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1

UNHCR

• UN Refugee Agency
• is a United Nations program with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country

2

The origins of the refugee regime and the UNHCR

• Comes from 1951 Convention of the Refugees: had three year mandate and deals with specific crisis at the moment
• Not created to tell states how to deal with refugees
• Embodied moral authority
o Neutral agency to provide protection for individuals in conflict zones
o Delegated authority: given specific tasks
o Expert authority – overtime, part of increase in authority
o Used to be handled on a case by case scenario

3

Initial responsibilities of the UNHCR

• 1951 convention of refugees
o help those from WW2
o persecution: race, nationality, religion, political affiliation, specific group
• principle of non-refoulment- cannot be returned to country you came from as a refugee
• states have to pay

4

Expansion of the UNHCR

• 1967 protocol to 1951 convention
o growth with displacement – decolonization so UNHCR made itself relevant
o UNHCR needs to be invited into country
o Asylum nor 3rd party does not work well  leaves repatriation
• Repatriation culture – UN
o Voluntary repatriation – back to country for $
o Created human security problem for refugees
o UN – Rohingya
 Clash with Burma
 Targeted in 70s and 80s
 Reparation in 90s
 Still occurring today

5

. The definition of a refugee

• a person who ‘owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country.

6

The five largest refugee crises in the world today

• Syria
• Afghanistan
• South Sudan
• Myanmar
• Somalia

7

Definitions and tradeoffs concerning asylum, third party resettlement, and repatriation

Voluntary Repatriation
• Provide information and advice on the situation in the country of origin.
• Facilitate return, by negotiating tripartite agreements between the country of asylum, country of origin and UNHCR.
• Promote “Go and See” Visits to facilitate the repatriation process.
• Monitor the repatriation and reintegration process in cooperation with other key actors.
• Promote development assistance and sustainable reintegration.
Local integration
• Advocate for the advantages of integrating the refugee population into host communities.
• Advise on laws and policies on asylum and migration to facilitate integration.
• Promote dialogue between countries of asylum to share good practices on local integration.
• Identify implementing partners to participate in reintegration projects, such as NGOs for micro- finance schemes, vocational training and community mobilization projects.
Resettlement
• Coordinate resettlement needs, and promote cooperation among relevant actors.
• Develop resettlement criteria, and identify candidates for resettlement.
• Promote resettlement in combination with other durable solutions.
• Lobby for resettlement opportunities, including increased quotas, diversified intake, introduction of more flexible selection criteria, and a greater number of resettlement country agreements.
• Ensure emergency resettlement, including through emergency resettlement centres.

8

voluntary” repatriation

• Back to country for $$
• Voluntary repatriation refers to voluntary return of refugee to the country of origin. It is one of the three durable solutions traditionally identified for refugees.
• Voluntary repatriation is the preferred long-term solution for the majority of refugees in the world. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) encourages voluntary repatriation as the best solution for refugees, if the return to the country of origin is safe and there are conditions for the reintegration of the refugees in their country of origin.

9

The UNHCR and the culture of repatriation

o Voluntary repatriation – back to country for $
o Created human security problem for refugees

10

Historical and current Rohingya refugee crisis

o UN – Rohingya
 Clash with Burma
 Targeted in 70s and 80s
 Repriation in 90s
 Still occurring today

11

Regionalism as a concept

• Fewer members, more efficient
• Assumes states in geographical area have something in common  addressing issues and common interests
• One of first examples of cooperation among international organizations
• Dynamic process involves the inter-dependence of of countries
• Regions are socially constructed based on who’s in/out of the treaty or agreement; can be arbitrary
o Building a regional identity, priority
• Ex: NATO is a European regional organization

12

Political factors that drive regionalism

• A). power dynamics- how a country wants to ally or cooperate, oppose a power; extend or counter power
• B). identity and ideology- shared connection and/or experience which creates a sense of commonality
o Arab league – pan Arabism
o EU – shared ideology
• C). security & external threats-
o Ex: NATO – response to Cold War
o Gulf cooperation council
o Both above are reponse to security threats
o Econ- Asian development bank
o Humanitarian threats – AU
• D). leadership – visions of individuals (not as common)

