Final Definitions Flashcards Preview

Music History and Appreciation > Final Definitions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Definitions Deck (129):
1

Sequence

A pattern repeated at a higher or lower pitch

2

Diatonic

Chords builtt from the seven tones of a major or minor scale

3

Homophonic texture

A melody with accompanying harmony

4

Patronage

Sponsorship by the aristocracy or the church

5

Theme

A musical idea used as a building block in the construction of a composition

6

Thematic development

The expansion of a theme through varying its melodic outline, rhythm, or harmony

7

Motives

The smallest melodic or rhythmic units, composing a theme

8

Ostinato

A short, repeated musical pattern

9

Absolute music

Music with no program

10

Multimovement cycle

The three or four movement form favored by Classical composers

11

Sonata-Allegro Form

A movement form where drama is presented in two opposing keys through an exposition, development, and recapitulations

12

Exposition

First section of sonata-allegro. Presents the two opposing keys and their themes.

13

Theme group

A theme of several related ideas

14

Bridge

A transition into a different key

15

Development

Modulation between keys, the conflict of the movement. Builds tension before the return to the home key.

16

Recapitulation

Return to the first theme in the tonic

17

Coda

Closing ideas leading to a final cadence in the home key

18

Theme and Variation

A common form for second movements where the theme is stated the varied through the piece. Variation can be melodic, harmonic, or rhythmic.

19

Minuet and Trio

Two dances usually presented as the third movement of a Classical symphony.

20

De capo

"From the beginning;" refers to replaying the first section of the piece after the second section, as in A-B-A.

21

Rounded Binary Form

The return of the main theme at the end of each section of the minuet and trio

22

Scherzo

Literally "jest." Introduced as a replacement for the minuet by the anti-aristocratic Beethoven.

23

Rondo

A style based on the recurrence of a musical idea between contrasting episodes

24

String quartet

Two violins, a viola, and a cello

25

Divertimento and serenade

Light chamber genres played for evening occasions in the Classical period

26

Rocket theme

A quick, aggressive rhythmic theme rising from the lower to higher register

27

Steamroller Effect

A drawn out crescendo

28

Monothematic

A work or movement with a single theme

29

Modified sonata-allegro

A sonata-allegro movement with no development

30

Countermelody

A new melody arising after the main melody

31

Inversion

The turning of a motive or theme upside down

32

Cadenza

A virtuosic solo passage in the manner of improvisation towards the end of the movement

33

First-movement concerto form

Sonata allegro-form with a double exposition

34

Requiem

A mass for the dead

35

Secco

"Dry," with spare accompaniment

36

Opera seria

Serious or tragic Italian opera

37

Opera buffa, ballad opera, opera comique

Comic opera

38

Viennese School (first)

Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven

39

Folk song

Traditions songs and dances from native peoples

40

Exoticism

The interest in the music and culture of distant or foreign lands

41

Lied

A German solo art song, usually with piano accompaniment

42

Song cycle

A collection of art songs with a common theme

43

Through-composed form

A piece of music that proceeds from beginning to end with no repetition

44

Character piece

A short, lyrical piano work, the instrumental equivalent tp the song

45

Mazurka

A traditional Polish dance, famously composed by Chopin

46

Rubato

"Robbed time." Where certain liberties are taken with the rhythm without upsetting the basic beat.

47

Ring shout

An extended call-and-response fed by religious fervor practiced by black slaves in the US.

48

Pentatonic scake

A five note scale

49

Program music

Instrumental music with literary or pictorial associations

50

Incidental music

Music accompanying a play, often including an overture

51

Symphonic poem

A one movement programmatic orchestra work designed by Franz Liszt. Also called a "tone poem."

52

idée fixe

The "fixed idea," a recurring musical theme unifying a multi movement work. Famously used in Symphony Fantastique

53

Thematic transformation

The changing of a theme by altering the harmony, rhythm, meter, temp, etc.

54

Pedal point

A sustained pitch over which harmonies change

55

Bel canto

"Beautiful singing;" A hallmark style of Italian opera.

56

Singspiel

A light, comic drama (in German) with spoken dialogue

57

Melodrama

Scenes with spoken dialogue but striking orchestral accompaniment

58

Music drama

The Wagnerian understanding of opera as the "total work of art," with music, drama, art and poetry all masterfully commanded in the hands of a genius.

59

Leitmotif

Lit. "leading motive." A recurring theme throughout a work meant to indicate something.

60

Grand opera

A French style of opera focused on epic historical themes for propagandist purposes.

61

Naturalism

Based on the writings of Emile Zola, an art form focused on the realist and relatable rather than the wild or fantastic.

62

Habanera

A Cuban dance-song from Havana, showcased in "Carmen"

63

Verismo

Post-Romantic operatic trend. Focused on the realism, a progression of naturalist trends.

64

Whole-tone scale

A scale composed only of whole steps, with no half steps. Lacks the pull towards a tonic.

