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Flashcards in Final exam Deck (102):
1

What is the self according to James

self as two major components
- existential self
- categorical self

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Existential self

the subjective "I" who experiences the world

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Categorical self

the objective "me" seen and evaluated in the world

4

Self according to Harter

the self as a broad concept that can be divided into 3 distinct but interrelated elements
- Self-knowledge (self-awareness)
- Self-evaluation (self-esteem)
- Self-regulation (self-control)

5

Self schema

an internal cognitive portrait of the self used to organize information about the self

6

Selman's 5 stages of self-awareness
Cognitive-developmental approach

Level 0 (infancy)
Level 1 (Early childhood)
Level 2 (middle childhood)
Level 3 (preadolescence)
Level 4 (adolescence)

7

Selman's level 0

Infancy
children understand their physical existence but
don’t display an awareness of separate psychological existence

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Selman's level 1

Early childhood
Child separates psychological states from behaviour; thoughts can control actions

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Selman's level 2

Middle childhood
The self can be hidden from others but cannot be hidden from oneself

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Selman's level 3

Preadolescence
Self represents a stable component of personality

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Selman's level 4

Adolescence
Self cannot ever be completely known

12

Bandura's theory of self

Self evolves from self-efficacy and self-regulation
Environmental/learning approach

13

Self-efficacy

A person's perception of his or her ability to succeed at various tasks

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Evaluative self reactions

Consequences people apply to themselves as a result of meeting (or not) personal standards
- motivates children to behave in accordance with their internal standards

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Bowlby's attachment theory

Responsive care-giving can influence self-development
evolutionary and biological approach

16

When did self-consciousness emerge?

Some hominids (I.e. orang-utans & chimpanzees) and possibly dolphins exhibit some self-recognition

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How does self-awareness contribute to adaptation?

Self-awareness is thought to have evolved as part of living in complex social groups - allows us to understand the mental state of others

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What is the neurobiological source of self-awareness?

Some aspects of self-awareness may be encapsulated in modules in the brain (prefrontal areas)

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Sociocultural approach to the self

- The self develops through participation in cultural practices, customs and institutions.
- the delineation between self and other has a more diffused boundary in non-Western cultures

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Culture + self

cultures vary in
1) the age @ which an individual is defined as a "person"
2) possible incarnations of the "self" in time and space
3) in notions of the "ideal" self

Cultural perceptions of self begin early

21

Self-knowledge: perception

Infants can imitate adult facial expressions
- 3 m.o. infants perceive their own Motor control

22

Personal agency

child understands that he/she can have an impact on the world

- early indicator of this awareness is infant actions on things (toys) in their environment
- the more sensitive and responsive the parents, the more quickly infants come to understand their own influence on the environment

23

Visual self recognition

3 months: can discriminate still images of self vs. others
- prefer to view image of other
5 months: when still images are altered so cheeks have a mark on them, looking preference changes
- more time spent looking @self

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Mirror self-recognition/The Mark test (Gallup, 1970)

children who pass this test understand that a spot on the forehead relates to them (shown by reaching response)
** recognition of the self in photographs occurs several months after mirror self-recognition

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Variability of visual self-recognition

- correlation between difficult temperament and earlier self-recognition
- secure attachment is correlated with self-recognition, sense of personal agency, and awareness of personal physical characteristics
- maltreated or abused children are less securely attached and display later self-recognition

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Self-description
Piagetian - preoperational

Early childhood
Focus on physical characteristics, possessions, preferences
"I have freckles"
"My cat is white"

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Self-description
Piagetian - concrete operations

Middle and later childhood
Focus on behavioural traits and abilities, emotions, category membership
"I'm a good singer"
"I'm a happy kid"

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Self-description
Piagetian - Formal operations

Adolescence
Focus on attitudes, personality attributes (sometimes opposing or associated with different roles), beliefs
"I'm patriotic"
"I'm not a quitter"

29

Cultural continuity

A variety of variables related to autonomy and opportunities to maintain First Nations culture
a protective factor against suicide
Basically culture as a developmental aid and identity factor

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Self-esteem

a person's assessment of and feelings about the self
- cognitive judgment of ability and talent
- affective reactions (shame, pride)

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Looking-glass self

individual's beliefs about how others feel about us

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Competence view

self-esteem as a combination of what we would like to achieve and our confidence in achievement

33

Self-evaluation

evaluations and effects of self-esteem are most often measured through questionnaires
Harter uses a questionnaire to assess self-evaluations in each of 5 domains: scholastic, athletic and social competence, behavioural conduct and physical appearance

34

Developmental progression of self-esteem

Self-esteem scores are relatively stable during childhood - relatively high in preschoolers and young children
@ age 11/12 scores can dip due to:
- development of excessive self-consciousness
- biological changes during puberty
- moving schools

35

Gender differences in self-esteem

Self esteem across domains:
- greater variability in girls
- girls feel more positively in the conduct domain, but more negatively in the domains of physical appearance and athletic performance

Development course of self-esteem
- beginning in middle to late childhood, boys report higher global self-worth than girls

36

Academic self-concept

the part of self-esteem involving children's perceptions of their academic abilities

