Beethoven’s hearing loss began in 1798. He wrote this letter talking about suicide. it was never sent and discovered 25 years later.
opera by Beethoven, longest piece he ever composed. Initially a flop and then revised
by Beethoven, was described as heralding his new "heroic style" after going deaf. seems to express in music the struggles that Beethoven had tried to articulate #3
Beethoven’s 6th symphony, programmatic aspects and influenced later composers
a set of variations for the piano written between 1819 and 1823 by Ludwig van Beethoven on a waltz composed by Anton Diabelli
also called “trifles.” Beethoven wrote short piano pieces and were called this because it have indication of their weight in his mind.
a mass by Beethoven in D major. late Beethoven. Sanctus- earlier comports generally set with grandeur and majesty. trumpets and timpais typically.
Much fugal/ contrapuntal writing
wrote a thematic catalog of Schubert’s works that was modeled on Kochel’s of Mozart. said Schubert wrote nearly 1000 works
Schubert’s 8th symphony, very influential. let to “Romanticization” of large scale instrumental forms. the manuscript breaks off after 2 pages of the 3rd movement scherzo. ends with a slow movement in the “wrong key”
Schubert’s piano quintet in A major. written for piano, violin, viola, cello and double bass instead of a normal piano and SQ.
German origin. a new genre in the 19th century that was meant for consumption at home. short, small and meant for one or two players. a setting of a lyric poem for voice accompanied by piano.
a salon-like even centered around Schubert, who performed his music and had party games such as charades. pretty much a gathering devoted to a composers work
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
German writer and statesman. His works include four novels; epic and lyric poetry; prose and verse dramas; memoirs; an autobiography; literary and aesthetic criticism; and treatises on botany, anatomy, and colour. In addition, there are numerous literary and scientific fragments, more than 10,000 letters, and nearly 3,000 drawings by him extant.
a poem made of prosodically similar verse, set to a single more or less repeated musical stanza. Goethe’s “Heidenroslein” was this
Modified Strophic form
combined elements of strophic and “through-composed” styles. stanzas are varied to a degree but are still recognizable related by reccuring music.
music that is relatively continuous, non-sectional, and/or non repetitive; in a song a viable approach to both strophic and freely versified text
a set of songs grouped together by the composer, unified by a common theme, an accompanying narrative, or text authorship by one writer. used by Beethoven- An Die Ferne Geliebte
“serious” style of Italian opera that dominated European music in the 18th century, alternation of recitative and area, focus on larger than life characters. Bellini, Donizetti, and Rossini
“comic opera”; applied first to Neapolitan Language works in the late Baroque, then to Italian works between 1750 and 1860 (Mozart and Rossini); rapid fire secco recitative, vigorous stage business, complex finale. dramatic fusion leading to peaceful resolution
the hero’s entrance
“brilliant conclusion” the concluding faster section of a 2 part complex aria or duet in Italian opera. Rossini
defined by Bellini. Italian for “fine singing”; a term to describe the Italian operatic style of the Romantic era, featuring virtuostic coloratura vocal parts that emphasized the upper registers and paralleled increasingly emotional scenarios and louder, more dramatic orchestral accompaniments. used in Bellini’s opera Norma
Identify musical characteristics that define Romanticism.
Chromaticism Flexibility of rhythm Dynamics Program music bigger orchestra More polyphony Virtuosity Changes fo Mood Experimentation
What are common themes in Romantic program music?
Nature Death and Life Nationalism Emotions Love, esp. unattainable Dreams Exoticism Night Supernatural
Give an overview of Beethoven’s life.
Born in Bohn pushed by father into music- WTC at 13 Bonn to Vienna 1792 studied with Haydn 1792-94 Freelance musician Hearing loss began 1798- Heiligenstadt Testament- talking about contemplating suicide 20,000 at his funeral
Outline Beethoven’s compositional output.
piano music- 32 sonatas, Variations, Bagatelles Orchestral music- concertos- 5 piano concertos, violin concerto, “Triple” concerto overtures incidental music 3. Chamber Music 16 SQ 7 piano trios 10 violin sonatas 5 cello sonatas 4 Voices + Orchestra 2 masses- Mass in C, Missa Solemnis Fidelio
Give the dates of Beethoven’s three style periods, characteristics of the music of each period, and the most important works from each period.
