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Thomas Aquinas’ conviction of the divine sanction of the papacy led him to insist what?

Submission to the pope was necessary for salvation.


What did Aquinas teach to support the practice of indulgences that had gained prominence during the crusades? (I.e. how did he logically justify indulgences?)

The church has access to a "treasury of merit" thanks to the work of Christ and the meritorious deeds of the saints.


What did the Waldenses have in common with other reformation movements? What made the Waldenses different from other reformation movements?

1. Both were evangelical "back-to-the-Bible" movements
2. Waldenses emphasized the ascetic life as a means of salvation; Reformers emphasized the grace of God as a means of salvation.


What three weapons did the Catholic Church have at its disposal against “heretics”?

1. Preaching to return them to the truth
2. A crusade to crush all hardened resistance
3. The inquisition to uproot heresy completely


What was Dominic’s strategy for reaching the Albigenses?

To win the heretics, Dominic went forth among them as a poor man, barefoot and begging.


The Inquisitors were subject to no law, only _______. In 1252 they were even given the right to _______ as a means of getting information and confessions from accused heretics.

The pope.


What was the Babylonian Captivity of the papacy?

This is the removal of the papacy to Avignon.


What is the Great Papal Schism and what led up to it?

1. Two popes. Urban in Rome and Clement in Avignon.
2. The Babylonian Captivity.


When and how did the Great Papal Schism come to an end?

1417, the council of Constance chose a new pope, Martin V.


By what standard did Wyclif judge the Roman Church?



What traditional doctrine did Wyclif attack that resulted in him losing much support?



What did John Hus believe the council of Constance would be? What did it actually turn out to be?

Hus thought he was going to present his views to the council, but instead it was an inquisition that determined his fate.


What verse led to Martin Luther’s “revelation”?

Romans 1:17


What was Luther’s opinion on indulgences?

He argued that indulgences:
1. Cannot remove guilt
2. Do not apply to purgatory and
3. Are harmful because they induce a false sense of security in the donor.


How did Luther answer the four basic Catholic concerns?

a. Salvation → Not by works but by faith alone
b. Religious authority → Not in the institution of the Roman church but in the Word of God (Scripture)
c. Church → The whole community of Christian believers (since all are priests before God)
d. Christian living → Serving God in any useful calling, whether ordained or lay


Anabaptists preferred "Baptists" as a designation. But to most, baptism wasn't the most fundamental issue. What was?

The nature of the church and its relations to civil governments.


What was the decision of the Zurich council on March 7, 1526?

Anyone found rebaptizing would be put to death by drowning.


What was the Munster rebellion and how did it affect Europeans’ view of Anabaptists?

a. The Munster rebellion was an uncharacteristic attempt by the Anabaptists to defend themselves against the Bishop of the region who tried to besiege the city. Jan of Leiden, an extreme leader, took charge, claiming new revelations from God. He practiced polygamy, took the title "King David", lived luxuriously, and yet maintained moral in spite of widespread hunger. On 24 June 1535 the bishops army broke in and the city fell.
b. For centuries thereafter Europeans associated the term "Anabaptist" with the Muster rebellion. It stood for wild-eyed, religious fanaticism.


When the Anabaptist movement was finally able to unite and decide on its beliefs, what were the four major beliefs it adhered to?

a. The walk with God is characterized by discipleship and personal experience.
b. There was a strong love ethic toward God and neighbor.
c. They had a congregational view of church authority.
d. They insisted on complete separation of church and state.


What was Calvin’s central doctrine?

The sovereignty of God's will


How did the Act of Supremacy affect the relationship between Henry VIII and the pope? How did Henry's doctrine change?

a. This document called for a breach with Rome, establishing the Church of England with the King as its head.
b. The doctrine of the Catholic Church was modified, but it was not altered radically.


What theological shift occurred when Henry’s only son, Edward, became king? Why?

a. The official English policy to shift in a Protestant direction.
b. Edward was only 10, so a group of advisors who were partial to the Protestant movement held royal power.


Why did the swing to Protestantism come to a sudden halt in England after King Edward?

Because Mary, the next monarch, was devoutly Catholic and tried to lead England back to the ways of Rome. She is known by the name "Bloody Mary" because she sent nearly 300 Protestants, including Archbishop Cranmer, to the burning stake.


What was Queen Elizabeth’s successful strategy for achieving religious peace?

Elizabeth wrote Thirty-Nine Articles that were essentially Protestant (ex. Bible = final authority; only two sacraments), but many were worded in a way that would satisfy both Catholics and Protestants. Many Catholic elements to worship were kept. It was seen as the best of both worlds.


What is the marked difference between the 16th century and the 17th century?

The acceptance of religious differences.


What war is considered the transition from the “Age of Reformation” to the “Age of Reason”?

The Thirty Years War (1618-1648)


What was the outcome of the Thirty Years War?

Neither the Catholics nor the Protestants could win and men began to question the territorial idea. Denominationalism was an alternative.


What are the four fundamental truths articulated by the Dissenting Brethren of Westminster for the denominational theory?

a. Considering man's inability to always see the truth clearly, differences of opinion about the outward form of the church are inevitable
b. Even though these differences do not involve fundamentals of the faith, they are not a matter of indifference. Every Christian is obligated to practice what he believes the Bible teaches.
c. Since no church has a final and full grasp of divine truth, the true Church of Christ can never be fully represented by any single ecclesiastical structure.
d. The mere fact of separation does not of itself constitute schism. It is possible to be divided at many points and still be united in Christ.


How did the view of man in the Reformation differ from the view of man in the Age of Reason?

The Reformation saw man as fallen from grace and fully helpless without God's grace. The Age of Reason had a confidence in man and a positive estimation of man's potential.


