Mauryan dynasty 
    • great conqueror
  • what:
    • his lands compromised all of South Asia
      • only the southern tip remained out of his control
    • waged the dynasty's last campaign: the conquest of Kalinga
      • kingdom on the east coast of the South Asian peninsula by the Bay of Bengal
      • gruesome and despicable opeeration
      • Mauryan army triumphed BUT
        • 100,000 soldiers died in battle, many more after
        • 150,000 endured forcible relocation
      • After hearing about the devastation, he was shocked and appauled at his own handiwork
        • overcome with remorse
          • vowed to cease inflicting pain on his people and pledged to follow the peaceful doctrines of Buddhism
          • issued a famous edict renouncing brutal ways
    • asked all of his subjects to respect him as their father and conform to his moral code
      • starting with the precept that people of different religions or sects should get along with each other
  • when:
    • from 268-231 BCE
  • where:
    • South Asia
  • why is it important:
    • Mauryan Empire reached its height during his reign
    • conquest of Kalinga was devastating
    • unifier of India
    • historian H.G. Wells referred to him as "one of the greatest monarchs the world has every seen" in one of his writings
    • built stupas and ruled according to the dhamma
      • stupa- dome monuments
      • dhamma
        • term understood to mean
          • tolerance of others
          • obedience to the natural order of things
          • respect for all of earth's life forms
    • art showed the blending of Greek, Persian and Indian cultures

2

bishop augustine of hippo (st. augustine)

  • who
    • christian bishop
  • what
    • in reaction to the Goth's sack of Rome, he wrote "The City of God"
      • laid down the outlines of this belief
      • assured contemporary Christians that the barbarian takeover happening around them was not the end of the world
      • the "city of god" would take earthly shape in the form of the Catholic church
        • and it was not just for Romans
        • was for all people at all times
  • when
    • book in 410 CE
  • where
    • western europe?
  • why
    • promotes the catholic church
      • book says "only one organization would bring them all to paradise: the catholic church"

3

council of nicea

  • who:
    • convened and presided over by Constantine
  • what:
    • church council 
    • though the religion has now produced many denominations
      • all christians regard the council of nicea as the foundational movement when their faith was summed up in a creed
        • statement of religious belief formulated in technical, philosophical terms
        • asked believers to balance three separate Gods in one supreme being- the trinity
    • the bishops agreed on a date for easter there as well
  • when:
    • 325 CE
  • where:
  • why is it important:
    • at this council a christian creed was created
      • made into a formula that expressed the philosophical and technical elements of Christian belief

4

emperor wu

  • who
    • chinese emperor
  • what
    • brought economic prosperity and expansion of power
    • did much to transform the military forces
      • known as the "martial emperor" because of the states many military campaigns
    • confucianism took on religious overtones during this reign
    • many historians have differing opinions on him
      • some regard him as the most dynamic of the Han monarchs 
      • others view him as a mere delegator of power
        • who chose wise subordinates and allowed them to make policy
    • used a stringent penal code to eliminate powerful officials who got in his way
    • under his rule, the people's welfare was deemed the essential purpose of legitimate rule
  • when
  • where
    • China
  • why
    • presided the longest and most eventful reign in Chinese history (140-87 BCE)

5

five pillars of faith/islam

  • what:
    • five main aspects of Islamic practice that established clear-cut demands on believers
      • testification or bearing witness that there is no God other than God (Allah) & Muhammad is the messenger of God
      • praying five times a day
      • fasting from sunup to sundown everyday during Ramadan
        • a month on the Islamic calendar
      • giving alms
      • making a pilgrrimage to Mecca

6

great mosque of cordova

 

  • what:
    • oldest standing muslim building on the Iberian Peninsula
    • stirring tribute to the architectural brilliance and religious zeal of Iberia's Muslims
  • when
    • 785 CE
  • where
    • Iberian Peninsula

7

hagia sophia

  • who:
    • sponsored by Justinian
  • what:
    • aka "Holy Wisdom"
    • enormous and impressive church 
  • when:
  • where:
    • 532 CE
  • why:
    • at the time it was the largest church in the world

