Flashcards in Final exam Deck (180):
the scene prompts you to recall a similar even from own life.
recall objective facts, about the distribution of blood vassals in the head for example.
is a general term referring to awareness and thinking, perceiving, these behaviours add up to Information processing.
imposing order on the information our sense organs take in.
making sense, explaining, give meaning to….
Rod and frame test:
judgements about environment and bodies. Dark room, glowing rod, and glowing box. Field dependent, you adjust rod according to frame. Field independent, you adjust rod according to information from body.
Experiments concluded that field independent people are able to get the points imbedded in media presentations faster. (therefore, different styles of learning)
Field independent (analyze complex situations, creative, low social skills)
(good social, more attentive to social context)
people differ in their reaction to sensory stimulation. (reducers (extrovert): seek strong stimulation).
Kelly personal construct theory:
primary motivation was to find meaning, meaning to predict future. He felt that people engage in efforts to understand, predict, control events. The constructs that people routinely use are called personal constructs. BUT these constructs are bipolar, two ends smart, not smart. Thus, anxiety is a result of not knowing why, it is a failure of the construct to predict.
notion that reality is constructed, that every person has a unique version of reality, and no version is more privileged.
Locus of control:
a person’s perception of responsibility for the events in their life. Whether responsibility is internal, free will, or external, fate. Internal locus of control is correlated with being more in charge of one’s life.
they base their expectancies about what will happen on their generalized expectancies about whether they have the ability to influence events.
Cognitive social learning approach:
emphasises the cognitive and social process whereby people learn to value and strive for certain goals over others.
subjective feelings, accompanied by bodily changes, accompanied by action tendencies: an increase in the probability of a behaviour.
Darwin, on the why of emotions and expressions. Whether they increase the fitness of individuals. Emotions communicate information from one animal to another about what is likely to happen.
transitory, depend on situation, Emotions as states have a specific cause located outside the individual.
emotions expressed across a variety of life sitatutions.
Those who think the primary emotions are key. Ekman thought that a primary emotion has distinct facial expression recognized across cultures.
her drawing on the board, four quadrants. Pleasant, arousal etc…
William James: happiness
happiness is the ratio of accomplishments to one’s aspirations.
Happiness hedonic component:
refers to the balance of positive to negative emotions in a person’s life over time. These components life satisfaction and hedonic balance are highlight correlated.
Measures of happiness do correlate with social desirability scores. High social desirability high happiness.
important to happiness, inflated view,
Success and happiness:
one of the ideas is that the correlation goes in the other direction: happiness leads to success. BUT it may involve reciprocal causality relationship goes both directions.
**Spending money on someone else creates more happiness.
Extraversion and neuroticism
account for up to three times the variation in happiness.
It is easy to put an extrovert in a good mood, and easy to put a neurotic in a bad mood.
The point is that personality acts like an amplifier of life events.
biological basis, limbic system activates easily (fight or flight). MRI and PET scan to measure limbic activation.
Anterior cingulate cortex: emotion,
neuroticism in the psychology of the person’s cognitive system. More likely recall unpleasant information. They have richer network of associations surrounding unpleasant information. Neuroticism influences perceptions of health. They are on the lookout for threatening information. They complain about health problems.
pre-existing vulnerability to depression. But event must occur to trigger.
Beck’s cognitive theory depression:
A certain cognitive schema. Which means those prone to it, have a certain way of looking at the world. Cognitive distortions, generalizing, catastrophizing…..
the person who thinks he is a total failure, will act like a total failure.
experience their emotions strongly and are emotionally reactive and variable. High scorers rate life events as more severe. BUT, high scorers have a combination of neuroticism and extroversion. Therefore, they have more mood variability.
TED talk 3 natures
biogenic, sociogenic, idiogenic (idiosyncratic aspect of each person)
understanding of yourself. This determines how we relate to and evaluate the events in the world.
how you feel about who you are.
how you present yourself to others.
years in which people struggle with defining their self-concept.
this is what im pretending, vs. what I’m actually doing. BUT those who had self-recognition in the mirror were capable of pretending.
