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Flashcards in FInal exam Deck (49):
1

Francis I

King of France (1515-1547)

Continued Italian wars CONQUERED MILAN.

LOST BATTLE OF PAVIA AND IS CAPTURED/LATER RELEASED.

2

Frederick III

The FIRST of the Hapsburg Dynasty

Elected as Holy Roman Emperor 

used matrimonial allianceds instead of warfare for power acquisition which ultimately led to GREATER TERRITORY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

3

Chevauche

Was the tactic employed (mostly by mercenary groups like the Free COmpanies) of complete destruction of a region as a form of warfare. 

Destruction of crops via burning, and pillaging a main feature, primarily as a means to reduce the productivity of a region.

Almost like the opposite of "Chivalry"

4

The Reconquista

Is a period in spanish/PORTUGESE history describing the "reconquest" of the IBERIAN PENINSULA to reestablish Christian dominance throughout the REGION FROM muslim(moor) CONTROL.

Dated back to the 8th century ce.

Was very successful and all of territory was reacquired by 1492 upon retaking of Grenada.

Brought about the establishment of Christian kingdoms known as Castile, Leone, and Portugal around 1000ce.

 

5

The Holy League and Second Holy League

Was the joint partnership that saw the Papacy switch sides from his efforts with the League of Cambrai, and was a joint effort to oppose French power moves in Italy. Involved England, Scotland, Germans and others

6

Henry VIII

Where to begin

King of England.  Son of Henry VII

Married Catherine of Aragon, wanted it anulled much to chagrin of papacy. Established Church of England in response. among other things.

With Cardinal Wolsey, established the Treaty of London.

Lost wrestling match to French King Francis I which many believe to be cause for his treachery.

7

Charles VII

King of France during Hundred Years War (1422-1461)

Benefitted greatly from the effects of Joan of Arc and the rising ideas of French Nationalism.

Established a full time, wage-paid, professional army via the COMPANIES OF THE ORDINANCE.

Gained greater levels of power than his rivals in England due to his use of the ESTATES GENERAL and ability to raise taxes..

 

8

The Peasant Revolt (1381)

In England, following a variety of circumstances including the effects of the Black Plague, and the passing of the STATUTE OF LABORERS.

 

9

Henry VII

King of England

Tudor dynasty nobility.

Probably the most successful in terms of keeping England out of war and stuff. Practiced diplomacy through marrying himself and his family to his rivals (Spain and Scotland most notably),

Helped pass the STATUTE AGAINST LIVERIES 

Established Yeomen of the Guard aka BEEFEATERS.

Helped reaffirm king power in England and established a STAR CHAMBER (like a supreme court) to handle matters of treason and other heinous acts. 

 

Succeeded by HEnry VIII

 

10

Companies of the Ordinance

A permanent, professional, full time, paid army established by King Charles VII of France during Hundred Years War.

Was divided into various specialties including archers, horsemen, various forms of foot soldiers, pikemen, musketeers, and skilled artillery men.

Funding for this army was made possible by King's ability to raise taxes through contorol of the ESTATES GENERAL. 

11

Louis XI

King of France 1461-1483, son of Charles VII

Aka the Spider because he was known for spinning webs and plots around his enemies.

Effectively eliminated the threat of the Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold.

Expanded military and economic power of France.

Succeeded by his son Charles VIII

12

Charles the Bold

Duke of Burgundy (France)

Wanted independence from French crown and to be King of Burgundy.

He held economically prosperous territory.

Destroyed by King Louis XI's coalition of the Dukes enemies.

13

Henry V

King of England after Edward III (of  Lancaster family)

Part of Hundred Years War

Big victory at Battle of Agincourt to take a lot of French Territory

14

The Jacqueire

Was an uprising of French Peasantry DURING THE HUNDRED YEARS WAR against french nobility.

Was in response to the successes of King of England Edward III in France and the collapse of French entity.

Many peasants questioned why they should work for an upper class that could not meet its implied obligation to provide protection for them.

15

The Corregidors

Was a system of representatives established by Ferd and Isabella

Ruled in the name of the crown and served local affairs, but mostly collected taxes.

Oversaw the Hermandad.

16

Joana the Mad

AKA Joana of Castile. 

She would marry Philip the Fair, the son of Maximilian I, HRE. 

She was cray af.

She had a son named Charles, no big deal or anything.

17

The Hundred Years War

Was a conflict between Plantagenets of England and Valois of France

 

Stemmed from the 1066 conquest of England by French prince William the Conquerer who maintained possesions of French territories.

 

Succeeding Kings vied for more territories in France and England respectively. 

and was a major dispute over the LEGITIMATE SUCCESSION OF THE FRENCH CROWN.