8

henry the navigator

9

justinian

  • who
    • roman/byzantine emperor
  • what
    • considered himself the successor of a long line of forceful Roman emperors, and was determined to outdo them
    • reformed the Roman laws
    • owned an empire on the edge of asia, as it was changing dramatically
      • subject to the bubonic plague
      • he survived it
    • empire struggled with a formidable eastern rival for the control of Southwest Asia 
    • he owned an empire on the edge of asia as it was dramatically changing
      • subject to bubonic plague
      • he survived it
    • his empire struggled with the formidable eastern rival for the control of southwest asia
  • when
    • ascended to the throne in 527 C.E.
  • where
    • Sasanian Persia?
  • why
    • had many building projects and miltary projects
    • also issued a new law code
    • reformed the roman laws

10

jizya

    • special tax that non-muslims were forced to pay to their islamic rulers
    • in return, they were given:
      • security
      • property
      • cultural autonomy
  • when
  • where
    • India
  • why

11

king clovis

  • who
    • king of Franks and ruler of Gaul
  • what
    • like his father, he dealt politically and and diplomatically with the Catholic Bishops of Gaul
    • Gregory Tours wrote much about him in the "History of the Franks"
      • interpreted him from a Christian perspective, telling stories about him as a single-minded warrior
      • he uses rhetoric to explain the arguments between Clovis and his wife
        • her asking him to abandon paganism
      • when he converted, he became for Gregory "a new Constantine"
      • recent scholarship has shown flaws in gregory's account of clovis
    • His life illustrates a crucial series of ideological and cultural transformations that took place throughout the Western Roman Empire as it gave way to Germanic kingdoms
  • when
    •  
  • where
    • Franks/Gaul
    • western roman empire
  • why
    • kingdoms political and religious founder
      • a religious figure
    • considered to be the founding father of the Merovingians
    • an unexpected victory in battle led a king to trust the power of the Christian God and to submit to baptism
    • after he passed, his kingdom was divided up amongst his 4 surviving sons

12

Mahayana Buddhism

  • who
  • what
    • school of buddhism theology
    • scholars debated for at least two years whether or not buddha was a god or a wise human being that proved/believed Buddha was a deity
      • unlike previous groups who considered him a wise human being
    • mixing of new ways to create a spectacular spirtual and religious synthesis
      • nomadic
      • hellenistic
      • persian 
      • mesopotamian 
    • worldly and accomodating
    • spiritual pluralism that positioned Indian believers as a cosmopolitan people 
      • welcoming contacts with people from other parts of Afro-Eurasia and laying the spiritual foundations for a region that had become a crossroad of world cultures 
    • the buddha's preaching stressed life's suffering and the renunciation of desire to end suffering and achieve nirvana
      • tough road to a better life
      • those who did not believe in recarnation found it difficult to believe in nirvana
        • newcomers such as migrants or traders saw no attraction to this painful cycle
    • ^ this sharp dichotomy between a real world of hardship and the Buddha's abstract one of nirvana gave way to the MB vision of bodhisattvas
      • they enlightened demigods, ready to reach nirvana, delaying doing so to help others attain it
  • when
  • where
  • why
    • ended debate and proved Buddha was a deity
    • appealed especially to foreigners and immigrants who traded or settled in India
      • made him easier to understand
    • bodhisattvas
      • buddhist brokers 
      • effective instruments for helping all classes find their way to heaven
    • enabled all individuals to move from a better life of suffering into a happy existence
      • the poor and powerless, & rich and powerful 

13

mali empire

  • who
    • founder- Sundiata
      • "mali's greatest king"
  • what
  • when
    • founded in the 12th century
    • represented the triumph of house warriors, and its origins are enshrined in an epic involving the dynasty's founder, sundiata
    • commerce was in full swing
    • mansu musa
      • made a celebrated hajj- or pilgrimage- to Mecca
        • traveled through Cairo and impressed crowds with
          • the size of his retinue
          • his displays of wealth
            • many dazzling items made of gold
    • boasted two of West Africa's largest cities
      • Jenne
        • ancient entrepot
        • vital assembly point for caravans laden with salt, gold, and slaves preparing for journies west to the Atlantic coast and north over the Sahara 
      • Timbuktu
        • founded as a seasonal camp for nomads
        • grew in size and importance under the patronage of various malian kings
        • by 14th century, thriving commercial and religious center famed for its two large mosques
          • which are stil standing
        • renowned for its intellectual vitality
  • where
    •  
  • why is it important
    • became the mande successor state to the kingdom of ghana
    • exercised political sway over a vast area for three centuries
    • mansa musa
      • most famous soverign 

