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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (49):
1

Global Governance

• Problems that go beyond nation state borders
• Issues that no one state can face or resolve
• Coordination strategies adopted
• Involves states, IGOs, --> NATO, IMF, WTO
• Regional or specific orgs as well
• Multilateral efforts include G7 and G20

2

Realism

Anarchy

states are in a self-help system

Powerful states dominate

3

Constructivism

power based on how much is allocated or given

4

Liberalism

• Manifested by the WTO, IMF, WB
• Improving individual welfare
• Maximize self-interests, markets will produce
• Competition will maximize efficiency, creating the best products
• No government intervention, government should provide stability
• Lack of monopoly
• Can lead to interdependence

5

League of Nations

principles of territorial integrity and collective security

organizational precedent: council, assembly, secretariat. perm court of international justice

6

The Hague System

a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at the international peace conference at the Hague in the Netherlands

the first formal multilateral treaties of the laws of war d war crimes in the body secular international law

7

Sources of authority for IGOs

• Rational legal authority: institutional memory with longstanding nature, procedures get set and solidified, minimize errors
o Need consent or legitimacy; along with neutrality (anti- corruption)
• Delegated authority: what states allow IO’s to do, how much power is given to the IO,
o Principle agent problem- states are the principle and IO is the agent, authority is delegated to the agent; corruption disrupts delegated authority
o Authority on loan – implies that authority can be revoked at any time, incentives for agent to follow through on mission
• Moral authority: embody principles that have been agreed upon; doing it for the greater good.
o Neutrality
o Hard for IO’s to act neutral
• Expert authority: in authority or an authority; experts given tasks by states
o Power based on knowledge
o People who decide what information is relevant or necessary

8

Sources of dysfunction for IOs

It is often the very same features that give IOs authority, that also create dysfunctional behavior.

9

Neutrality

not getting involved in either side too much and instead staying in the middle and out of the light

10

UN Security Council

one of the six principal organs of the UN charged with maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the UN and approving any changes to its UN charter

Powers include:
establishment of peacekeeping operaitons
establishment of international sanctions
authorization of military action through Security Council resolution

Only UN body with the authority to issue binding resolutions to member states

15 members but 5 hold permanent power and veto power:
China
France
Britain
Russia
US

11

Bretton Woods

Conference in 1944 about economic governance
- Creates IMF, World Bank, GATT (WTO)
- Global economy, secure peace by economic prosperity

12

World Bank

• Seat of privilege- biggest, most powerful IO
• Embodies in authority and an authority
• Strong relationship with all nations
• Long term relationships
• Broad goals, multiple vision
o Economic development
o Shapes understanding of poverty and development
o Set the agenda – an authority

• Originally: created to supply loans for development projects in Europe

13

World Trade Organization

regulate trade policies
• World trade org: a dispute settlement unit
• Resolve trade conflicts
• Diplomatic option for resolving conflicts
• Each state gets 1 vote,
• Super expensive to bring a case to the WTO
• US, China, EU are regular parties

• “fairest”, one country with one vote
• discussions at general council
• powerful states try to leverage their power
• Secretariat at the WTO- limited power, just tries to build consensus
• Dispute settlement unit – powerful, especially when used by states, enforcement mechanism
• Involved in macroeconomic coordination

14

International Monetary Fund

Short-term loans to stabilize currency

• Security tied to economics
• Tackle the economic problems – stabilize currency
• Avoid another 1930’s Germany: inflation, currency unstable
• Used to promote country cooperation on economic policies
Set up:
all states donate money to the IMF, and based on how much a state gives is how many votes they receive

15

History of the IMF

• Original mission: Alleviate countries with balance of payment problems
o Establish a multilateral system – avoid all currency falling
o Provide relief with a short term loan
• Today: IMF involved heavily in domestic economies
o Intervention criticized, shows power of the big states

16

General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs

multilateral agreement between many countries, whose overall purpose was to promote international trade by reducing or eliminating trade barriers such as tariffs or quotas.