18

The Statute of Labourers

Was a law passed by English Parliament, (under the reign of Rich III) in response to LABOR SHORTAGES, designed to suppress the rights and mobility of laborers.

Prevented an increase in wages.

Led to PEASANT REVOLT of 1381.

Richard coerced the leader of this movement to meet with him and ends up killing him. TREACHERY!

19

The Battle of Agnadello

Was the defeat of Venetian republic in early 1500s. 

Was waged by the LEAGUE OF CAMBRAI (french, papal, HRE interests) as part of Italian wars.

20

Landsknechts

Were GERMAN MERCENARIES widely used in 15th and 16th Europe warfare.

Established by HRE Maximilian I

contained a vast amount of PIKEMEN. 

Used extensively/successfully in the BATTLE OF PAVIA against the fRENCH.

21

"AEIOU"

"Alles erdreich ist Osterreich Untertum" or "The House of Austria controls the world and Universe"

This was a Hapsburg phrase that basically represented their belief that bc of their vast expanses of power, they were divine and unstopppable.

22

The Golden Bull 

1356

Established in part due to the ongoing fighting for power in German lands between various noble families and princes. 

Transformed "Germany" from a hereditary monarchy to an ELECTED MONARCHY..

Devised of a council of 7 princes who acted as electors to determine emperorship.

Ended a lot of the disputes but was still exploited (Hapsburg dynasty would come to power by essaentially bribing the council for repeated reelection).

23

The Hermandad

Were under the supervision of the Corregidors.

Non-known militiamen (part-time)

Were difficult to be controlled by Corregidors because they sometimes engaged in vigilante activity.

 

24

Maximilian I

1493-1519

Hapsburg son of Frederick III and eventual HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR

Married to Mary of Burgundy, daughter of Charles the Bold (arranged by Freddy 3 and increased territory and economy).

His marriage was quite good but cut tragically short when mary was thrown from a horse and died.

His son is PHILIP THE FAIR who married the crazy Joanna from spain but is important because they will fornicate and bring CHARLES V to the world

25

War of the Roses

A war in England between the York House and the Lancaster House and was a feature of the ongoing HUNDRED YEARS WAR between france and England..

Arose over the dispute about who should be ruling since Henry VI was essentially insane. 

Duke of York felt like he should be regent of the insane king but the lancastrians disagreed. Both sides used Bastard feudalism to fight their battles. 

Ended by the BATTLE OF BOSWORTH FIELD and HENRY VII of the Tudor dynasty from France. He defeated Richard III 

26

Henry VI

King of England, son of Henry V

Partook in the Hundred Years War and also thought he was rightful heir of French throne as well.

He had a rather ineffective reign and he was noted for being mentally unstable.

Because of this, questions about who should rule in his place erupted into the WAR OF THE ROSES, YORK house versus the LANCASTER house 

27

Charles V

Where do we begin.

1500-1558

Known as Carlos I in spain.

One of the most powerful and influential Holy Roman Emporers. He was HRE as well as king of Spain. 

Son of Philip the Fair and Joana la Loca.

Expanded much of the territory of the HRE throughout much of Europe as well as the newly acquired New World territories.  Only thing he didnt have much control over was France and England.

28

The Free Companies

Was a system of mercenaries used during the Hundred Years War, notably by Edward III.

These guys were ruthless and instead of being "chivalrous", they engaged in what is known as chevauche.

It was understood if these guys weren't paid, they would pay themselves through looting/pillaging etc.

29

Treaty of London

Devised by Cardinal Wolsey, under the reign of Henry VIII

Kinda like the League of Nations.

Outlawed warfare among CHRISTIAN PRINCES

Tried to renew crusades to get ottoman turks out of europe.

Signed by several euro nations.

Dissolved quickly after its signing with Charles V assuming HRE.

30

Charles VIII

King of France 1483-1498, son of Louis XI

He was a boy when he took the throne, sole ruler by 14.

Grew bored with his reign and wanted to GROW GROW .

Wnated to take back Naples, as a springboard to fight the OTTOMANS.

Led to wars in Italy/failed.

31

Pilgrimage of Grace

A revolt against the rule of HENRY VIII

Spawned from a variety of grievances by both commoners and nobility but most notably because of the kings break from the CATHOLIC CHURCH. 

32

Forutna

Was the concept of luck that Machiavelli described in regards to how rulers gain power.

33

Estates General

Was a French legislative body.

During the hundred years war, king Charles VII used it to raise taxes and establish Companies of the Ordinance. 

Similar to English parliament.

34

Jeanne d' Arc

a "MYSTIC" (spoke directly to god supposedly)

Peasant that was given a chance by French crown.

Rallied French support against the English during Hundred Years War and sparked ideas of FRENCH NATIONALISM. 

She fought like a badass, but was ultimately captured and burned as a witch by the English.