13

Economic factors that drive regionalism

globalization
o Creates interdependency
o Ex: EU faciliting economic exchanges
Domestic politics  shapes regionalism
• In both political and economic categories
• “Second image reversed” – domestic politics impact what happens internationally; impact international policy making
• domestic priorities stronger when shared among countries
• have a role in almost all regional org’s
• regions formed based on shared domestic politics

14

The regional organizations of Europe

o Many org’s created post WW2
o All about economic and political security
o Ex: NATO  from opposing Warsaw to involvement in humanitarian efforts
o Ex: OSCE  security purposes (arms control, stabilize Europe) but has many duties on its plate now
 57 member countries – include Central Asia, Usa, Canada
 global security interests

15

The regional organizations of the Americas

• American Organizations
o Influenced by American interests
o “sphere of influence” during Cold War
o not a shared identity
o Ex: Organization of American States  counter communism in Latin America
 Mini UN at the regional level
 USA has more votes, highly political
 Big topic is democratic governance but most time spent on stopping drugs, money laundering, human trafficking
 US – created to stop spread of communism

16

The regional organizations of Africa

o Heavily focused on identity and ideology
o African Union
 A response to economic globalization and democratization
 Estab. Equality among states, principle of non-intervention, shared sense of history
 Extended refugee treaty – includes generalized violence
• Open door policy – sense of pan Africanism
 Focus on democratization
 Anti-colonial ; shared sense of responsibility
 Gives countries right to intervene under grave circumstances to protect humanitarian concerns
 Human security > national identity

17

The original conception of the European Union

1. European Union (EU) in context
• Greatest amount of power than all other IO’s
• Large amount of influence
• Binding authority – enforce policies; bind states to certain policies
• Includes some of the major economies in the world
• A regional organization (govern Europe) & a world actor on its own

18

Purpose of the EU

• France concerned about conflict in Europe, securing European peace; control Germany and increase their own power
• France wanted to achieve national goals through institution; concern for collectiec security
• Creating IGO would provide an org. to take care of issues that states can’t handle on their own  privilege the rule of law
• Creation of the single external tariff: countries are all equal
• Single European Act – timeline to create a single currency
o Starts with external tariff, then within countries, & ends with a single currency
o Germany not on board
• Maastricht Treaty- establishes the Euro and European citizenship (freedom of movement)
o Limit conflict – extra layer of security
o Promote peace & strong economies

19

The main bodies of the European Union and their functions

• European Council
o Body for initiatives, create purpose/initiatives, ideas
o Pres. Of European Council – closest to the head of state
o Meet regularly (4-5x per year)
• European Comission
o Executive/ bureaucratic body for the EU
o Legislative implementation
o Not composed of state delegates – thus not affected by country politics
o Law based on European interests
• Council of Ministers
o Intergovernmental, ministers represent states
o All countries have the same #
o Approve commission proposal’s, make decision about laws
o Meet when there is a need
• European Parliament
o Reflect populations that elected them – 751 members
o 5 yr renewable terms
o elected by European citizens
o largest legislative body in the world
o seated by political group
• European Court of Justice
o Rules on constitutionality
o Can investigate cases not brought to court

20

The European Commission

• European Comission
o Executive/ bureaucratic body for the EU
o Legislative implementation
o Not composed of state delegates – thus not affected by country politics
o Law based on European interests

21

. European Council

• European Council
o Body for initiatives, create purpose/initiatives, ideas
o Pres. Of European Council – closest to the head of state
o Meet regularly (4-5x per year)

22

Council of Ministers

• Council of Ministers
o Intergovernmental, ministers represent states
o All countries have the same #
o Approve commission proposal’s, make decision about laws
o Meet when there is a need

23

The European Parliament

• European Parliament
o Reflect populations that elected them – 751 members
o 5 yr renewable terms
o elected by European citizens
o largest legislative body in the world
o seated by political group