14

mansa musa

  • who
    •  
  • what 
    • made a celebrated hajj-or pilgrimage- to Mecca
    • traveled through Cairo and impressed crowds with the size of his retinue and his displays of wealth
      • many dazzling items made of gold
    • spared no expense to impress his hosts
      • sent ahead an enormous gift of 50,000 dinars to his entourage
        • soldiers, wives, consorts, and as many as 12,000 slaves
        • many wearing rich brocades woven of Persian silks
      • he brought immense quantities of gold and distributed it lavishly during his three month stay
      • preceding his retinue as it crossed the desert were 500 slaves
        • each carrying a golden staff
        • caravan included around 100 camels
          • each bearing two 300 pound sacks of gold
  • when
    • west africa
  • where
  • why:
    • mali's most soverign 
    • his visit to cairo was a sensation in its time

15

mauryan empire

  • who 
  • what
    • indirectly influenced by Alexander's triumphs
      • his brief occupation of the Indus Valley paved the way for one of the largest empires in South Asian history
        • quite possibly larger than Mughal empire
      • whose powerful armies and legions of magistrates and monks spread the religion of the Buddha through south asia
      • laying the groundwork for its expansion beyond
    • Chandragupta Mori assended the throne of the Magadha kingdom 
      • inspired by Alexander
      • launched a series of successful military expeditions in what is now northern India
    • ^ the Mori family did not start out a distinguished ruling family
      • economic strength and and military skill elevated them over their rivals 
    • alexanders retreat gave mauryans an opportunity to extend the dynasty's claims to northwestern regions of South Asia
      • had previously been controlled by the Persian Empire
    • the empire consisted of South Asia's first empire and served as a model for later Indian empire-builders
    • Mauryan regime began to etch out the territorial contours of what would become modern India
    • a treaty between two powers gave a large portion of Afghanistan to the Mauryan empire
    • troops here did not pretend to work when there was no war
      • constituted a standing force of immense proportions ready to obey their commander
      • huge military force
    • reached its height under Asoka
      • his lands compromised all of south asia
  • when
  • where
  • why
    • triumphed under asoka
    • influenced by Alexanders actions

16

mayans

  • who
  • what
    • civilization that ruled over large stretches of Mesoamerica
    • composed of a series of kingdoms
      • each built around ritual centers rather than cities
    • engaged neighboring peoples in warfare and trade and expanded borders through tributary relationships
    • established political and cultural institutions over a large portion of Mesoamerica
    • lived in inhosptiable regioin
      • hot, infertile, lacking navigable river systems, vulnerable to hurricanes
      • limited water prevented large scale agriculture
    • great artists and builders 
    • accomplished magnificent feats only to collapse
      • leaving their centers deserted for centuries and entire provinces utterly depopulated
    • established a variety of kingdoms around major hubs and their hinderlands
    • mayan rulers
      • made sure that the gods got the attention and reverence they needed
      • lords and their wives performed ritual blood sacrifice to feed their ancestors
    • commerce, as well as a common set of beliefs, codes, and values, connected the dispersed Mayan worlds
    • skilled mathmaticians
      • devised a calendar and studied astronomy
    • exceeded at building skyscrapers
    • elites were obsessed with blood 
    • spiral of warfare doomed them
      • seemed as if the gods themselves were abandoning the people
      • entire states began to fall 
    • eventually the hallmark of mayan unity- the ability to read a shared script- vanished
  • when
  • where
  • why
    • have a never ending mystery to historians and archaeologists
    • achieved greatness without a single great central metropolis 
      • established hundreds of thousands of agrarian villages 
    • they were not defined by a great ruler or one capital city, but by their shared religious views