35

Sir Thomas Moore

Christian Humanist, friend of Erasmus.

Wrote UTOPIA novel which was maybe about optimistic reform (a society of people living in equal balance with one another).

 

36

Ferdinand

of ARAGON

Marries Isabella of Castile uniting Aragon and Castile (1469) ((big deal))

less militarily involved unlike wifey, but has been described as being "foxlike" and slick (machiavellian?)

Had a broad outlook and sought to expand powers in the Med and Italy.

Oversaw the RECONQUISTA as well as Spanish Inquisition.

Corregidors, and Tercios.

Grandpappy to Charlie the Fifth

37

Duke Ludovico il Moro

LUDOVICO SFORZA, DUKE OF MILAN

Tried to help Charles VIII of France to take back parts of Italy but broke the TREATY OF LODI in the process

38

Isabella 

Of CASTILE

United Castile and Aragon via marriage to FERDINAND (1469).

She was a very militant, rigid type (much like her fellow Castilians)

Militarily Savvy and devoted to Catholic faith.

Sought to end Moor presence from iberian peninsula ie the RECONQUISTA. 

Also engaged in the Spanish Inquisition.

Helped create the CORREGIDORS, and a unified army under the name of TERCIOS.

Grandma to Charles V

39

Philip the Fair

Married Joana the Mad of Castile, bringing together Spain with Hapsburg house, and then when they had sex, spark flew. Also charles V would be his son.

40

The Spanish Inquisition

Because Spanish crown controlled the church similarly to France, they established a "Royal Inquisiton."

Purpose was to force remaining Jews and Muslims to convert to christianity or GTFO.

Book burnings were common (quran and stuff)

"Relatively few people were tortured or killed despite the common misconception

Led to many Muslims fleeing to Holland.

Oversaw primarily by Izzy and Ferdy

41

League of Cambrai

Was a joint effort by French King Loui XII, Pope Julius, Ferdinand II, and HRE Maximilian I against the Republic of Venice.

They waged the battle of AGNADELLO where the successfully, if temporarily, dismantled the Venetian republic.

42

Antinomianism

Antinomianism comes from the Greek meaning lawless. In Christian theology it is a pejorative term for the teaching that Christians are under no obligation to obey the laws of ethics or morality. Few, if any, would explicitly call themselves "antinomian," hence, it is usually a charge leveled by one group against an opposing group.

Antinomianists believe that they dont have to follow biblical law because the grace of god will cleanse them of their sins regardless? this was bit in the german city of muensters and was A FEATURE OF THE END OF THE RENAISSAINCE.

43

Edward III

King Of England.

Son of Isabella 

Greatly enhanced England military strength via Bastard Feudalism and establishment of FREE COMPANIES

Was a major figure in the Hundred Years War

44

Bastard Feudalism

Was a system developed by King Edward III of England to establish a military force.

The system promised money, influence or political office in the exchange for military service.

Was pyrimidical social heirarchy with king at top and peasantry at bottom.

Was challenged by the the FREE COMPANIES system.

45

Louis XII

French King 1498-1515, preceded by CHarles VII (cousin)

Participated in Conquest of Milan (second italian wars) and took it over, then took over NAPLES.

Was involved in the LEAGUE OF CAMBRAI, a joint effort with the pope, Max 1st, Ferd the 2nd, against the Republic of Venice,

 

46

Savonarola

Dominican Friar who rises to power in FLORENCE following the Revolutions of Italy during the French invasions.

A very fiery, stern, puritanical preacher.

Delivered sermons that convinced the Florence population that all the bad things are the result of their wickedness/god's punishment, end of times was approaching.

Engaged in the BONFIRE OF THE VANITIEs: destroyed a bunch of luxury consumer goods, books and silks and things.

Pope and FRANSISCANS resisted him.

He was forced to prove his role as a messiah (WANTED HIM TO WALK THROUGH FIRE BUT BEFORE HE COULD A GREAT THUNDERSTORM HIT AND FIRE EXTINGUISHED RESULTING IN PEOPLE TURNING AGAINST HIM AND EXECUTING HIM.)

47

Parlement

not of England, but of PARIS

became the HIGHEST COURT OF APPEAL following the HUNDRED YEARS WAR (think supreme court).

48

Treaty of Cambrai

Ended French hostilities in Italy between France and HRE, acknowledging Charles V's ownership of Italy/TEMPORARY

49

Battle of Pavia

Decisive defeat of FRENCH ARMY in italian wars. 

French were hunkered down but battered by small arms. Small arms were crucial and was first time they were used decisively in a battle.

The HRE, Charles V, used mercenary soldiers known as LANDSKNECHTS to fight this battle (they would not be compensated for their work).

King Francis I in this battle and was captured