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1

administrative law judge

official who presides over quasi-judicial proceedings within government agencies and renders decisions about disputes governed by statuses, such as appeals from denials of Social Security disability benefits

2

adversarial system

Legal system by the US and other countries in which a judge plays a relatively passive role as attorneys battle to protect each side's interest

3

affirmative action

measures taken in hiring, recruitment, employment and education to remedy past and present discrimination

4

appeal

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5

associate justice

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6

bench trial

a judge presides without a jury. the judge makes determinations of fact and law

7

bicameral

legislature composed of two houses (in the government and in the states except Nebraska)

8

brief

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9

Brown v. Board of Education

overturned plessy v ferguson

10

bully pulpit

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11

cabinet

a group of presidential advisers, primarily the secretaries of federal departments. The size has varied through the years, but lately it has been composed of roughly 20 members

12

cert

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13

chief justice

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14

civil liberties

individual freedoms and legal protections guaranteed by the Bill of Rights that cannot be denied or hindered by the gov.

15

Civil Rights Act of 1964

prohibited racial discrimination in public accommodations

16

civil service system

A government employment system in which employees are hired on the basis of their qualifications and cannot be fired merely for belonging to the wrong political party

17

clear and present danger test

allows gov. regulation of some expressions

18

circuit court of appeals

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19

cloture

rule that ends filibuster
If 2/3 of senators vote for it, then filibuster is ended (60 votes)

20

commander in chief

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21

concurring opinion

appellate court opinion by judge who endorses the outcome decided by the majority of judges, but wants to express different reasons to justify the outcome

22

conference committee

works out differences between the two chambers to create a single bill
Goal: to find common ground to create bills

23

Committee on Rules

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24

court packing plan

FDR's unsuccessful proposal to permit appointment of additional justices to the SC

25

courts of last resort

the highest courts in each American court system, typically called supreme courts, that hear selected appeals from the lower courts

26

de facto segregation

segregation assumed to occur through peoples personal choice

27

de jure segregation

segregation mandated by laws and policy officials

28

delegate model

legislator should adhere to the will of their constituents

29

dissenting opinion

appellate court opinion explaining the views of one or more judges who disagree with teh outcome of the case as decided by the majority

30

double jeopardy

being tried twice for the same crime, prohibited by the 5th amendment