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Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (66)
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1

Acetylcholine

- Found on neuromuscular junctions in somatic system, acts on receptors that excite the muscle

Nicotine = acetylcholine
- stimulates then blocks
- continued occupation at receptor site prevents incoming impulses from having effect (blocks transmission)

- acute nicotine poisoning: tremors-->convulsions-->death bc cholinergic blocking of muscles

2

Adenosine

- Inhibitory neurotransmitter, mental sedation

Caffeine = adenosine antagonist
- Blocks adenosine receptors

3

Dopamine

- Reward, excitatory

Cocaine/amphetamines

- Cocaine blocks reuptake of NAs
- Amphetamines stimulate release of NAs

4

Endorphines

Opioids (morphine, heroin)

endorphins are natural agonists of opioid receptors

Heroin: mimics endorphins

5

GABA

- Major inhibitory NA, limits DA release
sedatives increase DA

- Agonists: Opioids (mu), benzos, barbs, alcohol work directly on GABA

Opioids=short-acting opioid agonist

6

Glutamate/NMDA

- Excitatory

- Cocaine acts on glutamate receptors
- PCP, ketamine (psychs, dissociative)

PCP is an NMDA/glutamate receptor

7

Norepinephrine

- Reward, excitatory

Cocaine/amphetamines

- Cocaine blocks reuptake of NAs
- Amphetamines stimulate release of NAs

8

Serotonin

- Psychedelics ==> phantasica (act on serotonin 2a receptor)

Indole: (serotonin structure) D LAP
LSD, Psilocybin (shrooms), DMT, Ayahuasca

Catechol: (catecholamine, NE, and DA structure) D M2M
Mescaline/peyote, MDMA, DOM, 2CB

- Cathechol and indole hallucinogens . - act on 2A (serotonin 2A receptor)

9

Monitoring the Future Survey

40 yrs; ALLOWS US TO SEE CHANGES OVER TIME IN DRUG USE RATES
15,000 high school seniors/college/8,10

Percentage of college students who have ever used the drug (lifetime)
Used in past 30 days (current)
Daily users in past month

- Most college students have tried alcohol in life, half marijuana, and most never tried any others; daily use for any extremely rare

ILLICIT DRUG USE AMONG HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS HAS NOT CHANGED MUCH IN PAST 15 YEARS
(can’t say more and more young people are using drugs or that kids are starting to use at younger rates)

--> Rates low when perceived risk (of harm) is high
--> Perceived availability has remained relatively constant (implying supply is not a large factor)
--> Best way to reduce use is to convince students of harm (but not causation, correlation, possibility of confound factors)

10

National Survey on Health and Drug Use

- Face-to-face, computer-assisted interview done with more than 68,000 individuals in carefully sampled households across the US

11

Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN)

- no longer exists

- system for collecting data on drug-related deaths or emergency room visits; measure toxicity of drugs other than alcohol

- Up to 6 drugs recorded

12

Years that drug use was highest in the United States

- 1979/80 peak years

- Peak in 80s, lower rates in early 90s, not much change over last decade

13

Annual mortality rates of commonly used psychoactive drugs (e.g., alcohol, tobacco, cocaine)

Alcohol: 100,000
Tobacco: 400,000
Opioid: 42,000
15,000 for heroin
72k for all drugs

14

War on Drugs
- incarceration rates
- racial disparities
- US annual expenditure

- $28 billion spent each year
- 2.2 million people incarcerated

- Black people represent ⅓ of all drug arrests
- State: Blacks 4x more likely to be arrested for marijuana
- Federal: Latinos represent ⅔ of those arrested

15

Pure Food and Drugs Act

Regulated pharmaceutical manufacturing and sales
All ingredients, accurate labeling
Protect from deceit, not themselves
Dept of Agriculture

16

Harrison Act

1914 tax act, first national drug law

Tax and regulate the production, importation and distribution of opium and cocaine products

- Trading favor with China if helped them reduce opium

- Dealers had to register, pay small fee, and use order forms

- TREASURY DEPT

Did not explicitly prohibit the use of opiates or cocaine
Enforcement of of the new law quickly became increasingly punitive
18th amendment, 21st amendment [cops have nothing to do after repeal]

