Flashcards in final exam Deck (57):
What does the term “slow-to-warm babies” refer to?
Babies who are inactive, showing relatively calm reactions to their environment; their moods are generally negative, and they withdraw from new situations, adapting slowly
What is Erikson’s trust vs mistrust stage?
Birth to 1.5 years where infants develop a sense of trust or mistrust, largely depending on how well their needs are met by their caregivers.
What is the “activity theory”?
The theory suggesting that successful aging occurs when people maintain the interests, activities, and social interactions, with which they were involved during middle age
What is “social referencing”?
The international search for information about others feelings to help make sense of uncertain circumstances and events
What is the “compensational theory”?
Older adults need to compensate when life tasks require a higher level of capacity
What is the definition of “temperament”?
Patterns of arousal and emotionality that are consistent and enduring characteristics of a individual
What is an “easy baby” (Thomas and Chess)
Babies who have a positive disposition; their body functions operate regularly and they are adaptable
What is the Ainsworth Strange Situation?
A sequence of staged episodes that illustrates the strength of attachment between a child and typically his or her mother
What is the 8 steps of the Ainsworth Strange Situation?
-The mother and baby enter an unfamiliar room
-The mother sits down, leaving the baby free to explore
-The adult stranger enters the room and converses with the mother and then with the baby
-The mother exists the room leaving the baby with the stranger
-The mother returns, greeting and comforting the baby, and the stranger leaves
-The mother departs again, leaving the baby alone
-The stranger returns
-The mother returns and the strangers leaves
What part of development did Bowlby explore?
What is the “ambivalent attachment pattern”?
A style of attachment in which children display a combination of positive and negative reactions to their mothers
What is “stranger anxiety”?
The caution and wariness displayed by infants when encountering an unfamiliar person
What is “attachment”?
The positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual
What is “theory of mind”?
The ability to attribute mental states, beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge to oneself and others and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions and perspective that are different from ones owns
What is “separation anxiety”?
The distress displayed by infants when a customary care provider departs
What is the “avoidant attachment pattern”?
A style of attachment in which children do not seek proximity to the mother; after the mother has left, they seem to avoid her when she returns
What is extrinsic motivation?
Motivation that drives people to obtain tangible rewards, such as money and prestige
What are reference groups?
A group of people you compare yourself to; present a set of norms or standards against which adolescents judge their social success
What period of life does Erik Erikson’s generativity-versus-stagnation address?
What is identity achievement (James Marcia)?
The status of adolescents who commit to a particular identity after a period of crisis
What is a moratorium (James Marcia)?
A period during which they take time off from the upcoming responsibilities of adulthood to explore various roles and possibilities
What is the “social clock”?
The culturally determined psychological timepiece providing a sense of whether we reached the major benchmarks of life at the appropriate time in comparison to our peers
What is intrinsic motivation?
Motivation that causes people to work for their own enjoyment not for the rewards work may bring
According to James Marcia, what is the definition of “crisis”?
Is a period in which an adolescents consciously chooses between various alternatives and make decisions
What is identity diffusion (James Marcia)?
The status of adolescents who consider various identity alternatives but never commit to one or never even consider identity options in any conscious way
What is the social identity theory?
Members of a minority group are likely to accept the negative views held by a majority group only if they perceive that there is little realistic possibility of changing the power and status differences between the groups
What is self -esteem and self-concept?
-Self-Esteem: an individual's overall and specific positive and negative self-evaluation
-Self-concept: set of beliefs about what we are like as individuals
What are “norms”?
Standards against which adolescents can judge their abilities and social success
What is “crisis or commitment”? (James Marcia)
-Crisis: is a period in which an adolescent consciously chooses between various alternatives and makes decisions
-Commitment: psychological investment in a course of action or an ideology
What is the focus of a person’s early 30’s? (Erikson)
Providing for a growing family in his early 30’s
What is the “fantasy period” ? (Ginzberg)
According to Ginzberg the period lasting until age 11, when career choices are made, and discarded, without regard to skills, abilities, or available job opportunities
What is social comparison?
The desire to evaluate one’s own behavior, abilities, expertise, and opinions by comparing them to those of others
What is “moral development”?
The changes in people's sense of justice and of what is right and wrong, and in their behavior related to moral issues
What is the definition of “aggression”?
Intentional injury or harm to another person
What are characteristics of an “authoritarian” parent?
Parents who are controlling, punitive, rigid, and cold, whose word is law. They value strict unquestioning obedience from their children and do not tolerate expressions of disagreement
What is “empathy”?
The understanding of what another individual feels
What are the characteristics of an “uninvolved” parent?
Parents who show almost no interest in their children and indifferent, rejecting behavior
What is “prosocial behavior”?
Helping behavior that benefits others
What is “spirituality”?
Is a sense of attachment to some higher powers, such as god, nature, or a sacred entity
What is “conventional morality”?
Kohlberg’s second level of moral reasoning in which people approach moral problems as members of society
What is “instrumental aggression”?
Aggression motivated by the desire to obtain a concrete goal, such as playing with a desirable toy that another child is playing with
What is “postconventional morality”?
Kohlberg’s third level of moral reasoning in which people use moral principles that are seen as broader that those of any particular society
What is “social learning”?
Social learning approaches to aggression emphasizes how social and environmental conditions teach individuals to be aggressive
What kind of stages did Kohlberg believe we pass through?
What are the characteristics of an “authoritative” parent?
Parents who are firm, setting clear and consistent limits, but who try to reason with their children, giving explanations for why they should behave in a particular way
What are the characteristics of a “permissive” parent?
Parents who provide lax and inconsistent feedback and require little of their children
What kind of stages did Carol Gilligan develop?
She developed the three stages of moral development for women
What are the three stages of moral development for women
-Stage 1 Orientation toward individual survival: initial concentration is on what is practical and best for self, gradual transition from selfishness to responsibility
-Stage 2 goodness of self-sacrifice: initial view is that a women must sacrifice her own wishes to what other people want
-Stage 3 mortality of non violence: a moral equivalence is established between self and others
What is “preconventional morality”?
Kohlberg's first level of moral reasoning in which the concrete interests of the individual are considered in terms of rewards and punishments
What is elder abuse?
The physical or psychological mistreatment or neglect of elderly individuals
What did the Bobo doll experiment show?
That the adult models aggressive behavior is imitated by children who had viewed the aggressive behavior
Define brain and functional death
-Brain death: a diagnosis of death based on the cession of all signs of brain activity, as measured by electrical brain waves
-Functional death: the absence of a heartbeat and breathing
Review Kubler-Ross’ steps of grieving
-Denial: the first reaction to learning about the terminal illness, loss, or death of a cherished loved one is to deny the reality of the situation
-Anger: anger may be directed at our dying pr deceased loved one
-Bargaining: the normal reaction to feelings of helplessness and vulnerability is often a need to regain control through a series of “if only” statements
-Acceptance: reaching this stage of grieving is a gift not afforded to everyone
Review euthanasia (active, passive)
-Passive: involves removing respirators or other medical equipment that may be sustaining a patient's life, allowing the individual to die naturally
-Active: caregivers or medical staff act to end a person's life before death would normally occur
Review childhood conceptions of death (particularly awareness of child’s age)
-No concept of death until the age of 5
-At age 9 acceptance of universality and finality of death
-By middle childhood, understanding of some customs involved with death
Distinguish between bereavement and grief
-Bereavement: acknowledgement of the objective fact that one has experienced a death
-Grief: the emotional response to one's loss