Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (76)
Who created a model for "stress adaptation"?
What are the three layers of the adrenal cortex?
What does the zona glomerulosa produce?
Aldosterone- a mineralocorticoid responsible for long term BP
What is the functions of Aldosterone?
renal reabsorption of sodium and excretion of hydrogen and potassium ions
What does control of secretion for aldosterone?
ACTH- adrenocorticotropic hormone- or corticotropin released by the anterior pituitary
Angiotensin II - most powerful- causes vasoconstriction and subsequent increase in BP
What is the function of the Zona Fasciculate?
Primary- metabolism of glucose
secondary- increase metabolism
What is produced in the Zona Reticularis?
Androstenedione- precursor to testosterone
What is the function of the adrenal medulla?
Secretes catecholamines (Epinephrine/adrenaline and Norepinephrine/noradrenaline)
What is the chemical class for epinephrine & norepinephrine?
What is the control of secretion for epinephrine & norepinephrine?
ACTH, STH, T4, Blood glucose, Blood pressure
What adrenal disorder is derived from hyposecretion of the adrenal gland?
What is the cause of Addison's disease?
too little Cortisol and Aldosterone
Symptoms of Addison's disease
weight loss, decreased appetite, hyperpigmentation, salt craving, muscle or joint pain, body hair loss or sexual dysfunction
Signs of Addison's disease
darkening areas of skin
What is the function of androgens?
libido and a sense of well being in both males and females
What is the cause of Addison's disease (primary and secondary)?
Primary adrenal insufficiency- adrenal cortex is damaged
Secondary adrenal insufficiency- pituitary gland diseased. Corticosteroids used for treatment (tx)- Asthma
What is the cause of Cushing's disease?
too much cortisol
Symptoms of Cushing's disease
thinning of skin, bruising, high BP, puffy face- moon face, buffalo hump (back of neck/shoulders), face puffy and rounded
what is the function of the kidneys?
regulates BP (maintain sodium and water)
produce 1,25 dyhydroxyvitamin D3, Erythropoietin, Renin
How is thirst controlled?
receptor cells in hypothalamus activate when hypertonic conditions and secrete hormones
blood volume increases pressure in atria activating stretch receptors
What hormones control renal function?
ADH, Renin-Angiotensin, Parathyroid Hormone, Aldosterone
Function of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)?
control blood pressure/ blood volume
reabsorption of water directly from renal tubules by acting on epithelial cells of distal renal tubule
Another name for ADH?
Purpose of ADH?
Limits water lost in urine by reabsorbing to plasma thus increasing sodium/water concentration in urine
Where is aldosterone made?
adrenal gland- zona glomerulosa
it is a mineralocorticoid
What is the most abundant hormone from the zona glomerulosa?
What is the function of aldosterone?
sodium and water reabsorption
What causes an increase is secretion of aldosterone?
blood potassium levels increase
What will an increase in sodium reabsorption cause?
an increase of fluid in the blood