Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (59):
What is hunger?
Feeling of discomfort or weakness caused by a lack of food, coupled with the desire to eat.
What is hidden hunger?
Lack of vitamins and minerals, which do not necessarily show obvious physical symptoms (e.g. anemia).
According to FAO’s Declaration on World Food Security at the World Food Summit in Rome in 1996, what is the definition of food security?
Food security affects all people, at all times, and implies physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food, taking into account dietary needs and preferences to provide individuals with an active and healthy life.
What is food insecurity?
Limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods,
limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways. Food insecurity is not necessarily the lack of food security.
What are the three types of environments that affect food security? Give examples for each
Physical Environment: climate change, soil degradation, water scarcity, lack of infrastructure
Social Environment: inequalities in land distribution, conflict, dependence
Policy Environment: lack of budget allocation to fight hunger, unstable food markets, political instability
What are the three capitals that affect food security?
Financial Capital: when insufficient, impacts on agricultural production
Human Capital: when insufficient, illiteracy and taboos
Social Capital: when insufficient, weak social network
What is the primary determinant of food insecurity?
What are possible consequences of food insecurity?
- Insufficient, low-quality diet with poor utilization
- Undernutrition and obesity (double-burden?) and chronic diseases
- Depression and conflicts
What is the double-burden of food insecurity?
The co-existence of undernutrition and obesity within the same household, community, or country.
What did the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 state in terms of the right to food?
“Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and his family, including food…” Health was at the center of this statement, but not food.
What is the ICESCR?
A legally-binding agreement, ratified by over 150 countries, which states that everyone possesses the right to adequate food and the fundamental right to be free from hunger.
What three things must the states that have ratified the ICESCR do?
- Respect: cannot take measures that prevent people to access food
- Protect: must prevent others from interfering
- Fulfill: must create conditions for effective realization
Why is the right to adequate food a concern for ALL members of society? Name four reasons.
- Legal Obligations: many countries have ratified the ICESCR
- Economic Reasons: hunger, malnutrition, and poverty have economic and social costs
-Political Reasons: politicians who implement the right to food are more popular among voters
-Ethical Reasons: since we have knowledge and resources, it would be unethical not to act
Who is at the center of concern in the Right to Adequate Food Approach? Who is called for responsible action?
- Vulnerable groups are the center of concern.
- All members of society are responsible, including the private sector.
What is short-term food insecurity? What is long-term food insecurity? How may they be overcome?
- Chronic Food Insecurity is long-term or persistent, which may be overcome with measures that address poverty (ex: education).
- Transitory Food Insecurity is short-term or temporary, which may be overcome by planning and developing resilience.
What are the four pillars of food security? Provide examples of what they imply.
- Access: food prices, road density
- Availability: food production
- Utilization: food preparation, diversity of the diet
- Stability: weather conditions, political instability
What are the four types of stability?
SEEP (social, economic, environmental, and political)
What two factors determine the nutritional status of individuals?
- Sufficient energy and nutrient intake (good care and feeding practices, food preparation, etc.)
- Good biological utilization of food consumed
What are the four methods to measure food security?
- Food Balance Sheets (FAO method)
- Adequacy of dietary intake
- Child nutritional status (anthropometric indicators)
- Food Insecurity Experience Scale (Voices of the Hungry)
What does the Voices of the Hungry measure?
People’s experience with food insecurity
In the Spears’ article concerning India, what contributes to 35 to 55% of stunting?
Other than diet and cuisine, why do we eat what we eat?
- Social environment
- Socioeconomic status
Differentiate stunting and wasting. What do they indicate? What is underweight?
- Stunting is defined as being short of height for age, which illustrates chronic undernutrition.
- Wasting is defined as being low weight for height, which illustrates acute undernutrition.
- Underweight is defined as being low weight for age.
What is the impact of alternative definitions of the minimum dietary energy requirements?
FAO calculates the minimum dietary energy requirement based on SEDENTARY activity, which provokes an underestimation of the value, as not everyone is sedentary. If the activity was increased to a “regular” level, then the minimum dietary energy requirements would rise such that 1.5 billion people would be calculated as undernourished in terms of energy.
Which agencies were implicated in the State of Food Insecurity and Nutrition in the World (2017)? What did they indicate in terms of undernourishment?
FAO, IFAD, WFP, UNICEF, and WHO
In 2015, 777 million people were undernourished, which rose to 815 million people in 2016.
What is the key driver in the increase in undernourishment? What measures must be done to address this issue?
- The key driver are conflicts, which are exacerbated by climate-related shocks.
- Addressing food insecurity must be done in a conflict-sensitive approach that provides immediate humanitarian assistance, long-term development, and the sustainability of peace.
What was the goal in terms of undernourishment at the World Food Summit in 1996? Did they reach their goal?
The goal was to decreased undernourishment by half the
NUMBER in 2015 (target was 500 million).
The number was 780 million in 2015, so the goal was not reached.
Which region has the highest number of undernourished people? Which region has the highest percentage of undernourished people?
Highest number: Asia
Highest percentage: Africa
What are the components of IFPRI’s GHI? What is the weight of each component? What is the issue with this composition?