Shy people have a more reactive amygdala.
building blocks of self-concept. Attributes: assertivenss, for masculine, it guids what information we pay attention to. They are cognitive structures that are built on past experiences and guide the processing of information about the self.
the future, allow us to stay on schedule towards self-improvement.
the ideal self and the ought self. Ideal is what they want to be. Ought is what others want them to be. These are self-guides. These are the roots of different emotions.
Low self-esteem participants only ask for more feedback if they know it is good.
*One aspect of low self-esteem is expecting to fail, that way, when it happens, it is nothing new. (Defensive pessismism)
it is the individual difference characteristic it is the magnitude of short-term fluctuations in ongoing self-esteem. Variability may be high in some people because (sensitivity to social evaluation, concern of self-view, overrely on social sources of evaluation, react negatively to evaluation).
this has socially observable things. Gender, ethnicity, *this may not figure into self-concept. Thus, these things are also constant (drivers license)
means that your social identity differentiates you from other people.
that it resulted from efforts to separate oneself from one’s parents, to stop relying on one’s parents to make decisions about what values to hold and what goals to pursue in life.
meaning the feelings of anxiety that accompany efforts to define or redefine one’s own individuality.
not formed adequate identity, have difficulty making major decisions. No inner foundation. By rejecting old beliefs and assumptions creates a void or an identity deficit. People trying to fill this void, may try new belief systems. Vulnerable to propaganda. Cults want these people.
incompatibility between two or more aspects of identity. Immigrants, “approach-approach” conflicts, a person wants two contradictory goals. The separation between work life and private life.
“if only I had done….” Act as teen again. Change in priorities.
average differences between women and men.
beliefs about how men and women differ or are supposed to differ.
showed the largest sex difference d = .41, this finding means that girls can better regulate and allocate their attention.
girls detect subtle stimuli from the environment.
high activity, impulsivity, boys, the outcome is disciplinary problems in schools.
same for boys and girls, which means emotional instability.
*When girls are asked to describe themselves spontaneously they are more likely to value personal qualities and relationships.
boys are reinforced by parents, boys are given baseball bats, girls are given dolls.
Social learning theory:
they learn by observing the behaviors of others called models of their sex.
One difficulty of these theories is that the causal direction may run the other way. The interests of children drive the parent’s behavior. If boys show no interest in dolls……
girls are encouraged to delay sex.
Evidence: CAH, genital andrenal hyperplasia, female fetus has an overactive adrenal gland. Therefore this girls is more male, and shows a preference for male toys.
Personality interacts with situations in three ways:
selection, evocation, manipulation.
Complementary needs theory:
postulates that people are attracted to those who have different personality dispositions than they have.
Attraction similarity theory:
that people are attracted to those who have similar personality characteristics. (Birds of a feather flock together)
people are married to people who are similar to themselves.
is the most consistent personality predictor of marital instability and divorce.
Hostile attributional bias:
the tendency to infer hostile intent on the part of others in the face of ambiguous behavior from them.
people’s beliefs about the personality characteristics of others cause them to evoke in others actions that are consistent with the initial beliefs.
the naming of groups in a subject field.
use reason, explain why they want something.
objective events happen to people, but personality factors determine the impact of those events by affecting ability to cope.
Health behavior model:
Health behavior model: that personality influences the degree to which a person engages In various heath-damaging behaviors.
ex. Genetic cause of novelty seeking, this may cause an addiction to drugs.
Stressors: 3 features
1. State of being overwhelmed
2. Opposing tendencies, wanting and not wanting an activity of object.
General adaption syndrome GAS:
alarm (fight-flight), resistance (stress is resisted, which requites a lot of energy), exhaustion stage,
major source of stress in most people’s lives.
CAVE, content analysis of verbatim explantions :
examine writings rate them on attributional dimensions of internality, stability and globality. Advantage, researchers can study people not willing or unavailable. It can be used to examine why people think something happened to them.