Early (-1802) “Classical” Symphonies 1-2
Middle (1802-1814) “Dramatic” qualities, longer, experimentation. Symphonies 3-8
Late (1814-1827)Chromaticism,polyphony,“Reflective and Introspective” Symphony 9
Give several reasons why Beethoven wrote far fewer symphonies than Mozart or Haydn.
Struggled with composition
Symphony 3 (Middle Beethoven)
“Eroica Symphony” almost everything is bigger than pervious symphonies- length, size of orchestra, demands on players, harmonic drama, and the unity of the whole
Symphony 5 (Middle Beethoven)
based on a feature of his music known as organicism- all movements grow out of a singe idea: the short-short-short- long rhythm. First movement has unexpected passages such as an oboe cadenza. Second movement is an unusual variation set with 2 alternating themes. Last 2 movements are linked together. This symphony demonstrates what Hoffmann called “the spirit world of infinite.”
Symphony 6 (Middle Beethoven)
intentionally programmatic. Beethoven gave each movement a descriptive title. Examples: movement #2- “scene by the brook”, movement #7- “Apotheos of the Dance”, movement #4- Storm
“Waldstein” Sonata, first movement* (Middle Beethoven)
opening movement- sonata form C-E
Piano Concerto 4 (Middle Beethoven)
Begins with solo piano. Beethoven played and debuted this piece at the Theater an der Wien. Marked his last performance in a concerto
Piano Concerto 5 (Middle Beethoven)
2nd-3rd movements - transition in tempo and word of 2nd movement, but introduces 3rd movement theme
Piano Sonata, op. 106, finale (Late Beethoven)***
String Quartet, op. 131 (Late Beethoven)
all 7 movements are played continuously with no breaks in between. a challenge tot performers
Symphony 9 (Late Beethoven)
Beethoven switches the expected the order of the scherzo and slow movements.
Last movement opens with loud dissonance and confusion that leads to an instrumental recitative.
Fragments of previous movements return in the finale.
Uses “Ode to Joy” melody with various textures and writing styles.
Born in Pesaro, Italy
Early 19th century- most popular composer in Europe
Inherited the legacy of Italian opera after Mozart
Seen as Beethoven’s rival
Dad was a horn player and mom was a soprano
He was a singer when young
Sent to Bologna for a well rounded music education
Wrote his first opera at age 15
At 18, was hired by Teatro Sam Moise in Venice
During next 18 years, he composed about 3 dozen operas
Spent the end of his career in other countries
Successor of Rossini Son and grandson of composers Started musical education at age of 4 Wrote 10 operas in 9 years Known for use of "bel canto"
Born in Bergamo in Lombardy
Also a successor of Rossini
No musical background, but started school with a scholarship at an early age.
Found himself increasingly chafing against the censorship limitations, so he started working in Paris
Moved regularly between Naples, Rome, Paris, and Vienna
His operas dominated 2nd half of 19th century (66 total)
Family of musicians
Composer, conductor, pianist, critic, and novelist
Parents ran a moving theatre, so he was always moving and didn’t have regular schooling
Taught by Michael Haydn, later went to Vienna to study with Franz Joseph Haydn, but Joseph Haydn declined.
Instead he studied with Georg Vogler.
Was not known well until he was taken up by Liszt, Schumann, and more.
Was expected to work at his fathers school.
Went to an elite school in Vienna and was a choirboy in the Imperial Court Chapel.
Spent whole life in Vienna (only 31 years)
Was not employed by the church, court, or any institution
Made concerts a social activity and had Schubertiates in salons (social rooms for rich people)
After his death, his friends helped promote his music
accompamaint is unassuming and easy to play
Different in intensity, drama, and difficulty
Recitative serves to bring the thundering and driving music to an abrupt halt at the end
Each character has special characteristics
Tonal center shifts a lot
15 measure piano introduction-very intense
Sonata, Sonata #8 in C Minor (The “Pathetique”)
Symphony, Symphony #3 in E-flat Major (The “Eroica”)
Symphony, Symphony #5 in C Minor
String Quartet, String Quartet in B-flat, op. 130, “Cavatina”
String Quartet, op. 131, just the first movement!
Opera, Barber of Seville Overture
Opera, Tancredi (“O Patria!”)
Opera, Norma (“Casta Diva”)
Opera, Lucia di Lammermoor (“Mad scene”)
Opera, Der Freischütz (Overture and “Wolf’s Glen Scene”)
Symphony, Symphony #8 in B minor (The “Unfinished”)
Solo voice and piano
modified strophic form