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Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (42):

Political Ecology

Political ecology refers to the political conflicts between resources. It is a subfield of geography and anthropology. It examines the political dimensions of environmental issues.
Ex) soil erosion- political ecology overtaxing, higher class owning increased land.
Ex) natural disasters: social disasters due to different classes.



"A fictional idea, people are taken out of a place so it can be untouched," wilderness refers to untouched nature, and most national parks advertise spending time in the wilderness.


Whiteshell Provincial Park

Ojibway used this area as hunting grounds. Area had a lot of important sacred sites, (Petroforms), destroyed as it turned into a tourist destination.


Ipperwash Park Occupation

Supposed to be reserved land for the Ojibway after WW2. Government took possession of some land area to create an army base. The Ojibway people occupied the land and blocked tourists and others from accessing the park. The OPP (Ontario Provincial Police) were sent in to deal with the situation, resulting in the death of Dudley George who's walking stick was mistaken as a gun.


Protected Area Steering Committees

A committee that decides on the priorities of protected areas, and manages the general course of it's operations. It's a type of co-management that involves Inuit and various orders of government. Ex) Lancaster Sound Steering Committee. Makes more room for Indigenous use.


Protected Area Impact and Benefit Agreements

Negotiates ways to reduce impacts of parks, gives Indig. Employment service rights, gives Indig. Rights for hunting and fishing. IBA benefits are there to redirect wealth to Indig. Peoples. Becoming powerful tools to resolve the issues between Indig people and the protected areas.


Indigenous Protected Areas

Protected areas that Indigenous communities have established and protect themselves. Often not officially recognized by Canada, but Canada is quietly letting some of them be, and respecting them as a protected area. Fully controlled and run by Indigenous peoples.


East Coast Seal Hunt

Major hunt of seals in Novia Scotia, Newfoundland, and New Brunswick. This industry expanded in the 1800s with the industrial revolution as the demand of seal oil increased. Major seasonal economic activity, people hunt 30 to 40 thousand seals, important in the 1900s due to decline of fisheries. Harp seals are the primary species that are hunted.


Inuit Seal Hunt

Inuits rely on hunting seals to maintain their way of life. The whole seal is used for meat, skins, clothing, and to participate in the global economy. They hunt the seals in a very sustainable way. It's part if the traditional Inuit way of life. Hunting of the seals is done off of the coast and by finding their breathing holes during winter.


United States Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA)

1972-Made it illegal to hunt/sell marine mammals. Affected Alaska's Indig peoples by making their way of life illegal. Didn't really affect Inuit that much because they could still sell to Europe.


European Economic Community Seal Import Ban (EEC Seal Import Ban)

1983- Tried to regulate the trade laws across Europe. Banned Europe from importing seal skins. Resulted in the price of seal skins collapsing, huge blow to the seal skin economy, caused poverty/food insecurity, and hunting rates dropped. Pushed Inuit people to support oil and gas.


European Union Seal Import Ban

2009- EU passed a bill to ban seal products from being sold as a commodity. Caused price of seal skins to plummate, food insecurity, and an economic disaster. Canada, Norway, and the world trade organization tried and failed to challenge this ban. Norway ceased their seal hunting, and only Canada and Russia still seal hunt today.


The Medium is the Message

Medium by which the message is being sent is just as important as the content. TV and internet were central to anti-sealing hunt. Resource conflict that developed due to TV and internet (digital communications).


National Energy Board (NEB)

Following the pipelines debate in the 1950s, the NEB Act was created in 1959. Makes key decisions on what is better for Canada as a whole. Made to solve regional conflicts on things such as oil and pipelines. Major conflict was whether the oil should be exported or used for domestic purposes.


Berger Inquiry

Berger was a long time advocate for Indig rights. He was commissioned to investigate the environmental, political, and economic impacts that the Mackenzie valley pipeline had on the area. Took an unique approach of accessible and informal hearings of all communities along the pipeline route.


Mackenzie Valley Gas Project

Export oil and gas from Alaska and the Mackenzie delta. Pierre Trudeau saw it as nation building. It was thought that it would industrialize the north and bring jobs to Indig peoples, and also bring energy security as the OPEC crisis was scary for many Canadians. Opposition from the Dene and Inuit.


Cowboy and Indian Alliance

Alliance formed against the Keystone XL Pipelines. Farmers from Nebraska and Indig people formed an alliance to fight the project. An oil spill would ruin drinking water for farmers, and Indig people of the area.


Northern Gateway Pipeline

Controversial project to get oil out of Alberta, and sell to markets in Asia. Was supposed to go through Indig lands. Conflict resulted because Indig people did not sign a treaty to give up land. Project also put marine life at risk. Legal challenges around duty to consult and potential environmental risks to environment and marine life.


Energy East Pipeline

TransCanada argument that this will decrease reliance upon other countries' imports. Issues of climate change, Indig rights, and safety concerns (diluted bitumen). NEB met privately with TransCanada industry. (Frowned upon).


Captured Regulator

An official or organization whose relationship with an industry is close enough that a biased opinion could be formed. Unable to objectively assess projects. NEB was in question for being a captured regulator because Steven Kelly was a former employee of the company that wants to build the pipeline.


Churchill River Diversion

Created because of the electricity potential of the northern river. The Churchill River Diversion was a MB Hydro project from the 1970s. This project diverted the Churchill River into the Nelson River. Previous to the this the Churchill river was clean and pristine. The communities in the area were upset about this major physical change.