17

ottoman empire

  • who
    • rulers of..
      • anatolia
      • the arab world
      • and much of southern and eastern Europe in the early 16th century
  • what
    • they transformed themselves..
      • from
        • nomadic warrior bands who roamed the boarderlands between Islamic and Christian worlds in Anatolia
      • into
        • soverigns of a vast, bureaucratic empire
    • embraced a Sunni view of Islam
    • adapted traditional Byzantine governmental pratices
      • but tried new ways of integrating the diverse peoples of their empire
    • formed a stern and disciplined warrior ethos under their cheif, Osman
    • Expanded into the Balkans- becoming the most powerful force in the eastern Mediterranean and western Asia
      • controlled a vast territory
    • promised wealth and glory to new subjects 
    • captured Constantinople
      • several military successes followed that put many of Christian Europe's great cities in peril 
      • invaded Italy and Hungary
    • turned their expressionist designs to the Arab world 
    • dynastic power was not only military BUT rested on a firm religious foundation too 
    • politics and language policy were flexible and tolerant
      • arab was common tongue 
    • perfected a technique for absorbing newly conquered territories into the empire by parceling them out as revenue-producing units among loyal followers and kin
    • state was always in danger of losing control over provincial rulers
  • when
    •  
  • where
    • pivotal area between Europe and Asia
  • why is it important
    • became the most powerful force in eastern Mediterranean and western Asia
    • dominated and coveted highly contested crossroads between europe and asia for many centuries 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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      • into
        • soverigns of a vast, bureaucratic empire
    •  
  • when
  • where
  • why

18

palmyra

  • who
  • what
    • Roman trading depot 
    • part of a network of trading cities that connected various regions of Afro-Eurasia
    • rich citizens relied on the traders to procure luxury goods for them 
      • importing chinese silks for womens clothing and incense for religious rituals
      • gemstones, pearlsm etc
    • had considerable autonomy even under formal roman control 
      • merchants learned greek and remained useful when doing business 
    • lucrative trade system enabled the palmyrans to build a splendid marble city in the desert
    • achieved golden age at the same time as the silk road
  • when
  • where
    • in modern-day Syria
  • why
    • most important caravan city at the western end of the Silk Road
    • rapidly became a commercial powerhouse
      • provided supplies and financial services to people passing 
      • and also hosted self contained trading communities

19

pax romana

  • who
  • what
    • latin for "Roman Peace"
    • refers to the time period when conditions in the Roman Empire were settled and peaceful
    • romans were worn out by half a century of savage civil wars
      • were ready to embrace new values
      • embrace peace
  • when
    • 25 BCE-235 CE
  • where
  • why

20

sufism

  • who
  • what
    • emotional and mystical form of Islam that appealed to the common people
    • emotional content and strong social bonds sustained the brotherhoods 
      • made its appeal to the common people irresistable 
    • highly religious 
  • when
  • where
  • why does it matter
    • through these brotherhoods, Islam became truly a religion for the people

21

ulama

  • what
    • arabic word that means "learned ones" or "scholars"
    • used for those who devoted themselves to knowledge of Islamic records
    • exercised political and spiritual authority over the Muslim community
    • authorities in religious doctrine

22

vibia perpetua

  • who
  • what
    • dictated a prison diary that is unique in roman literature
      • speaks with a full religious message
      • recounts powerful of the next world that fortify her with courage 
  • when
  • where
  • why

23

short answer

Was Paul of Tarsus (St. Paul) or the Roman Empire more important to the spread of Christianity? Justify your answer with supporting information. 

SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY

  • Paul of Tarsus
    • jew and roman catholic citizen from southeastern anatolia
    • claimed to have seen Jesus in full glory outside of the city of Damascus
    • first to call Yeshua "Jesus", also referred to him as.. and thought of him as a god
      • "The Christ"
      • the Anointed One
    • he was not one of Jesus' original disciples
      • four of these men later wrote about his life and recorded his sayings into Gospels
        • the gospels sought to tell all the world not what Jesus had said, but who he had been
    • paul's preachings in greek spread a certain image of Jesus beyond Palestine and entered the religious bloodstream of the Mediterannian
      • that Jesus was a man who had slowly revealed an awesome, hidden identity
      • he was crucified not for what he had preached, but for what others claimed that he was
      • Palestine: where Jesus had preached only to Jews and only in the local language
    • core elements of Jesus' message appealed to huge numbers of ordinary persons in the Mediterranean world
      • Paul was especially responsible for reshaping this message for a wider audience
    • Paul viewed God as a fatherly figure who set coverts free and embraced them as His children
      • this new message was immediately accessible to the dwellers and cities of the Roman empire
  • Roman Empire
    • Christianity became the state faith of the Roman Empire
    • appealed to diverse populations
      • men and women
      • freeborn and slaves
      • rich and poor
    • Christianity benefitted from the support of powerful empires

24

short answer

What factors allowed the Bishop of Rome to become the pope? What convinced men like Clovis to convert to Christianity? 

