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Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (26)
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What is virginity?

There is medical definition diagnostic standard for it
-too subjective to define
-“women are still being judged on something that doesn’t really exist”-JV
-“it is a sham being perpetrated against women”-JV
-it is almost synonymous with women and is all about women
-it’s people that have political and social influence that decide what virginity means and assess value to it ( men or male-led institutions)
-engrained in patriarchy and male ownership
-women who have sex are considered “damaged goods” they were something to be owned/traded/bought/sold (women’s sexuality as a commodity)
-it is being used to roll back women’s rights at the core of the purity myth
(Women are defined by their virginity/sexuality)


What are examples of abstinence only slut shaming (shaming unmarried sex)
-virginity for sale

-virginity vouchers (little cards to go in wallet as a reminder not to have sex)
-gold rose pin
-diamond-virginity is like a precious diamond that should be locked with a chain and key
-purity balls


What is the purity myth (lie or virginity)

Is ensuring that young women’s perception of themselves is defined by their sexuality. That their ability to be good people depends on whether or not they are sexually active
-their only real worth is their virginity and ability to remain “pure”
-their bodies and sexuality make them valuable (women should be sexy but not sexual), women are often caught between messages about sexualization and abstinence


What is the virginity movement?

Assigns a value to virginity/sexuality (especially for girls)
-uses modernized definitions of purity, morality and sexuality to try and keep women pure while rolling back their rights and enforcing traditional gender norms
-this movement involves a number of forces- media, society-Driven virginity fetish, abstinence-only sex Ed- to create unrealistic sexual expectations for young women who are unable to live up to the ideal of purity that’s forced upon them
-gay people don’t exist in the virginity movement


What are the 2 main approaches to sexual education

1. Abstinence only education- much more dangerous in terms of health outcomes (this education does not work-ACRJ)
2. Comprehensive sex education-emphasis remained on abstinence only approaches but has some instruction about safe sex focusing on pregnancy and disease prevention-still excludes many people
(Neither is ideal)


What is sexual assault

Any kind of sexual contact without mutual consent


What is consent defined by mta

-between two adults
-voluntary, unimpaired or conscious agreement
-no deception or fraud


What is sexual harassment

Vexatious/troublesome comment or conduct of a sexual nature that is known or ought reasonably to be known unwelcome


What are some examples of how people are decolonizing sex and its misrepresentation? -praxis example

-creative resistance(use media and the arts as opportunities to push back the misrepresentations and reclaim/restore knowledge about our bodies, sexuality, gender identities and better incorporate this knowledge within communities)
> indigenous feminist condom cases-a way to talk about sex and sexuality on our own terms
>beaded condoms and other contraceptive devices- encourage youth to talk about and interact with safer sex materials in culturally safe ways
-promots discussion and dialogue and de stigmatize the usage of condoms
-Yee says that decolonizing sex is central to self determinism


What is feminist sex Ed?

Provides clear and accurate info about the body and about sex
-includes a range of bodies and orientations
-empowers people to make informed decisions (what's right for them and the potential consequences that may be wonderful or not)
-gives clearing of what consent means
*praxis example -fighting back from the systemic oppression that institutionalizes abstinence only sex Ed and the purity myth
-decolonizing sex is central to to self determination (free choice of ones own acts without external compulsion)


How does Jessica Yee argue that colonialism shaped ideas about sex and sexuality

-turned it into something taboo, dirty, wrong and not sacred like it was for the Indigenous prior to colonialism (it was a powerful and normal part of human life)
-it served the ties between the Indigenous and the knowledge they receive that enables them to make informed choices about their sexual health and relationships (they now don't want to go near the topic of sex)
-Praxis example> knowing and reclaiming indigenous history through sex Ed -decolonizing sex-that gives the right to self determinism to youth of colour
(Education is the key to effecting positive change)


How do Asian Communities for Reproductive Justice p(ACRJ) define reproductive justice what does sexually education justice aim to teach?