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Mastery-oriented pattern

Achievement motivation and attribution (Carol Dweck)

children who, in the face of failure, express positive expectations and persist at the task

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Helpless pattern

Achievement motivation and attribution (Carol Dweck)

those who response to failure with doubt and avoidance

patterns of persistence or helplessness evident in 4 year olds

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Entity model of intelligence

Achievement motivation and attribution (Carol Dweck)

intelligence is seen as fixed or unchangeable quantity

40

Incremental model

Achievement motivation and attribution (Carol Dweck)

intelligence is believed to be expanded with learning and experience

41

Criticism & academic self-concept

Achievement motivation and attribution (Carol Dweck)

Factors:
- how caregivers respond to successes or failures influences the development of attribution patterns
- criticism that focuses on stable traits has a negative effect
- criticism that focuses on situation-specific efforts results in mastery orientation, as does praise for efforts

42

Social comparisons

a comparison of one's abilities to those of others
- by 2nd grade, a child's level of self-eval is + correlated with frequency of social comparison
- high achievers compare more
- bidirectional effect

43

Parental style effects on academic self-concept

- parental attitudes, expectations and behaviours strongly predict children's self-perceptions
- through participation in school activities and helping children w/ learning activities
- by providing structure and assistance tailored to child's academic ability
- proving autonomy support

**warm supportive fathers facilitate the development of high academic self-concept

44

Emergence of self-control

children learn how to control their own behaviours
- to avoid dangerous objects (hot stove)
- to wait for gratification (cookie after dinner)
- to change non-effective strategies (bargaining rather than screaming for a toy)

*A common aspect of all theories of self-regulation is that at first, children are externally controlled and that control becomes internalized over time

45

Compliance

Going along with requests or adopting standards of behaviour

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Committed compliance

when a child embraces the caregiver's agenda and internalizes their instruction

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Situational compliance

when the child cooperates but does not involve any behavioural change in the child
- often temporary

48

Resistance to temptation

- forbidden toy technique
- examines how long children will resist a common to avoid a forbidden toy
- older children are more able to wait
- observing an adult inhibit behaviour in a similar situation, making self-inhibitory statements, or developing inhibitory strategies can help children resist temptation

49

Delay gratification

Child is given 2 choices:
- small reward that is available now
- larger reward available later

-both younger and older children are more likely to delay when producing irrelevant statements
- reducing attention paid to tempting object facilitates delay
*delay scores predict SAT scores and BMI 30 years later

50

Theory of mind

the individual imputes mental states to himself and to others (either to conspecifics or to other species as well). A system of inferences of this kind is properly viewed as a theory, first because such states are not directly observable, and second because the system can be used to make predictions, specifically about the behaviour of other organisms.
Premack & Woodruff

51

Associationism

- familiarity with sequence --> sequence completion

- follow-up experiment with novel sequences (e.g. trying to play a phonograph that is not plugged in)

52

Theory of Mind (ToM)

imputes states of mind to the human actor (intention/purpose, knowledge/belief)

53

False belief understanding

An indicator that the child differentiates between mind and world, and that someone can have a belief that differs from reality

54

Development of ToM
Progression

Progression from reasoning about desires to reasoning about beliefs and hidden emotions

Important cultural differences

Diverse desire>Diverse belief>Knowledge access>False Belief>Hidden Emotion

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Nativist Interpretation of infant FB data

- 15 month olds already possess (at least in rudimentary and implicit form a representational theory of mind
-children are born with an "abstract computation system"
- innate, modular "theory of mind mechanism

56

Minimalist interpretation of infant false belief data

- infants are following behaviour rules (e.g. "a person will look for an object where she put it"
- statistical learning (innate)

57

Precursors of ToM

- joint attention and gaze following
- intention-reading
- imitation
- pretend play
- use of internal state language e.g. "I think" "I feel"
- perspective-taking

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Empathy

ability to vicariously experience another's emotional state - can be observed in infants (cry when hearing another infant cry)

59

Sympathy

feelings of concern for another - is related to children's ability to understand other's mental states

60

Prosocial behaviours

socially desirable behaviours, include helping, sharing, and conflict resolution
**moral emotions (ex. empathy & sympathy) are the roots of prosocial behaviours

61

Hoffman's Six Stages

Stage 1

Global empathic distress

First precursor to empathy - infants cry reactively upon hearing the cries of other infants

62

Hoffman's Six Stages

Stage 2

Egocentric empathic distress
(11-12 months)

Second precursor to empathy - respond to distress by comforting themselves

63

Hoffman's Six Stages

Stage 3

Quasi-egocentric empathic distress
(18-24 months)

Beginning of sympathy; offer help but in the way they would want to be helped/comforted

64

Hoffman's Six Stages

Stage 4

Veridical empathy
(~3 y.o.)

