Final Exam Flashcards Preview

Endocrinology > Final Exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (76)
Loading flashcards...
0

Who created a model for "stress adaptation"?

Han Selye

1

What are the three layers of the adrenal cortex?

Zona Glomerulosa
Zona Fasciculate
Zona Reticularis

2

What does the zona glomerulosa produce?

Aldosterone- a mineralocorticoid responsible for long term BP

3

What is the functions of Aldosterone?

renal reabsorption of sodium and excretion of hydrogen and potassium ions

4

What does control of secretion for aldosterone?

ACTH- adrenocorticotropic hormone- or corticotropin released by the anterior pituitary
Angiotensin II - most powerful- causes vasoconstriction and subsequent increase in BP

5

What is the function of the Zona Fasciculate?

Primary- metabolism of glucose
secondary- increase metabolism

6

What is produced in the Zona Reticularis?

Androstenedione- precursor to testosterone
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

7

What is the function of the adrenal medulla?

Secretes catecholamines (Epinephrine/adrenaline and Norepinephrine/noradrenaline)

8

What is the chemical class for epinephrine & norepinephrine?

mono-amino-acid derivatives

9

What is the control of secretion for epinephrine & norepinephrine?

ACTH, STH, T4, Blood glucose, Blood pressure

10

What adrenal disorder is derived from hyposecretion of the adrenal gland?
Hypersecretion?

Addison's disease
Cushing's disease

11

What is the cause of Addison's disease?

too little Cortisol and Aldosterone

12

Symptoms of Addison's disease

weight loss, decreased appetite, hyperpigmentation, salt craving, muscle or joint pain, body hair loss or sexual dysfunction

13

Signs of Addison's disease

darkening areas of skin

14

What is the function of androgens?

libido and a sense of well being in both males and females

15

What is the cause of Addison's disease (primary and secondary)?

Primary adrenal insufficiency- adrenal cortex is damaged
Secondary adrenal insufficiency- pituitary gland diseased. Corticosteroids used for treatment (tx)- Asthma

16

What is the cause of Cushing's disease?

too much cortisol

17

Symptoms of Cushing's disease

thinning of skin, bruising, high BP, puffy face- moon face, buffalo hump (back of neck/shoulders), face puffy and rounded

18

what is the function of the kidneys?

regulates BP (maintain sodium and water)
controls thirst
produce 1,25 dyhydroxyvitamin D3, Erythropoietin, Renin

19

How is thirst controlled?

receptor cells in hypothalamus activate when hypertonic conditions and secrete hormones
blood volume increases pressure in atria activating stretch receptors

20

What hormones control renal function?

ADH, Renin-Angiotensin, Parathyroid Hormone, Aldosterone

21

Function of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)?

control blood pressure/ blood volume
reabsorption of water directly from renal tubules by acting on epithelial cells of distal renal tubule

22

Another name for ADH?

Vasopressin

23

Purpose of ADH?

Limits water lost in urine by reabsorbing to plasma thus increasing sodium/water concentration in urine

24

Where is aldosterone made?

adrenal gland- zona glomerulosa
it is a mineralocorticoid

25

What is the most abundant hormone from the zona glomerulosa?

aldosterone

26

What is the function of aldosterone?

sodium and water reabsorption

27

What causes an increase is secretion of aldosterone?

blood potassium levels increase

28

What will an increase in sodium reabsorption cause?

an increase of fluid in the blood

29

What is the acronym for Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System?

RAAS