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Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (44):

Space-time compression

The idea that time has sped up and space seems to shrink due to the aspects of globalization. Ease of transportation shrinks space, technological advancements in communication shrinks time.


Commodity fetishism

-idea presented by Marx.
-social processes that make a commodity: labour, environmental degradation, and demand.
-we do not see the hidden factors when we take the product to market.
-social commodity example: gold, value of gold is a social phenomenon, not the value of the natural product.


3 sisters

-beans, corn, squash.
-grown together on the same plot
-compliment one another: beans are nitrogen fixing, squash prevents erosion, corn stalks protect beans from weather.
-long term soil stability.
-allows Huron to have social and economic power


Caribou Water Crossings

-spring: hunted large numbers of migrating caribou, lived in disperse camps to catch max. Caribou.
-fall: hunted on 2-3 week span, skins used to make clothing. Hunted migrating caribou at water crossings when the animals were swimming.
-summer: hunting was opportunistic, geography adapted to caribou transitions.


Castor gris

-coat made out of beaver
-consisted of wool and felt (not fur)
-second-hand from Indig people
-shipped across Atlantic Ocean
-fashion in Western Europe



-had gambling lifestyles
-in charge of transporting fur via canoe
-decline due to new inventions of railway and transport
-part of the French Fur Trade


Beaver Wars

-Huron held balance of power until 1698
-1698- Great Peace of Montreal where representatives normalized French relations with Iroquois
-outcome: collapse of Huronia
-Iroquois invasion took out Huron population
-French expanded to middleland because Hurons were gone.
-French able to set up wide trade network


Metis Ethnogenesis

-new identity and culture
-new Indig (Great Lake Metis) formed from NWC voyageurs


Arctic Fur Trade

-HBC expanded to Arctic, and Inuit were dependant on fur trade.
-Arctic fox: key species- had population cycles, therefore government provided "relief" commodities
-price of fox decreased and forced Inuit to relocate to track furs
-many Inuit died through famine


Core-Periphery Relationship

-core consisted of metropolis who had industrial power.
-periphery consisted of the frontier and hinterlands for development in the core as it provided markets and raw resources
-development in the periphery was blocked due to staples trap, and was vulnerable to booms and busts.
-core controls periphery through dependency



Resources flow from the periphery to the core, enriching the core at the expense of the periphery


East Coast Cod Fishery

-early fishery: massive market for fish in Catholic colonies which made cod economically viable.
-British fisheries took over by attacking others' boats, then colonized NFLD, as fishers stayed year round to protect fishing gear.
-decreased fish led to communities struggling financially
-lack of government response
-government announced no fishing in 1992
-bust caused by mismanagement


Arctic whale hunt

-commercial whale hunt began in 1500 for meat and oil to use for fuel in lamps and lubricant for industrial machinery.
-Scottish arrived and had sporadic contact with Inuit
-whale hunt decreased as petroleum use increased
-bust: foreign whale hunting ships, no government involved


Boom-Bust Cycles

-boom: investment or production when prices are high and resources are plentiful
-bust: price collapse and resources are depleted
-ex) beaver hats in arctic



-agricultural settlers/peasants
-had right to use land but did not own it
-mandatory labour


Wheat Economy (Western Canada)

-drove initial agricultural settlement on the prairies
-prairies were known as 'the bread basket of the Empire' and were expected to go through a lot of development
-wheat was in high demand, easy to ship, light weighted.
-Great Depression + drought lead to bust of wheat economy, farmers moved to cities as they lost their land.


Metabolic Rift

-related to ecology and agriculture/forestry
-disruption of normal/natural nutrient cycling with modern mechanized agriculture
-rift never really resolves, just transforms
-ex) exporting food from country to town saps soil nutrients, and causes degradation of country soil, increases reliance on fertilizers to replenish nutrients. Increases nutrients in water sources, cause algae blooms



- expropriating/destroying communal property for private gains
-hunting economies use communal property, western agriculture uses private property
- removal of Indig populations to make room for private agriculture


Forestry (Eastern Canada)

-white pine in NB mostly harvested for British ships to fight Napoleon back in Europe
-land cleared of trees then used for agricultural settlement
-frontier logging moved logging further inland away from settlements, used river systems to transport the wood (log driving)


Forestry (Western Canada)

-lumber needed for cabins/mining equipment during western gold rushes beginning in 1850
-large outgoing lumber export of Douglas fir and cedar trees
-used CPR to transport lumber