Understand that other people have inner states that can be different than their own; offer more appropriate help and comfort

65

Hoffman's Six Stages

Stage 5

Empathic distress beyond the situation (middle childhood)

Mature empathy; can empathize with individuals imagined to have generally unpleasant/difficult lives

66

Hoffman's Six Stages

Stage 6

Empathy for distressed groups (adolescence)

High level of empathy; can empathize with the plight of groups of people

67

Helping

- toddlers comfort those in distress
- infants (18 months) help others to achieve goals
- increases with age

incomplete action, identify obstacle, how to overcome
- emerges around 14 months in simple situations (out of reach)
**more complex helping depends on cognitive and social development
-even very young children have a natural tendency to help other persons solve their problems, even when the other is a stranger and receive no benefit

68

Sharing

Emerges by the end of the first year
- more likely to share with friends and those who have given them help in the past

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Conflict resolution

Goes from coercion to negotiation
- resolve conflict both verbally and nonverbally

70

Determinants of prosocial behaviour
BIOLOGY

Genes influence prosocial development through temperament

71

Determinants of prosocial behaviour
AFFECT

empathetic distress

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Determinants of prosocial behaviour
COGNITION

prosocial reasoning, and children's mental state understanding

73

Determinants of prosocial behaviour
SOCIALIZATION

Parents contribute to children's prosocial development by:
- providing opportunities to practice prosocial behaviours
- communicating prosocial values using inductive techniques
- modelling and reinforcing prosocial behaviours

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Morality

involves issues of right and wrong, good and evil

3 facets: AFFECT, COGNITION & BEHAVIOUR

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Moral rules

broad issues of fairness and justice

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Social conventional rules

rules used by society to maintain order

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Moral reasoning studies

assess the thought processes that underlie morality

78

Moral conduct studies

Assess behaviours governed by morality

79

Social-cognitive developmental approaches

mose concerned with children's moral reasoning
advances in moral understanding depend on children's cognitive abilities (e.g. perspective taking)

80

Piaget's theory on morality

uses moral dilemmas to assess children's thoughts on morality
- moral reasoning develops as the cognitive structures of the child develop

81

Stage 1 (Piaget's theory)

2-4 years
children have no true conception of morality

82

Stage 2 (Piaget's theory)

5-7 years
- children understand and use rules, but are not flexible in rule use (stage of moral realism)
- Objective responsibility: children evaluate moral situations on the basis of the amount of damage
Immanent justice: inherent justice

83

Stage 3 (Piaget's theory)

8-11 years
- children realize that rules are conventions and can be altered
- children in this stage now consider intention in their evaluations of morality (stage of moral relativism)

84

Objective responsibility

children evaluate moral situations on the basis of the amount of damage

85

Stage 4 (Piaget's theory)

children develop rules as needed and extend moral reasoning beyond their personal level

86

Piaget's findings on moral reasoning

- older children become increasingly attuned to motives and intentions
- cognitive capacities underlie moral judgment
- peer relations are important for moral development
**may have underestimated children's reasoning abilities

87

Kohlberg's model

Presented children with moral dilemmas and asked them to explain their reasoning

Growth across levels and stages depends on:
- improving cognitive skills
- repeated encounters with moral issues

88

Kohlberg's model

Preconventional

moral reasoning based on the assumption that individuals must serve their own needs

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Kohlberg's model

Conventional

moral reasoning based on the view that a social system must be based on laws and regulations

90

Kohlberg's model

Postconventional

moral reasoning based on the assumption that the value, dignity, and rights of each individual person must be maintained

91

Similarities between Piaget and Kohlberg

- cognitive-developmental perspectives
- important of interactions with the social world (especially peers)
- moral development occurs in a step-wise fashion
- younger children focus on rules
- older children focus on intention

92

Differences between Piaget and Kohlberg

- Kohlberg focused more on discrete stages
- Kohlberg argued that conduct follows reasoning; Piaget emphasized that reasoning often follows action

93

Turtle and Smetana's Social Domain Theory

Children's moral reasoning involves several different domains:
- personal
- social-conventional
- moral
Children's understanding of moral and societal issues is influenced by context

94

Social Domain Theory
Moral Domain

- have "intrinsic effects" on other's welfare
- obligatory, universally applicable

95

Social Domain Theory
Social-conventional

- violate norms and expectations
- inappropriate, but not malicious or victim-based
- contingent on authority commands; can be altered

96

Social Domain Theory
Personal domain (individual choice)

- knowledge of self, personality, and identity

97

Evaluating Turiel's model

- support for different domains of moral reasoning
- support for the influence of context in which reasoning takes place
- researchers using culturally appropriate versions of Turiel's stories have replicated his findings across a diverse array of societies
** there is also cultural variability in how children classify different kinds of rule violations

98

Altruism

behaviours that benefit another but may cost the person

99

Kin selection

a person will act to aid persons who share their genes (e.g., other is more likely to act to save her child than her husband; child has more of her genes)

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Reciprocal altruism

members of a group reciprocate in their altruism so that all members are more likely to survive and pass on their genes

101

Environmental/learning approaches

- reinforcement and observational processes are involved in moral development
- as children develop, they internalize what they have learned to regulate their own behaviour
--> via evaluative self-reactions & self-sanctions

102

Sociocultural approaches

moral development is a process of socialization
- through interactions with family and cultural institutions, children are assisted by other people in structuring and interpreting situations for themselves