Final Exam Flashcards Preview

Human Growth & Motor Development > Final Exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (30)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are the social constraints on development?

societal and cultural beliefs, attitudes, and stereotypes can encourage or discourage motor behaviors - pervasive group attitudes, values, and customs

2

Which parent will most influence the behavior of the children of both sexes?

- fathers tend to reinforce gender typing in boys
- same-sex parents may be more influential
- girls seemed to need a higher level of encouragement from their families to become involved in physical activities, than boys.

3

Socializing agents are:

family, peers, coaches and teachers

4

Social situations are:

games, play environment and toys

5

Personal attributes are:

perceived sport ability

6

Which socializing agents affect the motor development of a young adult?

Peers provide a strong influence for group activities, including team sports and non sport clubs

7

Gender

refers to culturally defined sociological characteristics used to differentiate between males and females

8

Title IX

requiring equal opportunity for girls and women in sports.

9

Significant others

influential or important people called socializing agents

10

Declarative

knowing factual information

11

Procedural

knowing how to do something in accordance with specific rules

12

Strategic

knowing general rules or strategies that apply to many topics

13

What socializing agent most influences sports and physical activity across the life span?

Parents' early involvement could lead to a lifetime of participation in physical activities for a child

14

Novice - Expert Differences

Experts:
- have more declarative & procedural knowledge
- organize info in a methodical structure
- make more inferences, predictions in sport
- analyze problems at a more advanced level
- recognize patterns more quickly
- preplan some responses to specific situations
- organize knowledge relative to the goal of the game
- individuals become experts in specific sports or dance forms

15

What are the 3 main reasons to why performance would be related to size of knowledge base?

- Reduces the need to remember a great deal of info in the short term
- Allows more effective use of cognitive processes
- Reduces the amount of conscious attention needed to perform some tasks

16

What is the order of the development of knowledge?

1. declarative
2. procedural
3. strategic

17

What is responsible for children's slower cognitive processing needs?

Central functions (attention, memory, and response selection) account for children's slower processing speeds

18

What is responsible for older adults slower cognitive processing needs? And what kinds of actions are more likely to slow down?

The central nervous system functions are more responsible
- choice reaction time slows relatively more than simple reaction time
- slowing in more pronounced on more complicated tasks

19

Strength

is the ability to exert force

20

At what age does there start to be a difference in strength between girls / boys?

Boys and girls are similar in strength levels until age 13 years

21

After puberty, what occurs after a strength training program is initiated?

increase in muscle mass are associated with resistance training

22

At what age does strength gradually decline in adulthood?

strength generally declines gradually after the 30's

23

What are the factors that contribute to the loss of muscle with aging?

some of the factors include changes in fiber types, nervous system and vascular system

24

Prepubescents

can increase strength with training without an increase in muscle size

25

Isotonic

constant resistance, as in lifting a barbell

26

Isokinetic

constant speed of movement, as with a Cybex machine

27

Isometric

if exerted against immovable resistance (without a change in muscle length - wall sits)

28

When do adults tend to lose their flexibility

after age 50

29

Osteoarthritis

degenerative, chronic disease of the joints

30

Osteoporosis

disorder causing porous and brittle bones