Problem focused coping:
using thoughts and behaviors to manage or solve the underlying cause of the stress.
they perceive that they are at a lower risk for such negative events than the average person. It may lead people to ignore or minimize the risks inherent in life or to take more risks than they should.
competitive motivation, time urgency, hostility, frustration.
Type A: difference between questioners and interviews. The interview taps into the more lethal component of type A. that is why they have found the link with heart problems. IT has more to do with hostility. Therefore, hostility is a strong predictor of heart disease.
Type D personality:
distressed personality, negative affect, social inhibition, these features predict heart problems.
the hardening or blocking of arteries.
Know the three components of emotions: (slide)
1. Subjective feelings or affects (it is only you who can tell some one about the experience. Communicating that you’re having a bad day)
2. Bodily changes, nervous system (heart rate)
3. Distinct action tendencies or increases in probabilities of certain behaviours. An action tendency is when you act on your emotions. For ex. Anger causes shouting, aggressive behaviour…. Just the increased tendency to do something, because of the emotion.
important if we engage or avoid something.
they interpret neutral events as threatening. And vice versa for positive appraisal.
temporary emotion, it is a wave. Depend on the situation.
stable and consistent. Pattern and reaction over time that is consistent.
small number of emotions that everyone experiences. How to find categories: facial expression, neurological pathway.
emotions classified, two dimensions: pleasant/unpleasant and High arousal/ Low arousal. She’ll say, where do you put fear on the quadrant? It is high unpleasant and high arousal.
Content of emotional life:
Has to do with negative/ positive emotions
Style of emotional life:
Exam: How do you appraise your life right now?
(Almost done school, support systems, health).
a boost to subjective wellbeing.
married men are happier. Happiness dips the most after the first child.
hedonic adaptation. Schopenhaur. Returning to a baseline of happiness despite major positive or negative events. If you want money, then you always have the feeling that you are lacking something.
very important in the clinical environment. They are trying to deconstruct how people feel about situations. What is the pattern that this person follows when they are sad?
put our motivations in action
positive emotionality, they manifest positive emotions, and this would be an emotional trait
Distinct emotions, would have a facial expression paired to the emotion.
*Can you imagine what a sad person is?
it is an emotional state, but it cannot be pursued. this is why money doesn't contribute to happiness
tendency to compare ourselves to others. Creates motivation. A gradient to measure progress. We learn to compare, to have an idea of how we are doing.
Personality and well-being?
Indirect model: personality drives a person to situations that will cause good emotions.
Direct model: personality causes emotions reactions. Ex. Because you’re neurotic, you’ll experience bad emotions.
emotional first aid: changing expectations matters. Distracting yourself matters. Self compassion is very important. Labels that we attach to ourselves.
is the basis for self understanding. It is how you view the world. The beliefs, knowledge, ideas that you have about yourself.
I: ontological self.
Me: Epistemological self.
The rouge test:
Self-concept, that your reflection and you are different. The mirror test. Kids under 16 months don’t understand the mirror. This shows when the self-concept develops.
Directing attention to situations that will validate it. If it’s negative, then a negative reinforcement loop occurs. Things reflect the knowledge that you have about yourself. If you think that you’re more prone to failure, then you’ll remember that one time you failed, not the other times that you won.
They expect to fail, but they overprepare so they never fail.
deliberate do things that increase the probability of failure. But when the failure occurs, you don’t take it personally.
Identity deficit: you don’t know what you stand for. Early in life. What am I going to do.
Identity conflict: Incompatibility, old identity vs, new identity. Ex. Immigration.
Exam: three mechanisms of social interaction
selection, evocation, manipulation…
selection, evocation, manipulation
Selection: We select others, but others also select us. Predisposed to make some choices over others. The selection of the situation is not random, we put ourselves in these situations that are in our comfort zone.
Evocation: responses that our personalities elicit from others. Road rage, aggressiveness begets aggressiveness in others.
Manipulation: influence of others. No malicious intent, but it is still an exploitation of others.
Violation of desire theory:
People break up when one’s desires are violated.
Regression: crying, yelling; High conscientiousness mostly use reason. Low-intellect-openness, social comparison.