  • What factors allowed the Bishop of Rome to become the pope?
  • What convinced men like Clovis to convert to Christianity?

25

short answer

How did Islam spread to sub-Saharan Africa? What goods did merchants seek from sub-Saharan Africa? 

  • how did islam spread to sub-Saharan Africa?
    • ​arrived in Africa by..
      • overland camel caravans
      • sea trading routes through the Indian Ocean Basin
    • became extremely popular throughout all African societies
    • during the 8th century CE, Islam was integrated into African society
  • what goods did merchants seek from sub-Saharan Africa?
    • they made iron axes and hoes, iron knives and spears, and luxury items for trade
    • islamic traders and merchants greatly impacted the spread of Islam in Africa
    • Indian Ocean commerce stretched from Southern China to eastern Africa
      • included not only the exchange of luxury and bulk goods, but ALSO the exchange of ideas and crops

26

short answer

Why did commerce turn increasingly to the seas after 1000 CE? Which three cities represent the change to maritime activity?

  • Why did commerce turn increasingly to the seas after 1000 CE?
  • Which three cities represent the change to maritime activity?

27

short answer

Who funded the European Renaissance? How did the Renaissance change European culture? 

  • Who funded the European Renaissance?
    • it was funded by popes and Christian kings
  • How did the Renaissance change European culture? 
    • it was a change to the Europeans way of life because it was all about the new..
      • ​new information
        • how to represent and care for the human body
        • geography
        • astronomy
        • architecture
        • how to properly govern states and armies
      • new inventions
        • ex. printing press
          • allowed people to expand on the idea of what it means to be Christian
    • the idea of Christianity flourished
    • transformed the European elite
      • made it more cosmopolitan and knitted together the artists and scholars who constituted "the republic of letters"

 

28

short answer

Why did the Ming Empire turn away from trade at sea? Why was this decision crucial to world history?

  • Why did the Ming Empire turn away from trade at sea?
    • viewed overseas expansion with suspision
    • Hongwu feared that too much contact with the outside world would cause instability and undermine his rule
      • banned private maritime commerce in 1371
    • because much of the thriving business took place in defiance of official edicts, it led to constant friction between gov. officials and maritime traders
    • to ming officials- the sea represented problems of order and control rather than opportunities
  • Why was this decision crucial to world history?
    • led to other nations expanding
      • ex. the netherlands
        • were competing with France for expansion overseas
    • eventhough maritime commerce continued without official patronage, 
      • the abrupt withdrawal of imperial support led to the decline of Chinese naval power
      • and opened the way for newcomers and rivals

29

essay

How did Alexander of Macedonia’s conquests and travels influence him? Did he remain Greek or become a true cosmopolitan? What evidence suggests the creation of a common Hellenistic culture in the time of Alexander? Who resisted Hellenism and why did they resist?

  • How did Alexander of Macedonia’s conquests and travels influence him?
    • conquests did not influence him as much as everyone might think 
      • he is a Macedonia(n?) at heart
    • however, there was still evidence that he changed
    • he established relations with many city-states through the establishment of trade and treaties
  • Did he remain Greek or become a true cosmopolitan?
    • remained Greek
    • stayed true to his roots throughout his travels all the way to the Yellow River where he was fought off
    • after their defeat..
      • men were angry with Alexanders expansion 
      • wanted to return home
      • Alexander agreed that it was in his best interest because his men were so unhappy
    • alexander decided to turn back and die? when he made it back
  • What evidence suggests the creation of a common Hellenistic culture in the time of Alexander?
    • different aspects of the civilization
      • the common language of Macedonia being used
  • Who resisted Hellenism and why did they resist?
    • people who did not want to it to be apart of their religion
      • Islams

30

essay

Compare and contrast Roman and Han Empires. How were the empires similar? What role did tradition, language, religion, and citizenship serve as a basis of identity in each empire? Who performed the essential labor in the imperial economies? How rigid was governmental control in each society? Cite examples to support your answer.