- Undernourishment (1/3)
- Child mortality (1/3)
- Wasting (1/6)
- Stunting (1/6)
The issue is that a decrease in child mortality masks a possible increase in undernourishment, as they are weighed the same. Thus, countries seem to always be increasing, but this is not a good message to pass along.
What are the components of the Economist’s Global Food Security Index?
- Food quality and safety
What were the Millenium Development Goals developed in 2000? What were the Sustainable Development Goals developed in 2015?
The Millenium Development Goals were to be achieved by 2015: eradicate hunger and extreme poverty (grouped together).
The Sustainable Development Goals are to be achieved by 2030: no poverty and zero hunger (two separate goals).
Differentiate the characteristics of mild, moderate, and severe food insecurity.
Anxiety and worry about the uncertainty in the food supply (mild).
Budget restrictions affect the quality of the food supply (mild/moderate).
Budget restrictions affect the quantity of the food supply (moderate/severe).
Presence of hunger (severe).
What type of household has the highest prevalence of food insecurity in the United States?
Single women with children (30%)
Name four risk factors for food insecurity in Canada.
- Gender: females exhibit larger rates of food insecurity
- Area of residence: individuals in rural regions are more food insecure
- Employment: unemployed individuals are more food insecure
- Civil status: single individuals are more food insecure
- Education: educated individuals are less food insecure
According to UNICEF, what is the main cause of child mortality in the world?
The main cause is undernutrition. Other causes are mainly due to infectious diseases, in which undernutrition may exacerbate the symptoms.
What are the two immediate causes of malnutrition?
What are the three underlying causes of malnutrition?
- Inadequate household food security
- Inadequate care
- Inadequate services and unhealthy environment
What are the two basic causes of malnutrition?
- Lack of capital: financial, human, physical, social, and natural
- Social, economic, and political context
What was the Determinants of Food Insecurity of Australian Children determined from?
Based on interviews with Australian individuals concerning the challenges they were facing in terms of food insecurity. Each component gained weight by the number of statements received. The largest component was a lack of nutrition knowledge and cooking skills.
What are the five layers to the determination of health?
- Constitutional factors
- Individual lifestyle factors
- Social and community networks
- Living and working conditions
- General socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental conditions
What are the four factors that increase the risk for foodborne diseasees?
- Low levels of biosecurity
- High-risk of pathogens
- Lagging governance systems
What is the multi-dimensional poverty assessment?
- Poverty is usually measured by income or expenditure.
- The multi-dimensional assessment incorporates the ability of people to have access to housing, food, health, employment, and education.
What is the triple burden of food insecurity? What is the quadruple burden of food insecurity?
- Triple burden incorporates unsafe foods to undernutrition and obesity.
- Quadruple burden incorporates micronutrient deficiencies.
Which countries have the highest rates of obesity?
Small-island countries, which rely largely on importation because their food production systems are utilized for the tourist industry.
What are the three types of food categories?
- Core foods
- Secondary foods
- Peripheral foods
Name four possible consequences of food insecurity.
- Malnutrition is costly, both on family budgets and on GDP.
- Food insecurity may lead to malnutrition in children, causing stunting or wasting, affecting their health.
- Food insecurity is linked to an increased prevalence of obesity.
- Food insecurity may lead to hidden hunger (micronutrient deficiencies) due to a lack of healthy, nutritious, foods.
Name four commitments of the World Food Summit Plan of Action.
- Prevent and be prepared for natural disasters and man-made emergencies.
- Policies aimed at eradicating poverty; access to sufficient, nutritionally adequate and safe food.
- Political, social, and economic environment most conductive to achieving sustainable food security for all.
- Implement, monitor, and follow-up this plan.
What must governmental organizations keep in mind when designing methods to improve food security?
They MUST ask for the input of individuals experiencing food insecurity. Growth needs to involve and reach the poor.
What are the three main strategies against undernutrition?
- Food-based strategies
- Global public health and disease control measures
Name four food-based strategies against undernutrition. Which one is the most sustainable approach to prevent micronutrient deficiencies?
- Increase food production
- Improve dietary diversity
- Food fortification (biofortification) - most sustainable approach to prevent micronutrient deficiencies
- Nutrition education
Name four of the seven high-priority policy actions to eradicate food insecurity.
- Invest in human resources
- Improve markets, infrastructure, and institutions
- Promote good governance
- Expand appropriate research, knowledge, and technology
Name four pathways to reshape the global food system.
- Invest in agricultural research and development
- Fix the fundamentals (marketing, infrastructure)
- Empower women in linking agriculture to nutrition
- Improve food safety
What is a food desert?
A food desert is a region that has limited access to affordable and nutritious food.
What is El Niño?
Natural event that takes place in the Pacific Ocean, which may cause important climate effects throughout the world (ex: droughts or heavy rainfall). El Niño is the warm phase, while El Niña is the cold phase.
Which region in Canada is the most food secure, and which is the least?*
Nunavut is the least food secure, and Alberta is the most food secure.
Which populations are the most at risk for food insecurity? Name four.**
Single women with children
Individuals living in rural areas
Ability of people, communities or systems that are confronted by disasters or crises to withstand damage and to recover rapidly.
The potential of shocks and stresses to affect a population.