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Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (38)
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1

Spontaneous Movements

movements not caused by known external stimuli
* Neurological
- squirm, thrust their arms or legs

1

Primitive Reflex; Name the 4 different ones

Involuntary response to specific stimulation which is often mediated by lower brain centers.
- Symmetrical Tonic Neck
- Asymmetrical Tonic Neck
- Palmar Grasping
- Moro

2

Reflexive

stereotypical responses elicited by specific external stimuli

4

Postural Reactions; Name the 2

Help the infant automatically maintain posture in a changing environment (begins around 4 months)
- Derotative Righting
- Parachute

4

Describe the symmetrical tonic neck reflex

extend head and neck; flex head & neck
--> arms extend, legs flex; arms flex, legs extend

5

What are the locomotor reflexes?

- Stepping
- Swimming
- Crawling

6

Describe the asymmetrical tonic neck reflex

Turn head to one side --> same side arm & leg extend (suspine/back)

7

Describe the palmar grasping reflex

touch palm with finger or object --> hand closes tightly around object

8

Describe the derotative righting reflex

turn legs & pelvis to other side --> trunk and head follow rotation

9

Describe the moro reflex

stimulus = shake head --> arms, legs & fingers extend; then arms and legs flex

10

Describe the parachute reflex

Lower infant toward ground rapidly --> legs extend

11

Describe the swimming reflex

place infant is water --> swimming movement of arms and legs

12

Describe the stepping reflex

place infant on flat surface --> walking pattern in legs

13

Self-esteem

ones personal judgement of his or her own capability, signifcance, success and worthiness; it is conveyed to others through words and actions

14

Self-esteem and its two subdivisions are ...

- Social Interactions
- Emotions

15

Some self-esteem social interactions are ...

- parental appraisal
- comparison with others
- teacher or coach feedback

16

Some self-esteem emotions ...

- enjoyment
- pride, excitement with success
- disappointment, stress with failure

17

Casual Attributions

reasons to which people credit their successes and failures. these differ for people with high and low self-esteem
- Internal
- Stable
- Controllable & in contrast ...
- External
- Unstable
- Uncontrollable

18

Internal Attributions

believing that they influence outcomes through their own behavior

19

Stable Attributions

that the factors influencing outcome are consistent from situation to situation

20

Controllable Attribution

believing that they personally control the factors influencing outcome

21

In contrast ...

.

22

External Attributions

believing they could not change outcomes

23

Unstable Attributions

believing outcome is a product of fluctuating influences such as good and bad luck

24

Uncontrollable Attributions

believing that nothing your do could result in a different outcome

25

What are the rate limiters for early development?

strength support & balance

26

Describe the labryinthine righting reflex

stimulus; tilt infant --> head moves to stay upright

27

Motor Milestones

a fundamental motor skill whose attainment is associated with the acquisition of later voluntary movements. The order in which an infant attains these milestones is relatively consisted, although the timing differs among individuals

28

What is the probable order of motor milestones?

- 2 months; lifts head
- 3 months; lifts shoulders
- 5 months; rolls over - sits unsupported
- 7 months; gets on hands & knees
- 8 months; creeps on hands & knees
- 9 months; pulls to stand; cruises furniture
- 10 months; stands alone
- 12 months; walks alone

29

Define walking

first form of upright, bipedal