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Field independent people favor natural sciences, math, engineering, whereas field dependent people favor social sciences and education

Field independent people are more interpersonally detached, whereas field dependent people are attentive to social cues, oriented toward other people


field 2

Field independent people are better able to screen out distracting information and focus on a task
Study of police officers

Field-independent students learn more effectively than field dependent students in multimedia-based instructional environment (e.g., graphics, sound, and video) Embedded points, selective attention


external locus of control

greater satisfaction in non-responsive environments.


Explanatory style:

Trait-like ways we explain causes of events

Significant stability over time


3 features of explanatory style

External or internal: Cause of event as within oneself or outside oneself (beyond my control vs. my fault).

Stable or unstable: Cause of event is unchangeable or changeable (permanent vs. temporary).

Global or specific: Cause of event is far reaching or isolated.


Walter Mischel (marshmallow guy) and Cognitive-Affective Personality System (CAPS)

Redefined personality system as stable network of cognitive and affective processes that influence how one responds to different kinds of situations


5 factors emotional intelligence

Awareness of own feelings and bodily signals
Ability to regulate emotions (esp. unwanted emotions)
Ability to control impulses, delay gratification, and stay on task toward goals
Ability to decode social and emotional cues of others (empathy)
Ability to influence and guide others without incurring anger or resentment


Affect intensity:

High activity level
High extraversion, high neuroticism


hedonic balance vs affect intensity

Hedonic balance between positive and negative emotions represents the content of emotional life

Affect intensity represents the style of emotional life
Hedonic balance and affect intensity are unrelated to each other and interact to produce specific types of emotional lives that characterize different personalities


Erikson (1968), identity can be achieved in several ways

Experimenting with different identities
Adopting a ready-made social role (e.g., taking over the family business, arranged marriages in India)



Manipulation (social influence) includes ways in which people intentionally alter, change, or exploit others

regression, coercion, charm, reason etc...

High Extraversion/Dominance: Coercion, responsibility invocation
Low Extraversion/Dominance: Self-abasement, hardball (e.g., deception, violence)
High Agreeableness: Pleasure induction, reason
Low Agreeableness: Coercion, silent treatment



interaction model: coping,

transaction model: Can influence coping (like in previous model)
Can influence how a person appraises/interprets events
Can influence events themselves
People don’t just respond to situations, they also create situations through choices and actions


health behavior model

Personality does not directly influence the relationship between stress and illness

Instead, personality affects health indirectly, through health promoting or health degrading behaviors



Most personality disorders include distortion of self-concept


PD h

Genetic epidemiologic studies indicate that all ten personality disorders (PDs) are modestly to moderately heritable


PD views

categorical view: you have it or you dont.
Dimensional view: there is a spectrum



Distinctions between normal personality traits and disorders are in terms of:


Why are PD hard to treat?

*Few of them in the population
Thoughts, feelings, beliefs and/or behaviors that one accepts as part of self and is not considered problematic.
Symptoms feel ‘normal’ and may be perceived as values aspects of self
More likely to view others as the problem

This poses challenges for effective treatment


3 clusters

eccentric (paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal)
erratic (Histrionic, borderline, antisocial, narcissictic)
anxious (avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive)



All patients are untreatable
Illusory treatment alliance
Fear of assault or harm
Helplessness and guilt



Gradually, infant comes to realize that it is distinct from the rest of the world
Age 2-3, identify and associate with themselves according to sex and age
Also expand self-concept to include the reference to family
Ages 3-4, self-concept is based mainly on developing skills and talents

Ages 5-6, increasingly begin to compare their skills and abilities with those of others (social comparison)
Secrets and lies—based on the development of the private self-concept
Perspective taking (teen years)
Ability to take perspectives of others, to see oneself as others do including objective self-awareness—seeing oneself as the object of others’ attention
Objective self-awareness is the beginning of social identity



Self-schema: building blocks of self-concept. Attributes: assertivenss, for masculine, it guids what information we pay attention to. They are cognitive structures that are built on past experiences and guide the processing of information about the self.

Self-schema: Directing attention to situations that will validate it. If it’s negative, then a negative reinforcement loop occurs. Things reflect the knowledge that you have about yourself. If you think that you’re more prone to failure, then you’ll remember that one time you failed, not the other times that you won.

Self-schemas: who we think we are. They help us where we stand in the world. We remember things that are relevant to us. Cognitive knowledge about the self.

We will selectively look for confirmatory information: Confirmation bias. We want things to validate our self-schemas.

Self-schema: building blocks of self-concept. Attributes: assertivenss, for masculine, it guids what information we pay attention to. They are cognitive structures that are built on past experiences and guide the processing of information about the self.


hormone theory

Research suggests link between hormones and behavior is bi-directional
No account of origins of hormonal differences



manifest in thoughts, feelings, interpersonal relations, and impulse control


PD diagnosis

Clinical Impressions
Self-Report Scales
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II)
Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire- Revised (PDQ-R)
Structured Interviews
Informant Reports