Reproductive justice exists when all people have the social, political, and economic power and resources to make healthy decisions about gender, bodies, sexuality, and families for ourselves and our communities
-Holistic (all inclusive)
-aim to transform power inequalities and create long term systemic change
-praxis example in that it fights back against the government systems and institutions that create a sexual education that excludes or leaves out certain people (LGBTQ, disabled, communities of colour and immigrants) and that doesn't go beyond a deficit based disease and pregnancy prevention framework (doesn't recognize sexuality as a natural part of human development)
-youth(peer education), parents(break silence and fear about talking about sexuality) and organizations can
-talks against the idea that sex is dirty, taboo, and secret


What are some of the influences of image-based society/commodity system that jhally describes
(Sell feelings and emotions over

1. On gender identity and sexuality
-ads draw heavy upon gender display in which gender(especially for women) is defined almost exclusively along the lines of sexuality (distorts our perceptions)
2. Electoral politics
-politics is not about issues; it's about feeling good or feeling bad about a candidate- and all it takes to change this is a 30 second video
3. Toys and childhood
>children's imaginative play has been a target of marketing strategy in that play is more imitation than imagination and there's a growing divide between girls and boys toys
4. Image saturation/popular cultural forms
> video makers are in the same position as ad makers in terms of trying to get attention for their messages and making it visually pleasurable. The visuals are chosen for their ability to sell


How is there sexism in the media (also racism?)

-men are twice as likely to have speaking roles in films as women (women are underrepresented on screen across the ecosystem of popular fictional content
-females were more likely than males to be sexualized or seen in sexy attire
-fee films they looked at had gender balanced roles
-most actors and directors or producers are white and male (privileged and heterosexual)
-ads don't direct,y cause violence against women but they normalize dangerous attitudes and create a climate where women are seen as things or objects-and turning a human being into a thing is the first step in justifying violence against that person-objectification
-media literacy is being taught in schools
-ads people see today lack ethics and are violating women's rights by sexuality objectifying them
-ads are an invasion of our minds and thus shape the image of women in the society
-results in eating disorders and low self esteem issues


How does the media often portray Disney women
*Sharon lamb and Lyn Mikel brown

-skinny, small waist and big hips(Barbie doll bodies)
-needs rescuing
-they mother and do housework
-have lovely voices
-no support systems (no girl friends and very little family)
-can't resist a mirror
-gossips and chatterbox's
-incomplete without a man (a girl can't live a life of bravery unless in the end she assumes her rightfully place and marries-Mulan)
-innocent (ones that aren't innocent are the ones that men flirt with but don't marry)
- the powerful Disney women are evil and ugly(usually vengeful and jealous of the Disney girl)
-if Disney girl recognizes male power then she is rewarded with a place in his world


What is partipulation?

"Advertising is not simple manipulation, but what ad-maker Tony Schwartz calls 'partipulation', with the audience participating in its own manipulation " -Sut Jhally
-advertizing plays on our weak points, continues to show us what could be better, where improvements are needed (but we will never be perfect, there will always be improvements and we will therefore keep buying)
-they provoke an unhappiness that you might try and fill with their product
-jhally shows us however that people's happiness are not fundamentally connected to goods, it is primarily social life and not material life
Therefore if goods themselves are not the locus of perceived happiness, they need to be connected in some way with the things that are.
-the marketplace cannot offer the real thing but it can offer visions of it connected with the purchase of products
-people buy the product because of its attractive desire rather than facts about the product
Ex. Axe commercials/ads


What is sexualization?

To make something sexual in character or quality, or become aware of their sexuality, especially in relation to men and women(heterosexual)
-linked to sexual objectification(


What is neoliberalism

It is an economic theory associated with changes after World War II: a retreat from the liberal social democracy of the years following WWII (many programs/ supports were formed like social welfare and healthcare support after the war)
-belief that the main function of government was to make the world safe and predictable for the participants in a market economy
-often only benefits minority of people
-belief in free market
-western corporations benefit from cheap labour(exploit the poor) in poor countries who have to adopt neoliberal policies


What are The main four features of contemporary neo- liberalism

1. "Free" trade (of both goods and capital)
-presumes that all things are equal but they're actually pretty costly for some
2. Opposition to government regulation
-of such aspects of production of wages, working conditions and environmental protections
-seen as an obstacle to making money
-removal of tariffs
3. Refusal of state responsibility for social welfare
- polices are being limited or eliminated altogether or made harder to attain. ex.parental leave wage will be much lower and harder to qualify for also may not be for a long time
-reductions in government spending an hour to Hantz the role of the private sector in economy
4. Emphasis on resource privatization
-public services are turned into profit making enterprises and natural resources are opened up for commercial exploration in the global market
-if healthcare is privatized and we clearly see that those with my money you have more health care (but healthcare should be a right not a commodity)