17

Berlin Conference

regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power

European countries divide African colonies and radically reshape the world

18

Patterns of vote sharing in the IMF, WB, WTO, UN Security Council

IMF
- votes determined by how much a state gives to IMF

WB
- votes determined by capital stock owned plus normal given votes

WTO
- Each state gets one vote

UN Security Council
- each member receives one vote

19

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

• Regional security agreement
• Just an agreement – created as a response to the Warsaw Pact
• About crisis management – able to take a wide variety of military actions
• 20k military members across the world
• 29 countries involved – NA and Europe
• military pact
• created for collective defense- any country attacked, NATO forces will respond
• obligation to defend (only used 1x)
• typically involved in sanctions and Pk
• US concerned with freeloading by other countries

20

World Economic Forum

i) Get a bunch of people together to discuss world economic issues
(1) Represent an elite group of people such as politicians, heads of states, CEOs of major corporations
ii) Informal meeting where people get together to talk about how to govern the worlds economic issues

21

Problems IOs face

i) Funding
(1) Where they get it from, who, how often etc. will dictate the things you’re likely to do
(a) If you’re the UN and get most of your funding from US government, you will tend to not piss of US government as you get a large chunk of funding from them
ii) Multiple mandates
(1) Sometimes IO’s will have a very straightforward mandate
(a) IMF is there to fix economies through loans to stabilize currency, now it has found its way into other areas such as formulas for economic prosperity, what kinds of domestic policies work and don’t
(2) Multiple principles
(a) Which principles to follow, do you have conflicting principles, etc.
iii) Authority and Discretion
(1) Which areas do you have authority in, do you have full discretion, do you have to ask a boss, etc.
iv) Instruments
(1) Which instruments or technology are you using and are they efficient or not

22

Countries that borrow from the World Bank

o Credit worthy borrowers – borrow from IBRD, middle income countries, “credit worthy”  Ex: oil refinery
o IDA- low income countries that need development assistance – ex: African countries
o Blend – borrow from both IDA and IBRD, ex; India, Nigeria
o Countries that don’t qualify – too rich or countries with armed conflict ex: Sudan, Myanmar

23

UN Peacekeeping

held by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations as "a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict to create the conditions for lasting peace"

24

History of UN Peacekeeping

Traditional peacekeeping
• Based on neutrality, impartiality, and consent
• Roles: monitor ceasefires, buffer zones, reporting
• Now peacebuilding, post conflict societies

Evolution of peacekeeping
• UNSC- charge of maintain peace
o Deploy troops/assistance when needed
o Countries mandated to make armed forces available
o Air contingents – readily available
o Military staff council
• Cold war – changes all UN SC ideas,
• Suez Canal Crisis
o Birth of traditional peacekeeping
o Israel, France, Britain attack Egypt
o UN job: Monitor situation and contain fighting  based on impartiality, consent, neutrality
• Post Cold War
o UN secretariat Boutros-Ghali : Agenda For Peace
 Influential reporting shaping the way the world thinks about international peace, security
 Human security crucial
 UN reshapes its role in peacekeeping, more involved
 Expansion because the definition of peacekeeping is much larger
 Turns into peacebuilding
o Failure in Somalia
 Scares everyone, change back to traditional peacekeeping

25

Rules associated with UN peacekeeping efforts

nditions for UN involvement:
Genuine threat
Regional organizational involvement
Formal ceasefire
Clear political goals
UN personnel will be relatively safe

26

Current events surrounding the WTO

WTO getting involved in national security by claiming the imposed tariffs on steel and aluminum for China, Russia, etc. are there to protect that when in reality they ate to boost economic issues for US

27

Millennium Development Goals

World Bank highly involved

Goals:
- to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger;
- to achieve universal primary education;
- to promote gender equality and empower women;
- to reduce child mortality;
- to improve maternal health;
- to combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases;
- to ensure environmental sustainability

28

Sustainable Development Goals

UN Involved

Goals:
- no poverty
- end hunger
- good health and well being
- quality education
- gender equality
- clean water & sanitation
- affordable and clean energy
- decent work and economic growth
- climate control
- industry & infrastructure

29

Structural Adjustment Policies

consist of loans provided by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) to countries that experienced economic crises.

Require borrowing countries to implement certain policies in order to obtain new loans (or to lower interest rates on existing ones).

The conditionality clauses attached to the loans have been criticized because of their effects on the social sector.

30

Balance of Payments

summarizes all transactions that a country's individuals, companies and government bodies complete with individuals, companies and government bodies outside the country.

These transactions consist of imports and exports of goods, services and capital, as well as transfer payments such as foreign aid and remittances.