65

Part songs

Songs with three or four voice parts

66

Melodie

A late-Romantic French art song (self-consciously separate from the German lied)

67

Ballet

A French court dance that evolved to be part of scene transitions in French opera, and then into its own genre

68

Pas de deux

Lit. "Dance for two."

69

Impressionism

A movement in reaction to realism that desired to capture the emotion of moments through light rather than capturing a detailed picture

70

Symbolism

A movement that attempted to show things or ideas through suggestion rather than depiction

71

Futurism

Declared an alienation from established institutions and focused on the dynamism of the 20th century

72

Dadaism

Reacted to the horror of WWI by refusing to see art a something to be admired and making works of absurdity.

73

Surrealism

Explored the world of dreams

74

Cubism

Painting in geometric patterns (Embodied by Pablo Picasso)

75

Expressionism

German movement which tried to dig deep into the psyche and uncover its darkest tendencies

76

Second Viennese School

Arnold Schoenberg, Alban Berg, Anton Webern

77

Neo-Classical style

Return to the balance and order of the Classical era and to absolute music

78

Formalism

The valuing of the formal above the expressive

79

Avant-garde

The cutting edge of the artistic community, pushing the bounds of what is possible and/or permissible

80

Changing meter

The constant shifting of the metrical flow

81

Polyrhythm

The simultaneous use of several rhythmic patterns

82

Polychords

Highly dissonant chords of six or seven notes

83

Polyharmony

The playing of two or more streams of harmony against each other

84

Polytonality

The contrasting of two keys by presenting them simultaneously

85

Atonal music

Music with on tonic

86

Serialism

Refers to the twelve-tone system developed by Schoenberg, based on twelve chromatic notes in a "tone row."

87

Dodecaphonic

A Greek term meaning "twelve tone" sometimes used to refer to Schoenberg's system.

88

Transposed row

Same intervals, but different pitch

89

Inversion (tone row)

Movements of the rows notes in the opposite direction

90

Retrograde (tone row)

The arrangement of the pitches in reverse order

91

Retrograde inversion

Turns the row upside down and backwards

92

Sprechstimme

Speech-like melody

93

Klangfarbenmelodie

Tone-color melody

94

Total serialism

Webern's expansion on Schoenberg's idea of serialism to induce harmony, meter, timbre, etc.

95

Ethnomusicology

The study of musical in its cultural and global contexts

96

Vaudeville

A musical comedy show centered around making fun of immigrants

97

Tin Pan Alley

Turn of the century commercial music tradition, derived from a street in Manhattan

98

Strains

Regular sections from a march, each of which is repeated.

99

Ragtime

An African-American piano genre popularized by Scott Joplin

100

Blue notes

Notes in jazz/blues that focus on pitch blending

101

Scat-singing

An instrumental-like approach to singing

102

Chorus

A single statement of a melodic-harmonic progression

103

Swing/Big Band Era

The successor to jazz; primarily in the Depression era

104

Shakes

Shaking the lips to fluctuate between pitches

105

Bebop (Bop)

A jazz style characterized by fast tempos and complex harmonies.

106

Cool jazz

A laid-back style characterized by dense harmonies

107

West coast jazz

A small-group jazz form with contrapuntal improv

108

Riff

A short, melodic ostinato

109

Underscoring

Music that is outside the drama, coming from an invisible orchestra

110

Source music

Music within the drama

111

Rhythm and Blues (R&B)

A genre of dance music with its roots in jazz

112

Rockabilly

A combination of rock and roll with more "hillbilly," country themes

113

Soul

A blend of gospel, pop, and R&B

114

Motown

A black-owned record label from Detroit

115

Chance or aleatoric

Music which is based off a chance, like the rolling of dice

116

Musique concrète

Uses sounds made by any natural source and then recorded onto magnetic tape to create music

117

Tape music

Music built on musique concrete where music natural or electronic is recorded onto tape and then manipulated to create new music

118

Synthesizer

The second (but most widely used) electronic musical instrument

119

Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)

The program/means for talking to synthesizers and creating music

120

Glissandi

Where a pitch slides up and down through frequencies that lie between pitches in the standard Western scale

121

Flutter-tonguing

Moving the tongue quickly as if rolling and R while blowing into an instrument to create a distinctive sound

122

Process music

The repetition of a simple musical idea over and over with gradual change and variation

123

Phase music

Playing of tape music (usually) at different speeds to the music moves in and out of sync

124

Polyrhythm

A style of music where each musician plays a unique rhythm

125

Minimalism

A musical style which favors consonant harmonies and simple melodies that are combined and recombined over long periods of time

126

Tintinnabulation

Shimmering, bell-like timbres

127

Spiritual minimalism

A branch of minimalism focused on spiritual themes

128

Microtones

Tones in smaller than half steps

129

Drones

Continuous pitches held while other musical lines interweave