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Flashcards in Final Deck (33):

Indian Removal Act

Who: 5 civilized tribes, Andrew Jackson, and Congress
What: negotiation with federal government to move the tribes west
Where: Southeast —> Indian territory (Oklahoma)
When: 1830
Why: Expansion of white settlement, Jackson defies the Supreme Court and moves the Native Americans without Supreme Court’s approval.


Nullification crisis

Who: John C Calhoun
What: principle that states can nullify federal laws (e.g. tariffs)
Where: South Carolina
When: 1832
Why: Jackson said that the union is supreme; South Carolina gets no support from other states.


Alexis de Tocqueville

Who: Frenchman
What: traveled to US, wrote a book “Democracy in America”
Where: North, South, West, cities, rural
When: 1830s
Why: He thought that democracy was limited by race and gender; contrast to Europe (democracy was real in America); European audience is broad; American nationalism.


Penny Press

Who: white urban working class
What: cheap newspapers - sensational, crime, and scandals
Where: 1830s
When: Created in NYC —> other cities
Why: This caused the literacy rates to increase, gave the average people access to information, start of journalism, and increase political participation of the working class.


Know Nothings

Who: nativist political organization: lower-middle class, Protestants, and skilled workers
nativist: hostility to foreign-both, preference for native-born
What: decrease immigrants, anti-Catholic
Where: New England
When: 1850s
Why: They caused a widespread belief/fear that immigrants were bad, and they were the political organization for anti-immigration.


Lowell System

Who: young, unmarried women (farmers’ daughters)
What: worked in factories; live in dorms; have curfews; make $ —> family
Where: Massachusetts
When: 1820s - 1840s
Why: Part of the Industrial Revolution, and was a solution to the labor shortage.


De Bow’s Review

Who: James De Bow (journalism/publisher)
What: magazine critical of South’s dependence on North/Europeans
Where: New Orleans (published in New York)
When: 1846-1880
Why: Southern awareness and resentment of Northern control


Task and Gang systems

Who: Slaves and their owners
What: Task: get your work done (rice, agriculture, tobacco) = free time; minimal supervision
Gang: groups work all day under supervision (cotton)
Where: Task: East Coast (South) - South Carolina and Georgia
Gang: Deep South (Cotton belt) - Alabama —> Texas
When: Task: 18th century
Gang: increases in 19th century
Why: Task: gives slaves autonomy; reduces likelihood of runaways
Gang: master controls more (food, clothes, punishment)


Hudson River school

Who: Painters, Cole and Church
What: Beauty of landscapes, romantic influence (wonder, fear, etc)
Where: Hudson River Valley, NY
When: mid-19th century
Why: It was a movement to help solidify American identity and pride.


Horace Mann

Who: educated Whig politician
What: created centralized/standardized school system
increased teacher schools
standard curriculum
Where: Massachusetts —> other states
When: 1837 - 1850s
Why: influential figure, his idea were adopted widely, his idea protected democracy throughout education


Manifest Destiny

Who: white Americans hoping to move westward
What: An ideology based on the idea that America was destined by God and by history to expand its boundaries as much as they can.
Where: Land purchased in the Louisiana Purchase
When: 1840s
Why: Increase in westward movement and American pride (nationalism); rise in idea of the superiority of the “American race” (white people of northern European origin); isolated other races in the region (Native Americans, Mexicans, etc).


Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Who: United States and Mexico; Polk sent presidential envoy Nicholas Trist to negotiate the treaty.
What: Mexico would cede California and New Mexico to the United States, and acknowledge the Rio Grande as the boundary of Texas. In return, the United States would assume any financial claims its new citizens had against Mexico and pay the Mexicans $15 million.
Where: California and New Mexico
When: Feb 2, 1848
Why: The United States gained a lot of new territory; sparked the debate of slavery again since those territories had to be assigned as free or slave.


Fugitive Slave Law

Who: fugitive slaves, southern slave catchers, northern public
What: a federal law that allows Southerners to come north to catch fugitive slaves, commissioners rule on cases ($5 if they are free, $10 if they are slaves), part of Compromise of 1850
Where: applied in free/northern states
When: 1850
Why: inflamed public opinion to see southerners come north to catch slaves in their states, part of the polarization of society leading up to Civil War


Lincoln-Douglas debates

Who: Lincoln (Republican) and Douglas (Democrat), 2 Republican candidates from Illinois for the U.S. Senate
What: Lincoln: said the union can’t be have slave, half free; personal rights of everyone need to be protected to ensure social mobility
Douglas: he didn’t care about slavery, and didn’t take an official opinion on it
Where: Various locations in Illinois
When: 1858
Why: Douglas won re-election, but Lincoln became a prominent voice in the Republican party. Douglas also alienated southern Democrats by refusing to take a stand on supporting slavery.


Emancipation Proclamation

Who: Lincoln —> slaves in states in open rebellion
What: freed slaves in states in open rebellion
Where: states in open rebellion, did not affect border states or areas under Union occupation
When: Jan 1, 1863
Why: Freed many slaves, and made the Union army an “army of liberation.”