Manipulative strategy of social interaction, personality style that uses other people as tools for personal gain. (Very goal directed. Thrive in little structured situations, evoke aggression in others, self-serving manipulation.) A high mach would score low in which big five factor trait? Low agreeableness.
will surround themselves with submissive people, lower than themselves. Social media fuels this. It inflates peoples perception of themselves.
every trait model in personality psychology has neuroticism as one of its variables
score higher on affect intensity, high and lows, it is why women are more vulnerable to depression and anxiety.
emotional first aid, loneliness reduces life by 14%, vulnerable to diseases, as dangerous as cigarette smoking,
*We need to break negative cycle, failure drives us to reinforce our negative views. it is the desirability to be right.
*Self-compassion, change responses to failure, combat negative thinking.
Exam: Effect size (cohens d):
Used to express the average difference in standard deviation units. If there is a lot of overlap in the distributions, there is a small effect size. Which means not a lot of differences.
widely held, girls and boys different, because boys are reinforced by environment to be masculine. Ex. Boys are given super heroes.
Bandura’s social learning:
they learn sex roles, by watching same-sex others.
Social role theory:
based on roles, people will fill roles because they want to fit in.
physiological differences cause boys and girls to diverge over development.
And the spotlight effect: action appearance, magnified, everyone paying attention. This can lead to social anxiety.
has a biological component, and a social learned component. They do desire social interactions, but they are help back by anxiety, this is different than introversion. Parents who cater to these fears and anxieties can make it worse. If they don’t cater, the kids could outgrow shy. They interpret social interactions negatively.
who we think we are. They help us where we stand in the world. We remember things that are relevant to us. Cognitive knowledge about the self.
First impressions are very important:
When we form an opinion about something, after that it is very hard to change that opinion. We will selectively look for confirmatory information: Confirmation bias. We want things to validate our self-schemas.
is evaluating yourself positive or negative. It is variable, there are hourly and daily changes. But it is stable over time. If people take ownership for their actions and outcomes, then self-esteem increases.
Refers to how you fine tune your motivations, and self, in different areas of your life. Ex. Volunteering; sports; groups; The higher the complexity, the higher the self-esteem. It is not keeping your eggs in one basket.
An interesting psychological phenomenon:
That people usually rate themselves higher than average. When people are asked to explain, they will pick the things that they have been rewarded for and forget all the other bad things.
Not to be deterred by failure. Still be able to achieve an outcome using persistence. This is very important.
***Identity develops as soon as you see that you are separate from the world. The rouge test.
have an identity, then it changes. Getting fired from a job…..
Identity deficit: don’t know who you are. Identity conflict: incompatible between two or more aspects of identity. Immigration…..
2 features of identity:
Continuity and contrast. Contrast is what makes you unique. It is a balance between chaos and order.
Girl from westworld, lack of identity.
Bandura’s Social learning theory:
boys and girls are not passive. They learn By OBSERVATION of the same sex other.
men have 10 times more testosterone, I causes them to manifest different behaviours, aggression…. For aggression and testosterone, the moderator is socioeconomic status. So high testosterone and low economic status = aggression. High economic status = success in career. Criticism = bi-directional, we don’t know what causes what.
want to feel comfortable in the environment. A strategy to change situation.
people marry people who are similar to themselves. BUT people are happy if they are married to ppl high in agreeableness, emotional stability and openness, regardless of what they were originally looking for. AND, these three traits are called the honeymoon effect.
is not outside of us. It is the response that we have to an unknown. It is between you and the world. Eustress is good, and distress is bad.
Your personality influences your vulnerabilities to stress and illness.
this is the interaction model, plus two more features. How you interpret events, can thus also influence the events themselves. People are more likely to put themselves in these situations. Predispositions; you put yourself in certain situations. We manipulate events as well, based on personality. “You can create your own luck” because you are not a passive agent.
Health behavior model:
Personality does not directly influence the relationship between stress and illness. Personality indirectly affects health, by affecting health promoting or degrading behaviors. High conscientiousness is directly correlated with longevity because they engage in these health promoting behaviours.
Illness behavior model:
sick behavior. It predicts what you do when you are sick.
