Flashcards in Final Definitions Deck (129):
A pattern repeated at a higher or lower pitch
Chords builtt from the seven tones of a major or minor scale
A melody with accompanying harmony
Sponsorship by the aristocracy or the church
A musical idea used as a building block in the construction of a composition
The expansion of a theme through varying its melodic outline, rhythm, or harmony
The smallest melodic or rhythmic units, composing a theme
A short, repeated musical pattern
Music with no program
The three or four movement form favored by Classical composers
A movement form where drama is presented in two opposing keys through an exposition, development, and recapitulations
First section of sonata-allegro. Presents the two opposing keys and their themes.
A theme of several related ideas
A transition into a different key
Modulation between keys, the conflict of the movement. Builds tension before the return to the home key.
Return to the first theme in the tonic
Closing ideas leading to a final cadence in the home key
Theme and Variation
A common form for second movements where the theme is stated the varied through the piece. Variation can be melodic, harmonic, or rhythmic.
Minuet and Trio
Two dances usually presented as the third movement of a Classical symphony.
"From the beginning;" refers to replaying the first section of the piece after the second section, as in A-B-A.
Rounded Binary Form
The return of the main theme at the end of each section of the minuet and trio
Literally "jest." Introduced as a replacement for the minuet by the anti-aristocratic Beethoven.
A style based on the recurrence of a musical idea between contrasting episodes
Two violins, a viola, and a cello
Divertimento and serenade
Light chamber genres played for evening occasions in the Classical period
A quick, aggressive rhythmic theme rising from the lower to higher register
A drawn out crescendo
A work or movement with a single theme
A sonata-allegro movement with no development
A new melody arising after the main melody
The turning of a motive or theme upside down
A virtuosic solo passage in the manner of improvisation towards the end of the movement
First-movement concerto form
Sonata allegro-form with a double exposition
A mass for the dead
"Dry," with spare accompaniment
Serious or tragic Italian opera
Opera buffa, ballad opera, opera comique
Viennese School (first)
Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven
Traditions songs and dances from native peoples
The interest in the music and culture of distant or foreign lands
A German solo art song, usually with piano accompaniment
A collection of art songs with a common theme
A piece of music that proceeds from beginning to end with no repetition
A short, lyrical piano work, the instrumental equivalent tp the song
A traditional Polish dance, famously composed by Chopin
"Robbed time." Where certain liberties are taken with the rhythm without upsetting the basic beat.
An extended call-and-response fed by religious fervor practiced by black slaves in the US.
A five note scale
Instrumental music with literary or pictorial associations
Music accompanying a play, often including an overture
A one movement programmatic orchestra work designed by Franz Liszt. Also called a "tone poem."
The "fixed idea," a recurring musical theme unifying a multi movement work. Famously used in Symphony Fantastique
The changing of a theme by altering the harmony, rhythm, meter, temp, etc.
A sustained pitch over which harmonies change
"Beautiful singing;" A hallmark style of Italian opera.
A light, comic drama (in German) with spoken dialogue
Scenes with spoken dialogue but striking orchestral accompaniment
The Wagnerian understanding of opera as the "total work of art," with music, drama, art and poetry all masterfully commanded in the hands of a genius.
Lit. "leading motive." A recurring theme throughout a work meant to indicate something.
A French style of opera focused on epic historical themes for propagandist purposes.
Based on the writings of Emile Zola, an art form focused on the realist and relatable rather than the wild or fantastic.
A Cuban dance-song from Havana, showcased in "Carmen"
Post-Romantic operatic trend. Focused on the realism, a progression of naturalist trends.
A scale composed only of whole steps, with no half steps. Lacks the pull towards a tonic.
Songs with three or four voice parts
A late-Romantic French art song (self-consciously separate from the German lied)
A French court dance that evolved to be part of scene transitions in French opera, and then into its own genre
Pas de deux
Lit. "Dance for two."
A movement in reaction to realism that desired to capture the emotion of moments through light rather than capturing a detailed picture
A movement that attempted to show things or ideas through suggestion rather than depiction
Declared an alienation from established institutions and focused on the dynamism of the 20th century
Reacted to the horror of WWI by refusing to see art a something to be admired and making works of absurdity.
Explored the world of dreams
Painting in geometric patterns (Embodied by Pablo Picasso)
German movement which tried to dig deep into the psyche and uncover its darkest tendencies
Second Viennese School
Arnold Schoenberg, Alban Berg, Anton Webern
Return to the balance and order of the Classical era and to absolute music
The valuing of the formal above the expressive
The cutting edge of the artistic community, pushing the bounds of what is possible and/or permissible
The constant shifting of the metrical flow
The simultaneous use of several rhythmic patterns
Highly dissonant chords of six or seven notes
The playing of two or more streams of harmony against each other
The contrasting of two keys by presenting them simultaneously
Music with on tonic
Refers to the twelve-tone system developed by Schoenberg, based on twelve chromatic notes in a "tone row."
A Greek term meaning "twelve tone" sometimes used to refer to Schoenberg's system.
Same intervals, but different pitch
Inversion (tone row)
Movements of the rows notes in the opposite direction
Retrograde (tone row)
The arrangement of the pitches in reverse order
Turns the row upside down and backwards
Webern's expansion on Schoenberg's idea of serialism to induce harmony, meter, timbre, etc.
The study of musical in its cultural and global contexts
A musical comedy show centered around making fun of immigrants
Tin Pan Alley
Turn of the century commercial music tradition, derived from a street in Manhattan
Regular sections from a march, each of which is repeated.
An African-American piano genre popularized by Scott Joplin
Notes in jazz/blues that focus on pitch blending
An instrumental-like approach to singing
A single statement of a melodic-harmonic progression
Swing/Big Band Era
The successor to jazz; primarily in the Depression era
Shaking the lips to fluctuate between pitches
A jazz style characterized by fast tempos and complex harmonies.
A laid-back style characterized by dense harmonies
West coast jazz
A small-group jazz form with contrapuntal improv
A short, melodic ostinato
Music that is outside the drama, coming from an invisible orchestra
Music within the drama
Rhythm and Blues (R&B)
A genre of dance music with its roots in jazz
A combination of rock and roll with more "hillbilly," country themes
A blend of gospel, pop, and R&B
A black-owned record label from Detroit
Chance or aleatoric
Music which is based off a chance, like the rolling of dice
Uses sounds made by any natural source and then recorded onto magnetic tape to create music
Music built on musique concrete where music natural or electronic is recorded onto tape and then manipulated to create new music
The second (but most widely used) electronic musical instrument
Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)
The program/means for talking to synthesizers and creating music
Where a pitch slides up and down through frequencies that lie between pitches in the standard Western scale
Moving the tongue quickly as if rolling and R while blowing into an instrument to create a distinctive sound
The repetition of a simple musical idea over and over with gradual change and variation
Playing of tape music (usually) at different speeds to the music moves in and out of sync
A style of music where each musician plays a unique rhythm
A musical style which favors consonant harmonies and simple melodies that are combined and recombined over long periods of time
Shimmering, bell-like timbres
A branch of minimalism focused on spiritual themes
Tones in smaller than half steps