Battle of Antietam

Who: Union vs Confederates
What: bloodiest day in history (23,000 casualties), Union victory
Where: Maryland
When: Sept 17, 1862
Why: convinced Britain and France decided to not get involved the Civil War; convinced Lincoln to issue Emancipation Proclamation; hurts Democrats in midterm electrons


March to the Sea

Who: William T. Sherman, Union army
What: army march to destroy South assets and morale
Where: Atlanta —> Atlantic Ocean
When: mid-late 1864
Why: “total” war, the beginning of the end of the Civil War



Who: Scalawags: white Southern Republicans, traitor to the South
Carpetbaggers: Northerners who came to South; opportunist, came to take advantage of South’s weakened state
What: critical terms of two different groups of people
Where: The South
When: 1865-1877
Why: This was part of the South’s interpretation of Reconstruction



Who: African Americans, poor whites, land owners
What: rent land with promise of share of your crops (⅓ - ½)
Where: rural South
When: late 19th - early 20th century
Why: It was the system that replaced slavery in the South, but it still exploited blacks.


Black codes

Who: Southern state legislators → black community
What: A set of laws - authorized local law officials to apprehend unemployed African Americans, fine them for vagrancy, and hire them out to private employers to satisfy the fine. Some of the codes forbade blacks from owning or leasing farms or to take jobs other than as plantation workers or domestic servants.
Where: The South
When: 1865 - early 1866
Why: Despite slavery being abolished, the South found loopholes in the law to oppress blacks and restrict their freedoms and rights in any way they could.


Thomas Swann Woodcock

Who: An English-born engraver who migrated to the US in 1830
What: Wrote a diary entry, detailing his trip from New York to Niagara falls as he travels with millions of other tourist, travel writers, merchants, and laborers also taking the Erie Canal route.
Where: New York → Niagara Falls
When: 1836
Why: His account gives an outsider’s perspective of the Industrial Revolution in America. Because he was an outsider, he was able to give a more objective opinion about it (not so attached like an American would be). He gave insight on the new would of commerce and culture during this time.


John Ross

Who: He was a mixed Cherokee and European man who fought as an officer under Andrew Jackson against the Creek Indians. He also owned a 300 acre plantation with 20+ slaves.
What: The US army forced the Cherokees to move from their home to Oklahoma. John Ross offered to lead his people to their new home. His account depicts that journey.
Where: Cherokee → Oklahoma
When: 1838
Why: His account sheds light on the brutal and exhausting journey it was for the Cherokee. Many starved or suffered from diseases and eventually died on the journey. Not only were they forced to move from their homes, they weren’t allowed to stop to rest for very long, resulting in many of them dying.


Harriet Jacobs

Who: A young slave woman who eventually escaped her slave life with her children.
What: Her account gave details of what her life was like as a young female slave.
Where: The South
When: 1861 (published)
Why: Her story gives historians a detailed insight into what the lives were like for female slaves. Her account is considered the “classic narrative of a woman slave,” and ranks with some of the autobiographies of Frederick Douglass.


Nat Turner

Who: A slave who hated the treatment of slave by white slave owners.
What: He banded together a group of slaves to go from home to home and slaughter slave owners and their families (50 deaths total).
Where: Virginia
When: Aug 21-26, 1831
Why: His rebellion was one of the most bloodiest slave rebellions to date, and this event created even more fear in the white slave owners. They became even more worried that their own slaves would rebel against them, and they created stricter rules to control their slaves. Although, this rebellion brought attention that slaves might be being abused by their masters.


Samuel and Rachel Cormany

Who: Samuel was a second lieutenant in the Union army while Rachel was a citizen who stayed home with their baby.
What: They both wrote diary entries about their lives during the Civil war
Where: Gettysburg, Virginia
When: 1863
Why: Their accounts give us an insight of what life was like for a Union soldier and a civilian during the Civil War. They expressed how not only were everyday people physically exhausted during this time, they were exhausted from the fear and uncertainty of the future.


US causes of US/Mexican War (6)

- the more land you had, the higher your social status
- idea of Manifest Destiny
- growing population of immigrants
- desire for Pacific trade
- tension with Great Britain, wanted to be able to trade with other countries
- opportunity for more slaves states (South's interest)


Mexico causes of US/Mexican War (5)

- political instability after independence
- difficulties with France
- underpopulated territories
- isolation from central government
- fear of losing more territory


Consequences of slavery debate from the US victory of the US/Mexican War

With the new territory gained in the victory, the topic of slavery came up again. It was proposed that the Missouri Compromise was extended to go through the new territories where slavery was allowed below that line but not above it. Another proposal suggested that the territories themselves could decide if they were a slave state or a free state. Politicians debated the different proposals but nothing was resolved before Polk left office.


When was the US/Mexican War?



Union war preparation (6)

- 2.1 million soldiers (22.5 million total)
- lower inflation
- centralized banking
- 3/4 taxable wealth
- access to navy
- international recognition


Confederacy war preparation (6)

- 850,000 soldiers (9 million total)
- higher proportion of West Point, military school grads, and officers
- US/Mexican war veterans
- hunting, riding, and shooting skills
- earlier mobilization
- home advantage


Outcomes of the Civil War (6)

- Lincoln assassinated 4/14/1865
- 4 million former slaves, economic and political status uncertain
- 650,000 to 750,000 dead
- political power went to the North
- Union forces sent to the South to keep them in line
- migrations west and north


When was the period of the Civil War and post-war Reconstruction?

War: April 14, 1861 to April 9, 1865
Reconstruction: 1863-1877