  • Compare and contrast Roman and Han Empires. How were the empires similar?
    • both were the most powerful and extensive empires that the world had known at the time
    • both had large empires and common language
      • these two factors helped them to grow and expand
  • What role did tradition, language, religion, and citizenship serve as a basis of identity in each empire?
    • roman
      • tradition
      • language​
        • ​latin
      • religion
      • citizenship
        • sharing similar ideas
          • what it meant to be a roman
    • han
      • ​tradition
        • confucious ideals reigned as offical doctrine of the empire
          • honoring tradition
          • respecting the lessons of history
          • emperors responsibility to heaven
        • respect your elders
      • language
        • latin
      • religion
        • confucianism
        • religion linked scholars and officials to the peasantry
      • citizenship
        • powerful elites
          • imperial clan and nobles
          • high-ranking officials and scholars 
          • great merchants and manufacturers
        • lesser clerks
          • medium and small landowners
          • free farmers
          • artisans
          • small merchants 
          • poor tenant farmers 
          • hired laborers
        • bottom
          • thin layer of convicts and private slaves
        • base of han society: free peasantry
          • farmers who owned and tilled their own land
  • Who performed the essential labor in the imperial economies?
    • rome
      • soldiers from the army
        • how they expanded
    • han
      • peasant manual labor: "free peasantry"
        • farmers who owned and tilled their own lands
  • How rigid was governmental control in each society? Cite examples to support your answer.
    • roman
      • senate
        • body of permanent members
        • 300-600 of Rome's most powerful and wealthy citizens
        • issue policies and rules for behavior
      • in severe political crisis, the romans sometimes chose one man to hold absolute power over the state
        • Augustus
          • ​undisputed master of the world
          • controlled..
            • the army
            • the provinces
            • political processes in Rome
            • concentrated in his own hands..
              • immense wealth
              • the most important official titles 
              • positions of power
            • undisputed master of the world
        • han
          • they were centralized bureaucrats
      • emperors were always careful to present themselves as civil rulers whose power ultimately depended on the consent of Roman citizens and the might of the army
        • still, their powers were immense

31

essay

How did Islam borrow from Judaism and Christianity? What united Muslims and why did Muslims disagree about the rightful successor to the Prophet Muhammad? What impact did this disagreement have on the Muslim world before 1500 CE? 

  • How did Islam borrow from Judaism and Christianity?
  • What united Muslims?
  • Why did Muslims disagree about the rightful successor to the Prophet Muhammad?
  • What impact did this disagreement have on the Muslim world before 1500 CE? 

32

essay

Discuss the role of women in Islam, Christianity, and Tang Dynasty China. How vital were women to the origins and spread of Islam and Christianity? How was their role expanded or reduced in the centuries after the founding of Christianity and Islam? How did the position of women in Christianity and Islam compare to the role of women in Tang Dynasty China?

  • Discuss the role of women in Islam, Christianity, and Tang Dynasty China.
    • Islam
      • patriarchy did not triumph
      • women played major role in society
      • the man married into the WOMAN's family and moved there
      • some women engaged in variety of occupations
      • sometimes married more than one husband
        • if they became wealthy
    • Christianity
      • played major role in society
    • Tang Dynasty China
      • initially..
        • women were restricted
        • could not get a proper education
      • begin to play a bigger role in the following centuries
  • How vital were women to the origins and spread of Islam and Christianity?
    • ​Islam
      • as Islam reached Southwest Asia and North Africa, new faith began adopting patriarchal outlook
        • area of strict gender rules
      • muslim men could now..
        • divorce freely
        • take several wives and numerous concubines
      • women...
        • could only have one husband
        • were always veiled
        • lived secluded from male society
      • The Quran did offer some protection for women
        • men had to treat women with respect
        • women could inherit property
        • marriage dowries went straight to the bride, rather than her guardian
          • indicating womens independent legal standing 
  • How was their role expanded or reduced in the centuries after the founding of Christianity and Islam?
    • ^^
    • women did not have the same roles and were reduced
    • empress wu (tang)
      • became administrator of the court
        • position equal to the emperors
      • husband died- she seized power and made herself empress
        • only female ruler in Chinese history
        • expanded military
        • she empowered women
          • worked to give them a better life
  • How did the position of women in Christianity and Islam compare to the role of women in Tang Dynasty China?
    • christianity & islam
      • typically women were subordinate in the patriarchal legal system
    • tang dynasty
      • not all power brokers were men
      • wives and mothers of emperors wielded influence in the court