What are the common features of negative stress situations?
1. Produce a state of feeling overwhelmed or overloaded.
2. Produce opposing tendencies in us, such as wanting and not wanting some thing.
3. Perceived as uncontrollable. Outside the locus of control.
EXAM: General adaptation syndrome GAS:
the flight or fight response. (alarm, resistance (depletion of bodily resources), exhaustion (susceptibility to illness and disease).
Different types of stress.
1. Acute: sudden, uncontrollable.
2. Episodic: repeated acute stress; time pressure, having something due every day, but there is an end in sight.
3. Traumatic stress: PTSD,
4. Chronic stress, the 2 hour commute. Financial struggles. Constant and they are not going to end.
Stress has additive effects, they accumulate in a person over time.
primary appraisal: you have to ask, is this a potential threat or will it harm me? If the answer is yes, then you move to the secondary appraisal. The secondary question is do I have the time/support/resources to cope?
They are related to poor adjustment, not balanced life, and poor outcomes.
*The pattern of maladjustment can be seen across all situations, not one domain. Lifelong.
most disorders are…. Which means that they don’t think there is anything wrong with their thinking or patterns of behavior.
schizophrenia, the person knows that there is something off.
the study of mental disorders, that include thought disorders, emotion disorders.
Exam: PD clusters,
eccentric, erratic, anxious…
is the umbrella term, and under this would be personality disorders.
Exam: antisocial personality disorder
a diagnosis is for 18 and over.
no guilt, factual, no empathy, likes the attention. Indifference to actions, they are objects.
What does the cognitive domain inform us on?
How behaviour and personality change based on how they perceive and interpret the world. (*sensation, perception, interpretation)
how aware are you of the world, perceive and remember the world, beliefs, anticipation…
3 levels of cognition:
(perception, interpretation, conscious goals, and intelligence)
Field-dependent people depend of the environment to make sense of what is presented to them. (more social, want opinions of others.)
Field-independent people: autonomous, non-social situations, they like sciences and math, they learn better in interactive, fast paced learning environments.
Low pain tolerance augments sensory stimulation. While people with high pain tolerance have a nervous system that dampens or reduces effects of sensory information.
Exam: someone who gets bored easily would be high in pain tolerance because their nervous system reduces effects of sensory information.
what is an internal locus of control?
Represents a tendency to believe that you determine your own future. You take responsibility for successes and failures.
who is more likely to play the lottery, and internal or external locus of control?
An external locus of control.
What is the defining feature of the CAPS model of personality?
*Traits are not enough, what we need to predict behavior is processes, goals, expectations, beliefs, therefore we can use “if….then… statements. (Traits, goals, desires, and decision making based on the environment.)
What theory is the current education system based on?
Logic-mathematical and verbal-linguistic.
*IQ only gets you so far,
about a 115 is required to master the concepts and tools required to do well. But after this, there is no correlation between IQ and performance. Emotional intelligence is what makes the difference here.
Emotion propels you to do something, high valence, high approach, would be someone who is ecstatic. (Dimensional uses a 2 dimensional plane)
High valence, low approach = bliss
Low valence, low arousal = depressed
is the intensity of emotions. (Biopolar, is the pathological aspect of this)
Age 40-45-50 more stable, overall; there are no gender differences in life satisfaction, when men get married, their happiness scores increase. When women get married, their happiness scores slightly decrease. Religion; strong social support system. Income; the basis of comparison changes with how much you make.
you adapt to the new norm. So you make more, but the norm changes. Your happiness increases, but returns to baseline.
what is the relationship between income and happiness?
It’s complicated, it depends on what we’re referencing.
The threshold of income for happiness: it changes based on where you are in life, school, married,
positive hedonic balance, low affect intensity.
Positive hedonic balance, high affect; life of the party.
Negative hedonic balance, high affect; easily distressed, fearful,
I = ontological self and the me = epistemological self, the me is the features that you think you posses. The “I” is the observing self, ex, how do you feel about being outgoing?
The self concept: About who do you think you are, and how do you feel about it?