31

Rules associated with UN peacekeeping efforts

conditions for UN involvement:
Genuine threat
Regional organizational involvement
Formal ceasefire
Clear political goals
UN personnel will be relatively safe

32

Sanctions

a) Generally applied by powerful states but IOs can also impose sanctions
i) UN Security Council often approves sanctions
b) Multilateral support needed to impose a moral authority or moral grounding to back it
i) Norms are created when there is multilateral support making it simply wrong to go against
c) Sanctions can be imposed on:
i) Industries
ii) Individuals
iii) Broad based trade blockings
d) Sanctions target energy sector and businesses owned by government

33

Dispute Settlement Unit

• Mediation – 3rd party involved, revolves around relationships, IO’s must be perceived as neutral, happens at a stalemate
• Preventative diplomacy – used by ASEAN, AU, OAS; can be diplomacy or sanctions, “missions”
• Arbitration - done on ad hoc basis, both parties agree to use a 3rd party
o Permanent Arbitration Court at the Hague
o Creation of panels, a settlement
• Adjudication – more in courts
o International Court of Justice – IO
o Settlements between states, to stop war
o Legal option
• Sanctions – coerce behavior, punish states for not abiding by rules or norms
o Ex: Iran –
o Generally by powerful states but also IO’s
o Need multilateral support to be effective
o Sanctions build and protect norms
o Individual sanctions – most effective

34

Competitive Devaluation

IMF originally created for this

country devalues currency to sell more goods, lead to all country’s devaluing currency – dangerous for the world economy

35

IOs as bureaucracies?

ii) All these organizations are staffed by different actors
iii) Bureaucratic culture can shape how a system works
(1) Long-standing employees doesn’t help
b) Bureaucracy and rules
i) Bureaucrats follow rules to make rules and it somewhat circles each other
(1) They shape particular understandings of the world
ii) Rules can be dependent upon identities
(1) Dependent upon the little people in their offices
iii) Rules guide action

36

World Bank Ideal Situation


• New state develops its economy
o Assessment of what is needed
o Create public and private investment
o Research sectors of the economy, find what to prioritize
o Support community building, technical support
o Eventually leave, state has control

37

World Bank and relationship with states

o States need the WB and its technical support
o Receiving loans from the WB
o Credit worthy borrowers – borrow from IBRD, middle income countries, “credit worthy”  Ex: oil refinery
o IDA- low income countries that need development assistance – ex: African countries
o Blend – borrow from both IDA and IBRD, ex; India, Nigeria
o Countries that don’t qualify – too rich or countries with armed conflict ex: Sudan, Myanmar

38

World Bank Timeline

• 1970s and 1980s- not seeing long term sustained growth  need to empower countries
o more involvement by the WB
• Post Cold war – more commitment to poverty
o Poverty, development
o Poverty leads to instability
• Post 9/11
o Poverty and radicals – terrorism
o Weak and failed states are breeding grounds for illicit criminal activity
o Terror, non-state actors pose a threat

39

World Bank Timeline

• 1970s and 1980s- not seeing long term sustained growth  need to empower countries
o more involvement by the WB
• Post Cold war – more commitment to poverty
o Poverty, development
o Poverty leads to instability
• Post 9/11
o Poverty and radicals – terrorism
o Weak and failed states are breeding grounds for illicit criminal activity
o Terror, non-state actors pose a threat

40

G20

multilateral effort
economic cooperation among 20 partiicpants
international forum for the governments and central bank governors of 20 countries

41

UNESCO

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

called for the promotion of international collaboration in education, science, and culture

42

Critiques of the World Bank

• Imperialism umbrella- an extension of colonial power,
o Democratic deficit – policies at the WB do not include the citizens of the country, yet they impact millions of people
o Mission creep – WB steadily increasing role, power in countries; can lead to dysfunction
• Economic theology – WB, IMF have narrow economic neo-liberal understanding of the world
o Oversimplified idea of poverty, using one size fits all methods to solve issues
• Direct consequences of policies – environmental degradation
• Ethics of the World Bank – engagement in moral standards  argument for increased and decreased engagement by the WB
• WB is not a transparent organization  now WB has all information available online

43

Responsibility to Protect

a global political commitment which was endorsed by all member states of the United Nations at the 2005 World Summit in order to address its four key concerns to prevent genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity.

44

Absorption approach

(1) Solve the root causes of the economic issue of where countries absorb more they can produce
(a) Countries are poor because there is something wrong with their fundamental domestic economy

45

Washington Consensus

a set of 10 economic policy prescriptions considered to constitute the "standard" reform package promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries by Washington, D.C.–based institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank and United States Department of the Treasury.

46

Washington Consensus

a set of 10 economic policy prescriptions considered to constitute the "standard" reform package promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries by Washington, D.C.–based institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank and United States Department of the Treasury.

47

League on Nations

principles of territorial integrity and collective security

organizational precedent: council, assembly, secretariat. perm court of international justice

48

Washington Consensus

a set of 10 economic policy prescriptions considered to constitute the "standard" reform package promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries by Washington, D.C.–based institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank and United States Department of the Treasury.

49

The Hague System

a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at the international peace conference at the Hague in the Netherlands

the first formal multilateral treaties of the laws of war d war crimes in the body secular international law