17

Schedule I vs. Schedule II Drugs

Schedule 1: no legal access, high potential for abuse, no medical use, not safe under supervision
ex: Marijuana, heroin, MDMA

Schedule 2: high potential for abuse, yes medical use, abuse could lead to dependence
ex: meth, morphine, cocaine

18

Blood-Brain Barrier Functions

Barrier between blood and fluid surrounding neuron
Semipermeable membrane

Drug must be able to pass to have effect

19

Mesolimbic Dopamine Pathway

VTA → nucleus accumbens

Mediates schizophrenia

(overactivation of DA neurons produces hallucinations → combated by DA-blocking drugs)

20

Nigrostriatal Dopamine Pathway

Substantia nigra → striatum

Mediates movement

(lack of DA neurons inhibits movement….Parkinson’s)

Treatment: L-dopa as precursor bc penetrates BB barrier

21

Pharmokinetic Properties of Drugs

(theories for each)

Half-life
Onset speed (route of administration)

Theory: shorter half-life: more likely to produce withdrawal symptoms
Shorter onset: likely to cause addiction

Hypnotics tend to use larger dose (larger dose, comes on fast, wears of quickly ~~shorter half-life) = good for sleep pill

Sedatives smaller (lower dose, comes on slower, wears off longer ~~longer half-life) = good for daytime sedative

22

First-pass Metabolism

Relation to common routes of administration

Drug broken down before reaching general blood circulation and brain

broken down in liver
oral most broken down, little with intranasal

23

Understand the similarities and differences of the following drugs: heroin, methadone,
buprenorphine, naloxone and naltrexone

Heroin - opioid agonist, short-acting

Methadone - opioid agonist, LONG duration so take less, take at program, more dangerous (FDA+)

Buprenorphine - partial opioid agonist (blocks opioid agonists such as heroin), low overdose potential, long duration (FDA+)

Naloxone - overdose reversal bc short-acting antagonist on receptor, displaces opioid agonists

Naltrexone - antagonist, used as treatment, prevents you from getting high, long-acting naloxone

24

Nicotine Therapies

Substitutes
- Patch
- Gum
- Nasal spray
- Inhaler

25

Anti-drug Abuse Act

Crack cocaine 80s → reversal of comprehensive drug abuse and prevention act of 1970
Brought back longer sentences, mandatory minimums, no-paroles
100:1 crack cocaine
→ huge prison growth

26

Understand the effects of smoking tobacco during pregnancy

Nicotine, hydrogen cyanide, and carbon monoxide in mother smoker's blood

- 1/2 pound lighter (dose-response rate) (reduced O2)
must give up by month 4

- body size, neuro problems, reading/math skills, hyperactivity at various ages, sudden infant death syndrome

- miscarriage

- nicotine dependence in teens

27

Know which neurotransmitter caffeine primarily works through to produce its effects

Xanthines block adenosine receptors
Adenosine usually causes sedation (inhibits other NT)

Caffeine's stimulant action blocks adenosine receptors' inhibitory effect

28

Understand caffeine-related potential beneficial and detrimental effects

Pros:
- stimulation
- energy, offsets exhaust
- headache reducer
- high does decrease hyperactivity

- no evidence of birth defects

Cons:
- harder to get pregnant
- miscarriage
- slow growth of fetus --> low birth weight
- lower heart disease in moderates, raise in extreme drinkers
- caffeinism

29

Know the opioid receptor subtypes and understand opioid pharmacology as presented in lecture

Mu - pain
Kappa - pain
Delta - chronic

Opioids act as agonists at mu receptor on GABA neurons
Disinhibition
inhibit GABA - increase DA release

Most drugs increase DA

30

Know something about the opium wars as described in the text

outlawed -> smuggled -> chests destroyed -> Chinese killed -> war -> brits won


Opium smuggling began when outlawed, very popular

Brits went to war so they could continue pouring opium into China against Chinese gov't wishes

British would import tea in order to illegally sell opium

EIC --> British firms --> Chinese merchants

China seized opium chests, destroyed them --> (*)drunk American and British sailors killing Chinese man

British won -- were given HK, trading rights, $6m to reimburse destroyed opium