24

Policy issues areas in the EU

Policy Issue Areas
• Economics were a huge part of the EU & its creation
• Schengen Agreements
o Unified understanding on how to deal with crime
o Facilitate internal arrangements
o Can be part of the Schengen but not the EU
o Rules for external world, negotiations
o Internal and external cohesion
• Social policy
o France had equal pay for women  pushed for equal pay among genders
o Progressive countries not a contentious issue
o Provision against discrimination; prevent race to the bottom
o Reinforce norms
• Foreign policy
o Mostly dictated by nation states
o EU states part of Kyoto Protocal and ICC
o Similar approaches to anti-terrorism
o Solution for Israel – 2 state solution
o Coordinate on justice
• Economic Policy & trade relations
o One example: external tariffs on EU  avoid internal disputes
o Anti trust laws – example: Google 5 million dollar fine
o Uphold liberal notions and standards
o EU presence in the global economy: enhanced individual position of nation states in the economy

25

The European court of Justice

• European Court of Justice
o Rules on constitutionality
o Can investigate cases not brought to court

26

The Maastricht Treaty of 1992

• Maastricht Treaty- establishes the Euro and European citizenship (freedom of movement)
o Limit conflict – extra layer of security
o Promote peace & strong economies

27

Tariffs and the E.U.

• Creation of the single external tariff: countries are all equal
• Single European Act – timeline to create a single currency
o Starts with external tariff, then within countries, & ends with a single currency
o Germany not on board
• One example: external tariffs on EU  avoid internal disputes

28

Core elements of the Brexit “leave” campaigns

o Leave the EU
 Immigration policies, concern over asylum, economic spending

29

Core elements of the Brexit “stay” campaigns

o Stay in the EU
 Heads of states in the EU wanted UK to stay; US also wanted UK to stay
 Brexit was racist, xenophobic
 Strengthens EU- alliance is stronger
 Issue w/ Ireland, Scotland

30

Brexit negotiations

• Brexit divorce issues
o How much $ does the Uk owe the EU
o UK citizens abroad, EU citizens in the UK
o Northern Ireland
3. EU & the World
• Preferential treatment w/ former colonies

31

Variety of non state actors

• No clear sense of regulation
• Exist in space they created
• Shape international organization issues and global governance
• No assigned function – just pop up
• Employ general citizens
• Some are highly bureaucratized, others not; some large & some small
• Wide range of issue topics
• Common: want to affect policy or governance  policy innovators
• Examples include MNC’s, foundations, epistemic communities, social movement, global think tanks,
• NGO’s are a subset of non state actors
o Trying to advance a public good
o Voluntary org’s, independent mandates, focused on specific issue areas
o Ex: human rights, environment, social issues
o Funding can come from governments or private donors, also IGO’s
o Source of strength and weakness: funding
 NGO’s pick who will give em money
 No structure, feel need to abide by donor rules
o Some states resist/ban NGO’s (China & Russia)
o Open and receptive to Ngo’s  Thailand, Cambodia
o Can be based and function in one country but network with others across the globe  regulated by state they are in
o NGO’s can fill a role, fix a problem that government cannot solve – poses question if they government is being held accountable  Bangladesh

32

Non-governmental organizations’ role in global governance

• NGO’s are a subset of non state actors
o Trying to advance a public good
o Voluntary org’s, independent mandates, focused on specific issue areas
o Ex: human rights, environment, social issues
o Some states resist/ban NGO’s (China & Russia)
o Open and receptive to Ngo’s  Thailand, Cambodia
o Can be based and function in one country but network with others across the globe  regulated by state they are in

Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have long played an important role in forcing policymakers to act on issues of public concern. Their activities have grown steadily and today they address every conceivable issue and they operate in virtually every part of the globe. Although there may be no universal agreement on what NGOs are exactly, there is widespread agreement that their numbers, influence, and reach are at unprecedented levels. This paper outlines the rapidly evolving roles of international NGOs during the past two decades. As NGOs have long interacted with governments, intergovernmental institutions and the corporate sector on public policy issues, the analysis of the role of this diverse group of actors provides us with a useful angle to understand the transformations that are taking place in the way multilateral cooperation is conducted, as well as the implications for transnational problem-solving in general.