What is globalization (Jaggar)

Refers broadly to any system of trans continental travel and trade
- contemporary globalization is distinguished by its integration of many local and national economies into a single global market regulated by the world trade organization
-exploits women of the global south and woman of colour through labour exploitation including sex work
-economic globalization as a form of oppression is closely linked to patriarchy, capitalism and colonialism
-we see intensification of violence where there is exploitation of labour


What are structural adjustment programs/policies

-intended to protect economic development, facilitate repayment of loans. Many countries had little or no choice but to sign onto essay do any countries found them selves much more worse off.
Implanted following economic crises
-implanted is a condition of receiving loans from the IMF and WB
-evaluation of local currency to attract the foreign capital, emphasis on export production, lower tariffs, cuts to government programs and services, public services become privatized and not available to everyone but to those who have money and reduce environmental and employment standard protections


What is capitalism

Economic and political system in which a countries trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state


What is colonialism

The policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers and exploiting it economically


What are some of the interlocking systems of oppression in globalization -what are their impacts?

-colonialism, capitalism and patriarchy
>through globalization these systems are intensified
-globalization represents the continuation of colonialism with the use of more sophisticated methods such as the WB, WMG and the WTO
(The direct exploitation of dispensable bodies for profit, whether in export processing zones, homeworking and sex slaves-expanded the exploitation of labour to bodies, especially female, in its dependence on cheapened labour of women)
-globalization is sexualized and racialized (seen by the sexual and physical abuse against indigenous women in Canada) marginalized
-consequence of this colonialism (seeking to erase identities and cultures) forces many indigenous women into dangerous or vulnerable situations such as extreme poverty, homelessness or prostitution (gendered racial violence)
-colonial relations are gendered and sexualized and sexual violence functions as a tool of racism and colonialism, not merely as a means of patriarchal control
-masculinization of power, economic and military power as well as glorification of tough, aggressive masculinity is acted out in sexual violence against indigenous women
-to escape poverty and violence many go into sex work where the superiority of white male masculinity can be expressed and reinforced through violence
-colonization forms the material conditions for capitalism (expropriation of new resources, labour and market)
-capitalism(or colonialism)cannot function without patriarchy which is the invisible underground of the visible capitalist system
-patriarchal gender violence is the process by which colonizers inscribe hierarchy and domination on the bodies of the colonized
-each of these systems or structures is predicted on violence, whether direct interpersonal or structural, economic
-capital accumulates by maintaining relations of exploitation, domination and violence between men and women but also by exerting patriarchal control over the "inferior" whether it be women, indigenous people or the environment


What is agency

The individual capacity for action, self determination or response
-usually associated/exercised with individuals
-using all the cracks and fissures in a system of oppression to rebel
Ex. interviews by Marion talks about Marie who stands up for her rights in the maquiladora and tells the supervisor that they don't have a right to yell at you and tells others about organizing
Ex. The women from the film Migrant Dreams go to the police and report the hash living and working conditions of migrant program and how their being exploited
Ex. Guante fights against societies construction of masculinity in his spoken word in 10 responses to the phrase man uph
Ex. I am not your princess-indigenous women depends to be called by name
Ex. Indigenous women Lynn Gehl and Sharon Maclvor fight against the Indian act and the right of their treaties as aboriginal women.q
Ex. Self representation (publishing of these things is praxis in that it creates awareness and movements can be started)


What is praxis

A term used to signal the intertwining of theory and action
-aims to reflect on and forward feminist knowledge
-often fused with praxis
-encourages responsibility, reciprocity and accountability( owning up to inequality)
-Marie starts with agency acts and spreads knowledge to others and helps in creating a movement for fighting for women's and workers rights
-Sette encourages her students to go out in the community, self reflect and self location
Education not just about reading textbooks but about reading the community one lives in (action education for social change)-students learn to become much more of the solution for inequalities,racism and poverty
-RebELLEs poem- going against systems of oppression
-Leanne Simpson(how to steal a canoe) -every word she speaks in her language is regenerated back into this world
-break the silence(it is only through speaking that we can put praxis into play)