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Flashcards in Final exam definitions Deck (29):
1

Altruism

behaviours that benefit another but may cost the person

2

Kin selection

a person will act to aid persons who share their genes (e.g., other is more likely to act to save her child than her husband; child has more of her genes)

3

Reciprocal altruism

members of a group reciprocate in their altruism so that all members are more likely to survive and pass on their genes

4

Categorical self

the objective "me" seen and evaluated in the world

5

Committed compliance

when a child embraces the caregiver's agenda and internalizes their instruction

6

Empathy

ability to vicariously experience another's emotional state - can be observed in infants (cry when hearing another infant cry)

7

Entity model

intelligence is seen as fixed or unchangeable quantity

8

Incremental model

intelligence is believed to be expanded with learning and experience

9

Prosocial behaviours

socially desirable behaviours, include helping, sharing, and conflict resolution
**moral emotions (ex. empathy & sympathy) are the roots of prosocial behaviours

10

Sympathy

feelings of concern for another - is related to children's ability to understand other's mental states

11

Theory of mind

the individual imputes mental states to himself and to others (either to conspecifics or to other species as well). A system of inferences of this kind is properly viewed as a theory, first because such states are not directly observable, and second because the system can be used to make predictions, specifically about the behaviour of other organisms.
Premack & Woodruff

12

Existential self

the subjective "I" who experiences the world

13

False belief

An indicator that the child differentiates between mind and world, and that someone can have a belief that differs from reality

14

Helpless pattern

those who response to failure with doubt and avoidance

patterns of persistence or helplessness evident in 4 year olds

15

Conventional level
(Kohlberg)

moral reasoning based on the view that a social system must be based on laws and regulations

16

Immanent justice

inherent justice

17

Evaluative self reactions

Consequences people apply to themselves as a result of meeting (or not) personal standards
- motivates children to behave in accordance with their internal standards

18

Looking-glass self

individual's beliefs about how others feel about us

19

Mastery-oriented pattern

children who, in the face of failure, express positive expectations and persist at the task

20

Moral Domain

Social domain theory
- have "intrinsic effects" on other's welfare
- obligatory, universally applicable

21

Personal domain

(individual choice)
- knowledge of self, personality, and identity

22

Self schema

an internal cognitive portrait of the self used to organize information about the self

23

Situational compliance

when the child cooperates but does not involve any behavioural change in the child
- often temporary

24

Social-conventional domain

- violate norms and expectations
- inappropriate, but not malicious or victim-based
- contingent on authority commands; can be altered

25

Preconventional

Kohlberg's model

moral reasoning based on the assumption that individuals must serve their own needs

26

Postconventional

Kohlberg's model

moral reasoning based on the assumption that the value, dignity, and rights of each individual person must be maintained

27

Precursors of ToM

- joint attention and gaze following
- intention-reading
- imitation
- pretend play
- use of internal state language e.g. "I think" "I feel"
- perspective-taking

28

Moral realism

moral facts and moral values, and that these are objective and independent of our perception of them or our beliefs, feelings or other attitudes towards them

29

Moral relativism

moral or ethical propositions do not reflect objective and/or universal moral truths, but instead make claims relative to social, cultural, historical or personal circumstances.