-tree farming/reforestation
- arial seeding, trees planting done in rows
-after 10 years the underbrush is thinned out.
-not natural reforestation


Klondike Gold Rush

-over 100 000 people migrated to the Yukon and began to 'placer mine' until gold resources ran low, then they began to hilltop mine. (Clear out vegetation on top of hill and then began to dig downwards)
-hilltop mining caused ecological damage and hurt local Indig economies


Chilcotin War

-chilcotin attacked mining road crews and raided their food supplies
- attackers willingly gave themselves up, but were hanged as an example
-chilcotin saw the gold rush as an invasion of territory, the attack was a response to the intentional spread of smallpox and famine caused by the gold rush


Mining (Northern Ontario)

-railroad facilitated mining
-major mining hubs all developed around the railroad
-mining in either open pit or underground operations run by major companies with wage workers
-single industry towns created


Single Industry Towns

-small towns only built around specific mines
-towns are unstable because they depend on these small mines and if the mines bust these towns face the possibility of turning into ghost towns


Alberta Oil/Gas Industry

-Turner Valley and Leduc both conventional oil/gas fields (easy extraction)
-oil sands non-conventional. Cannot just pump oil out
-Fort McMurray first real production at the oilsands. Bust in 2014 from foreign competition


National energy board

-makes decisions/resolves conflicts about pipelines and oil exports
-federal government created NEB to not get involved in decisions about pipelines and create issues
-considers "national interest"


Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency

-created in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. Comprehensive legislation for EA.
-agency lays out clear guidelines about which projects need to undergo an assessment
-revised act reduced the number of projects needing assessment


Joint-Review Panel

-assessment panel created to deal with environmental assessment issues where boards overlap
-members appointed from each board involved


Environmental impact statement

-main analysis of an EA process is where all the possible short term and long term effects are determined.
-analyzes social and ecological impacts of the propsed project
-statement is highly technical, typically very long and largely inaccessible


Significance threshold

-how EA decides if effects are significant enough to worry about it or not.
-subjective value statements
-scientists usually use population level effects and ignore the small localized effects


Cumulative effects

Cumulative effects are changes to the environment that are caused by an action in combination with other past, present and future human actions


Peace and Friendship Treaties

-ongoing treaties
-focused on the East Coast of Canada
-between British and Indig communities
-hunting, fishing, trade


Royal Proclaimation of 1763

-recognize land rights
-only the Crown could purchase land from Indig people
-had to be done in a public matter
-created the framework for all of the following treaties
-economic incentive to slow down settlement that would interfere with the fur trade


Numbered Treaties

-southern and northern numbered treaties.
-southern: opening prairies for agriculture. Reserve lands/annuities/hunting and fishing rights in return.
-Northern: cleared land title to make was for logging/mining. Less promises made then southern treaties.
-1930 government stopped negotiating treaties


Section 35 (1982 Constitution)

-PE Trudeau wanted to receive full independence from England
-indig communities worried about what this would mean for their treaty rights
-last minute addition of Section 35 "aboriginal treaty rights are recognized and affirmed" -doesn't clarify what their rights are


Aboriginal rights

-rights and practices integral to the distinctive culture of the nation at the time of contact
-different aboriginal groups have different rights
-right to practice traditional pursuits in a modern way


Aboriginal Title

-subset of aboriginal rights > property rights
-only possessed by groups that didn't sign historic treaties


Infringement (Aboriginal/Treaty Rights)

-aboriginal rights are not absolute
-cannot extinguish these rights
-can be infringed upon- must be justifiable


Duty to Consult

-lies with the crown
-principles of consultation:
1. Must be meaningful
2. Attempt at resolving differences
3. Not a veto
4. Consultation does not require agreement


United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indig. Peoples

-international protection for Indig peoples
-differs from Canadian constitution
- right to determine own futures


Free, Prior, and Informed Consent

-differs from duty to Consult
-indig groups have the right to say yes or no
- canada voted against adopting this idea
-Trudeau promised to uphold this, but is approving pipelines without consent


Modern treaties

-negotiated after 1970
-way of dealing with aboriginal title
-comprehensive land claims
- James Bay Northern Quebec Agreement is part of this


Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board

-much food comes from Caribou
-1970 Management crisis
-Industry insisted pipelines can be formed over caribou range
-board has members from many different perspectives
-agreed that caribou calving areas should not be disturbed