Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (30)
What are the social constraints on development?
societal and cultural beliefs, attitudes, and stereotypes can encourage or discourage motor behaviors - pervasive group attitudes, values, and customs
Which parent will most influence the behavior of the children of both sexes?
- fathers tend to reinforce gender typing in boys
- same-sex parents may be more influential
- girls seemed to need a higher level of encouragement from their families to become involved in physical activities, than boys.
Socializing agents are:
family, peers, coaches and teachers
Social situations are:
games, play environment and toys
Personal attributes are:
perceived sport ability
Which socializing agents affect the motor development of a young adult?
Peers provide a strong influence for group activities, including team sports and non sport clubs
refers to culturally defined sociological characteristics used to differentiate between males and females
requiring equal opportunity for girls and women in sports.
influential or important people called socializing agents
knowing factual information
knowing how to do something in accordance with specific rules
knowing general rules or strategies that apply to many topics
What socializing agent most influences sports and physical activity across the life span?
Parents' early involvement could lead to a lifetime of participation in physical activities for a child
Novice - Expert Differences
- have more declarative & procedural knowledge
- organize info in a methodical structure
- make more inferences, predictions in sport
- analyze problems at a more advanced level
- recognize patterns more quickly
- preplan some responses to specific situations
- organize knowledge relative to the goal of the game
- individuals become experts in specific sports or dance forms
What are the 3 main reasons to why performance would be related to size of knowledge base?
- Reduces the need to remember a great deal of info in the short term
- Allows more effective use of cognitive processes
- Reduces the amount of conscious attention needed to perform some tasks
What is the order of the development of knowledge?
What is responsible for children's slower cognitive processing needs?
Central functions (attention, memory, and response selection) account for children's slower processing speeds
What is responsible for older adults slower cognitive processing needs? And what kinds of actions are more likely to slow down?
The central nervous system functions are more responsible
- choice reaction time slows relatively more than simple reaction time
- slowing in more pronounced on more complicated tasks
is the ability to exert force
At what age does there start to be a difference in strength between girls / boys?
Boys and girls are similar in strength levels until age 13 years
After puberty, what occurs after a strength training program is initiated?
increase in muscle mass are associated with resistance training
At what age does strength gradually decline in adulthood?
strength generally declines gradually after the 30's
What are the factors that contribute to the loss of muscle with aging?
some of the factors include changes in fiber types, nervous system and vascular system
can increase strength with training without an increase in muscle size
constant resistance, as in lifting a barbell
constant speed of movement, as with a Cybex machine
if exerted against immovable resistance (without a change in muscle length - wall sits)
When do adults tend to lose their flexibility
after age 50
degenerative, chronic disease of the joints