Northern Flood Committee

Is a co-management group that represents and is composed of representatives from five Indig tribes. This co-management committee negotiated the Northern Flood Agreement. It was created due to the large amounts of flooding predicted to occur by major hydroelectric projects, which would flood reserve lands.


Northern Flood Agreement

Formed in 1977. Was supposed to eradicate unemployment and mass poverty. Promise of clean drinking water. Instead, created more poverty and unemployment and the Indig groups impacted received basically no benefits.


Master Implementation Agreement

Created so Indig groups would not take MB Hydro to court for bad NFA implementation. Agreement between the Indig peoples and the government. Government promised that they would give them a bunch of money for not taking them to court. Many communities agreed and became investors in the dam (didn't see a lot of profits). Cross Lake refused to sign the agreement and has been fighting ever since.


James Bay Hydroelectric Project

Developed to turn Quebec into a major economic power and end unemployment. It was seen as a major nation-building project of Quebec. Cree and Inuit opposed dramatically. Project was started anyway with no Indig consultation. Resulted in the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement.


James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement

First modern treaty negotiated in Canada. Major issue is that it extinguished Indig title. Inuit and Cree gave up their title, and in exchange received money, hunting & fishing rights. Also managed to negotiate a reduced scope of the project. Government would only build dams on some of the river, not all of them.


Great Whale Project

Phase 2 of the James Bay agreement. Plan was to export electricity to New York. Agreements were signed with New York before the project even got off the ground. Cree and Inuit were in opposition. Matthew Cooncome led the Odeyak tour to New York to protest. Was successful!


Paix des Braves

Agreement between Cree and the Quebec government. The Cree got funding and self-government. Resulted in really good outcomes and situations for the Cree. As part of the agreement, the Cree agreed to a minor expansion of the hydro project.


Chernobyl Disaster

Meltdown of a nuclear reactor caused an explosion and fire which sent a plume of radioactive particles into the atmosphere. Lead to serious negative impacts in Europe. Reindeer were no longer able to be eaten because they consumed the radioactive lichen, and many reindeer had to be destroyed. Caused a massive decline in the enthusiasm for nuclear power.


Nuclear Waste Management Organization

Manages how we get rid of nuclear waste. First is medium level waste (gloves and waste): they want to bury it near Lake Huron. Second is high level waste (the actual waste): they want to bury it deep in the earth, or are willing to pay small towns to keep it. Focused on SK and ON. All said no in SK.


Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission

Role was to deal with matters related to nuclear safety. Accused to be a captured regulator because it was believed that they represented industry interests rather than being unbiased.


Operation Head Start

1952-68 there was always a bomber overhead ready to bomb Moscow flying over the Canadian Arctic. One crashed near Greenland/Baffin Island one crashed. No proof that all of the bombs were cleaned up. USA will neither confirm nor deny.


Cuban Missile Crisis

Cuba aligned with the USSR, many people thought that would lead to an exchange of nuclear weaponry.


Nuclear Winter

Idea that smoke from bombs would create a cooler climate. This would cause our agriculture to collapse. Attack on the USA could cause food collapse in Australia or Africa even. Could undermine global food supply. Ramped anti-nuclear movement.


Canadian-Deline Uranium Table

Co-management board between the government and Deline to figure out what to do about the Port Radium mine that caused cancer in many Indig people. Report concluded there was no connection between cancer deaths and uranium mining despite 14 out of 30 Dene workers dying from cancer. Big debate over what is a safe dose of radiation.


Ham Commission

Looks into health and safety protocols in Ontario. Recommended stricter rules for uranium mining. Made because of the Wildcat Strike (workers got lung cancer).


Kiggavik Uranium Mine

Has been reviewed twice. Baker Lake is the only community not on the coast. Mainly eat caribou and fish. Where Kiggavik is located is not in a place of extreme sensitivity, BUT in an area of sensitivity. Massive Inuit opposition.


Agglomeration Economy

Form when industries locate close to one another so that they can share infrastructure.
Ex) Elliot Lake. A planned community intended to service the uranium industry. Town is a service to manh uranium mines.


Rendering technical

Term used to explain the situation where technical terms are favoured over traditional knowledge or other ways of communicating information. This makes it hard for many people to contribute, and understand everything that is happening. Ex) John, an Inuit elder, who was presenting his traditional knowledge at a hearing and was cut off because his story was going on too long.


R v. Marshall

Dealt with commercial fishing rights. A Mi'kmaq man named Donald Marshall Jr was arrested for illegally selling eels. He said that he had treaty rights to fish for profit. SCC sided with Marshall. Mi'kmaq fishing without permits and our of season results in violence against them by white fishermen.


Burnt Church Crisis

Burnt Church community refused to negotiate conservation agreements, saying that their treaty rights gave them the right to decide when and how to fish. The crisis took place when the department of oceans and fisheries intervened by ramming into and smashing Burnt Church boats, pepper spraying and beating Indig people in the water without life-jackets.


Race to the Bottom

Different jurisdictions have to compete, need to come up with a profitable investment climate. This leads to reduced wages, reduced environmental regulations, and reduced corporate taxes. If a country has an unfavourable investment climate, companies threaten to move to another country, and this competition is what drives the race to the bottom.