In the first part of the eighteenth century, instead of trying to harmonize nature and Scripture they did what? And what did they believe about the Bible?

a) They simply set aside revelation.
b) The parts that contradict reason – the myths, miracles, and priestly mumbo jumbo – are simply untrue (and the parts that agree with reason are unnecessary).


What did the deists believe about God?

They believed in a "supreme being" that does not interfere with the great cosmic machine.


What led to the collapse of deism?

Its own weakness: It was based on a false optimism.


What are the two aims of Pietists?

a) The importance of personal faith.
b) Wanted to shift the center of the Christian life from the state churches to intimate fellowship of those who had a living faith in God.


Who became the first large-scale Protestant missionary force in history?

The Moravians


What are some of the contributions Pietism made to Christianity worldwide?

(at least 2)
a) They shifted emphasis from avid controversy to the care of souls
b) It made preaching and pastoral visitation central concerns of the Protestant ministry
c) It enriched Christian music enormously
d) It underscored the importance of a spiritual laity for a revived church


What was Pietism's dominant theme?



What three regions were significantly changed by the Evangelical Awakening and how was each impacted?

a) Germany → Pietism
b) British Isles → Methodists
c) American colonies → the Great Awakening.


What was the purpose of John Wesley's “Holy Clubs”, and what did they do?

a) The Holy Clubs sought to make their lives conform to the lives of the early church fathers.
b) They met for self-examination and helped the poor and sick.


Whose beliefs did Wesley carry from the Awakening [sic. Reformation] into his own time and what was this belief?

a) Arminius
b) Arminianism: God wished all men, not just the elect, to be saved.


What were the societies which rose up in response to Wesley's preaching called?



What was Wesley’s impact beyond the Methodist Church?

a) It renewed the religious life of England and her colonies.
b) It elevated the life of the poor.
c) It stimulated missions overseas and the social concerns of evangelicals in the nineteenth and twentieth century’s.


What is one reason that later Americans came to hate the Puritans?

They attempted to legislate morality. (Americans valued personal freedoms above character in society).


What does it mean that “The Great Awakening knew both the frown and smile of God”?

It restored both the tears of repentance to colonial Christianity and the joy of salvation.


Give the name and brief description of Jonathan Edward’s most famous sermon?

a) Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.
b) He described God holding men over the flames in the way that one held a loathsome spider over a candle. He speculated on how it would feel to have the searing agony of a burn drawn out through eternity. He told listeners that the ground beneath their feet was a rotten flooring over a blazing pit, ready to give way in seconds.


What makes the year 1870 significant?

a) The end of the earthly rule of the pope.
b) The declaration of papal infallibility


What does ex cathedra mean and what major question does it raise?

a) The expression means “from the chair.” i.e. the official teaching role within the Church.
b) Can the pope alone, without council, decide and proclaim dogma?


What are the reasons that Carey gained the title “Father of Modern Missions”?

(at least 3)
a) He introduced Christians to missions on a grander scale.
b) He thought in terms of the evangelization of whole countries, and of what happens when whole populations become Christian
c) He held that the foreign missionary can never make more than a small contribution to the accomplishment of the work that has to be done, and therefore that development of the local ministry is the first and greatest of all missionary considerations.
d) Above all, he saw that Christianity must be firmly rooted in the culture and traditions of the land in which it is planted.


What were the general characteristics of the western inhabitants reached by the Second Great Awakening?

Rugged, wild, and boisterous.


List the criticisms against the revival put forth by the Lutherans, Presbyterians, Roman Catholics and Episcopalians.

a) Many Lutherans and Presbyterians felt that they slighted sound doctrine.
b) Roman Catholics and Episcopalians considered them emotional eruptions, not true worship.


What was the third and most direct assault on Christianity?

Higher criticism (of the Bible)


What shift did Puritanism make in the assurance of salvation?

It went from a sacramental base of assurance to an experiential base of assurance.


How did the Moravians find their sense of assurance of salvation?

They meditated on the wounds of Christ.


What was Wesley's belief about entire sanctification?

He believed that sanctification is a process that occurred over the life of a Christian by the grace of God, but perfection is attainable. A Christian could be filled with God's love and therefore be perfect. They may still sin but they will not willfully sin against God. This all overflows from the love of God.


How did Wesley's ideas about sanctification pave the way for Pentecostalism and the doctrine on the Baptism of the Holy Spirit?

A man named John Fletcher relabeled Wesley's idea about a second work of grace (sanctification) as "the baptism of the Holy Spirit" and emphasized the power of God in the experience more than the holiness of God. He dreamed of a day when God would restore the Church to the spiritual glory seen at Pentecost.


What three views of the Holiness Experience emerge?

1. The Wesleyan-Palmer View - second blessing for holiness
2. The Keswick View - second blessing is a baptism of the Spirit for works of service
3. The Third Blessing View - combination of the first two


How did the Pentecostal Movement start?

First there was a "Pentecosalization" of the Holiness Movement that began with the Second Great Awakening. Then Charles Fox Parham, a methodist pastor, started The Apostolic Faith and spread the teaching of the Baptism of the Holy Spirit with evidence of tongues, which a man named William Seymour picked up spread around the world with Azusa Street.


What are the distinguishing beliefs of the Latter Rain movement?

1. The Laying on of Hands
2. Manifestations of the Spirit
3. Prophecy (corporate and personal)
4. Five-fold Ministry
5. Davidic Worship
6. Local Church Autonomy
7. Restoration of the Church


Who was Dennis Bennett?

An Episcopalian priest who led the Charismatic Movement that revitalized Pentecostalism and opened the door for charismatic activity in the old mainline denominations.