33

Sources of funding for NGOs

o Funding can come from governments or private donors, also IGO’s
o Source of strength and weakness: funding
 NGO’s pick who will give em money
 No structure, feel need to abide by donor rules

34

Transnational Advocacy Networks

o Defn: actors working internationally on an issue are bound together by shared values & dense exchange of info
o External pressures can lead to reform
o Networks allow NGO’s to increase funding, expand issue area expertise, increase mobility/performance, & visibility
o Try to gain international support & campaigns

35

Functions of transnational advocacy networks

• Tactics
o Information politics
o Symbolic politics- framing, human interest story
o Leverage politics- want powerful actors on your side
o Accountability politics- hold country accountable

36

What are the benefits of transnational networks for NGOs

• Global civil society roles
o Advocacy, expertise, monitoring

37

The growth of non-state actors & reasons

Growth of non-state actors
• 8,000 + international NGO’s
• can be top down or bottom up
• increase in humanitarian NGO’s
• end of cold war & globalization  increase in NGO’s

38

The primary roles of NGOs

Development and Operation of Infrastructure:
Community-based organizations and cooperatives can acquire, subdivide and develop land, construct housing, provide infrastructure and operate and maintain infrastructure such as wells or public toilets and solid waste collection services. They can also develop building material supply centres and other community-based economic enterprises. In many cases, they will need technical assistance or advice from governmental agencies or higher-level NGOs.
Supporting Innovation, Demonstration and Pilot Projects:
NGO have the advantage of selecting particular places for innovative projects and specify in advance the length of time which they will be supporting the project - overcoming some of the shortcomings that governments face in this respect. NGOs can also be pilots for larger government projects by virtue of their ability to act more quickly than the government bureaucracy.
Facilitating Communication:
NGOs use interpersonal methods of communication, and study the right entry points whereby they gain the trust of the community they seek to benefit. They would also have a good idea of the feasibility of the projects they take up. The significance of this role to the government is that NGOs can communicate to the policy-making levels of government, information bout the lives, capabilities, attitudes and cultural characteristics of people at the local level.
NGOs can facilitate communication upward from people tot he government and downward from the government tot he people. Communication upward involves informing government about what local people are thinking, doing and feeling while communication downward involves informing local people about what the government is planning and doing. NGOs are also in a unique position to share information horizontally, networking between other organizations doing similar work.
Technical Assistance and Training:
Training institutions and NGOs can develop a technical assistance and training capacity and use this to assist both CBOs and governments.
Research, Monitoring and Evaluation:
Innovative activities need to be carefully documented and shared - effective participatory monitoring would permit the sharing of results with the people themselves as well as with the project staff.
Advocacy for and with the Poor:
In some cases, NGOs become spokespersons or ombudsmen for the poor and attempt to influence government policies and programmes on their behalf. This may be done through a variety of means ranging from demonstration and pilot projects to participation in public forums and the formulation of government policy and plans, to publicizing research results and case studies of the poor. Thus NGOs play roles from advocates for the poor to implementers of government programmes; from agitators and critics to partners and advisors; from sponsors of pilot projects to mediators.

39

NGOs relationships to IGOs

An IGO is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states, or of other intergovernmental organizations. IGOs are established by treaty or other agreement that acts as a charter creating the group. Examples include the United Nations, the World Bank, or the European Union.
Whereas a NGO is an organisation set up by an individuals or associations. Ex. Red Cross, Oxfam, Care International, Amnesty International

40

Countries that ban or highly restrict NGO activity

India
China
Russia
Egypt
Uganda
Cambodia

41

The four limits that NGOs face

Lack of Funds
Absence of Strategic Planning
Poor Governance and Networking
Limited Capacity
Development Approaches

42

Human Rights Watch

Human Rights Watch is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

The group pressures governments, policy makers and human rights abusers to denounce abuse and respect human rights, and the group often works on behalf of refugees, children, migrants and political prisoners.

43

Scope and mission of Human Rights Watch

We scrupulously investigate abuses, expose the facts widely, and pressure those with power to respect rights and secure justice. Human Rights Watch is an independent, international organization that works as part of a vibrant movement to uphold human dignity and advance the cause of human rights for all.