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Flashcards in Unit Exam 1 Deck (68):
1

Motivation

the biological emotional, cognitive, or social forces that activate and direct behavior

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what are the three characteristics associated with motivation?

activation, persistence, and intensity

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Activation

demonstrated by the initiation or production of behavior

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Persistence

demonstrated by continued efforts or the determination to achieve a particular goal often in the face of obstacles

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Intensity

seen in greater vigor of responding that usually accompanies motivated behavior

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incentive theory

the view that behavior is motivated by the pull of external goals such as rewards

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Drive

a need or internal motivational state that activates behavior to reduce the need and restore homeostasis

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Drive Theory

the view that behavior is motivated by the desire to reduce internal tension caused by unmet biological needs

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Instinct theory

the view that certain human behaviors are innate and due to evolutionary programming

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Achievement motivation

the drive to excel, succeed, outperform others at some tasks

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Self-determination theory (SDT) of motivation by Deci and Ryan

that optimal human functioning can occur only if the psychological needs for AUTONOMY, COMPETENCE, and RELATEDNESS are satisfied

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Optimal Arousal

human motivation aims to seek optimal levels of arousal, not to eliminate it.

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Arousal theory

the view that people are motivated to maintain a level of arousal that is optimal - neither too high, nor too low

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Homeostasis

the idea that the body monitors and maintains internal states, such as body temperature and energy supplies, constant levels, reach or maintain equilibrium

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Abraham Maslow created what?

model of motivation called Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

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levels of needs bottom to top

physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization

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physiological needs:

food, water, warmth, rest

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safety needs:

security, safety

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belongingness and love needs:

intimate relationships, friends

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esteem needs:

prestige and feelings of accomplishment

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self-actualization:

achieving ones full potential, including creative activities

22

what are the biological factors that contribute to our motivation to eat?

Ghrelin

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Ghrelin "hunger hormone":

hormone made by the stomach that stimulates appetite and the secretion of the growth hormone by the pituitary gland

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Positive Incentive Value

the anticipated pleasure of consuming a particular food; eating behavior

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what does evolution say about over eating?

leads to obesity that can be genetic

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Satiation

the feeling of fullness and diminished desire to eat that accompanies eating a meal

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set point theory

body has a natural weight called set-point weight that it is set to maintain and your body that the body defends from getting high or lower

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Leptin:

hormone produced by fat cells that signals the hypothalamus, regulating hunger and eating

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Insulin:

hormone controlling food intake; secreted by pancreas; regulates blood levels of glucose

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Cholecystokinin (CCK):

hormone secreted primarily by the small intestines that promotes satiation; also found in the brain; is a neurotransmitter

31

Emotions are a response of an organisms what?

cognition, affect, and behavior

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what are the components of emotion?

physical arousal, subjective experience, behavioral and expressive response

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James-Lange Theory

the theory that emotions arise from the perception of body changes; process of theory (1) recognize a threatening situation (2) reacted by feeling fearful (3) activated sympathetic nervous system (4) triggered fearful behavior

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Cannon-Bard Theory

we feel emotions and experience physiological reactions; it suggests that emotions result when the thalamus sends a message to the brain in response to a stimulus, resulting in a physiological reaction

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Two-Factor Theory

emotion is the interaction of physiological arousal and the cognitive label that we apply to explain the arousal

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Process of James-Lange Theory

1. stimulus
2. physiological arousal and behavioral changes
3. subjective experience of emotion

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Process of Two Factor Theory

1. stimulus
2. physiological arousal
3. cognitive label for arousal
4. conscious emotion

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systemic nervous system:

is the body's emergency system, rapidly activating bodily systems to meet threats or emergencies

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parasympathetic nervous system:

conserves and maintains your physical resources, it calms you down after an emergency

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Thalamus:

where the first visual stimulus is routed

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Hypothalamus:

a stop of the pathways that lead from the amygdala

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Amygdala:

is the implicate of emotional response

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types of facial expressions:

happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, anger, and disgust

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Facial Feedback:

the view that expressing a specific emotion, especially facially, causes the subjective experience of emotion

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Masters and Johnsons sexual response:

mapped the sexual response by William Masters and Virginia Masters

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masters and Johnson sexual response sequence:

stage 1: excitement
stage 2: plateau
stage 3: orgasm
stage 4: resolution

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sex:

the biological category of male and female as defined by physical differences in reproductive ANATOMY

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Gender (how the feel within themselves) :

the cultural, social and psychological meanings that are associated with masculinity and femininity

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Gender Role:

the behaviors attitudes and personalit traits that are designated as either masculine or feminine in a given culture

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Sexual Orientation:

the direction of a persons emotional and erotic attraction towards members of the opposite sex, the same sex or both sexes

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Gender Role Stereotypes:

the beliefs and expectations people hold about the typical characteristics, preferences and behavior

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Gender Identity:

is what they label themselves as

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Social Learning Theory: (of gender role development)

the theory that gender roles are acquired through the basic process of learning, including reinforcement, punishment and modeling

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Evolutionary Theory

gender differences are the result of generations of the dual forces of sexual selection and parental investment

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Gender Schema Theory:

the theory that gender role development is influenced by the formation of schemas or mental representations of masculinity and femininity

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Sexual dysfunction:

a consistent disturbance in sexual desire, arousal, or orgasm that causes psychological distress and interpersonal difficulties

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Paraphilia:

several forms of non traditional sexual behavior in which a person's sexual gratification depends on an unusual sexual experience, object or fantasy

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STD:

any of several infectious diseases that are transmitted through sexual intercourse and other intimate sexual contact

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vaginismus

persistent, involuntary contractions or spasms of the vaginal muscles which result in uncomfortable or painful intercourse

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dyspareunia

genital pain before, during or after intercourse

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estrogen

sex hormone produced by ovaries

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testosterone in women and men

castration or illness causes lowered testosterone causing loss of sex drive and for women; testosterone in women are produced by adrenal glands

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david buss mating strategies for men:

women who are likely to be succeful in bearing children; high value of youth; physically healthy; and high quality genes

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david buss mating strategies in women:

good genes; health and attractive men; and posses the resources for their offspring to survive

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Sensation Seeking:

the degree to which an individual is motivated to experience high levels of sensory and physical arousal

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Bacterial STDS:

gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia

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parasitic STDs:

public lice:

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viral STDs:

genital herpes. AIDS, HIV