Final Exam Chapter 7 Flashcards Preview

GM Organ Histo > Final Exam Chapter 7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Exam Chapter 7 Deck (154):
1

Where is masticatory mucosa found

Gingiva and hard pallate

2

What is the surface epithelium of the masticatory mucosa

Keritinized or parakeritinized stratified squamos epithelium

3

What do superficial cells of parakeritinized stratified squamos epithelium keep

Their nuclei

4

What are the 2 parts of the lamina propria for oral mucosa

Papillary layer and reticular layer

5

What type of connective tissues are located in the lamina propria

Papillary later = thick loose ct, reticular layer = more dense ct

6

What does the papillary layer of the lamina propria contain

Blood vessels, nerves, sensory receptors, some Meissner’s corpuscles

7

Where is lining mucosa found

On soft palate, underside of tongue, floor of mouth, cheeks, and lips

8

What is the surface eptihelium of the lining mucosa

Generally nonkeritinized stratified squamos epithelium, occasionally parakeratinized stratified squamos epi.

9

What is the surface epithelium of the lips/vermillion border

Keratinized stratified squamos epi

10

What is the difference between the areas of non keratinized and keratinized within the lining mucosa

Areas of nonkeratinized stratified squamos epi is thicker than the areas of keratinized stratified squamos epi

11

What is the lamina propria like for the lining mucosa

Loose ct with blood vessels

12

What type of CT is the submucosa made of in the lining mucosa and what can they contain

More dense CT, can have minor salivary glands,sabaecceous glands (corner) larger blood vessels and nerves too

13

What are the three types of oral mucosa

Masticatory mucosa, lining mucosa, specialized mucosa

14

Where is specialized mucosa found

On dorsal surface of tongue

15

What is the surface epithelium of the specialized mucosa

1. Keratinized strat. Squamos on filiform papillae
2. Strat squamos on all other papillae

16

What are 2 functions of specialized mucosa

Move food and taste

17

What is the thickness of the tongues mucosa like

Thicker dorsally, thinner and smoother posteriorly

18

What type of glands are associated with the vallate papillae of the tongue

Small salivary (von Ebner) glands

19

What do small salivary (von Ebner) glands do

Produce serous fluid to cleanse the taste buds on the vallate papillae

20

Where are taste buds located

On all papillae except filiform papillae

21

What is the lamina propria like in the mucosa of the tongue

Loos ct, adipose possible

22

What does the submucosa of the tongue contain

Lingual salivary glands to produce prodcuts like major salivary glands

23

What is special about intrinsic tongue muscle

No external attachement

24

What is the arrangement of the intrinsic tongue muscles

Dorsal to post
-superior longitudinal muscle
-vertical muscles alternating with transverse muscles
-inferior longitudinal muscle

25

What is the function of the intrinsic muscles of the tongue

Change tongue shape

26

What are the ameloblasts of the teeth

Polarized columnar cells that lose following tooth eruption

27

What is the function of ameloblasts

Produce enamel

28

What is the enamel of the teeth like

Hardest substance in the body made of interlinked enamel rods that cannot move after tooth eruption

29

What is the dentin of the tooth like

Harder than bone, contains thin dentinal tubules containing nerves and cell processes of odontoblasts

30

What is predentin of the tooth like

Precursor to dentin before mineralization

31

What are odontoblasts of the tooth like

Columnar cells lining pulp cavity surviving in adults

32

What is the function of the odontoblasts

Repair and produce dentin/ maintain dentists

33

Where is dental pulp located and what is it

Ct with many blood vessels and nerves in dental papilla

34

What is the potential problem of dental papilla

Extensive inflammation

35

What are the 3 types of salivary glands

Parotid, submandibular, sublingual

36

Which gland is the largest salivary gland

The parotid gland but it produces 30% of total salivary output

37

What sickness affects the parotid gland most

Mumps, the facial nerve passes through

38

Which gland is 100% serous producing

Parotid gland

39

What 3 products are produced by the parotid gland

1. Salivary amylose and lipase
2. Lysozome (antimicrobial)
3. Secretory IgA (immunity)

40

How large is the submandibular gland

It is a smaller gland but produces 60% of total salivary output

41

Is the submandibular gland serous producing

Yes! Has serous demilumes

42

What is the size of the sublingual gland

Smallest gland producing 5% of total salivary ouput

43

All serous products of sublingual glands come from where

Serous demilunes = no separate serous acini

44

How is saliva secretion stimulated

By autonomic efferent impulses

45

What will parasympathetic impulses do in saliva secretion

Increase the amount of watery secretion

46

What will sympathetic impulses do in saliva secretion

They will result in decreased amount of saliva with a thicker consistency this results in dryer oral cavity

47

What are 3 things within the luminal wall mucosa

Surface epithelium, lamina propria (loose ct), muscularis mucosae (smooth muscle)

48

What part of the luminal wall contains dense ct, larger blood vessels, and submucosal (Meissner) plexus

The submucosa

49

What is the function of the submucosa within the luminal wall

Influence mucosa

50

What is the fiber orientation of the muscularis externa within the luminal wall

Inner circular and outer longitudinal layers (normal pattern)

51

What part of the luminal wall structure contains myenteric (Auerbach) plexus and typically is smooth muscle

Muscularis externa

52

What is the function of the muscularis external of the luminal wall

Influence myenteric plexus

53

What is next to the muscularis externa of the luminal wall?

Serosa or adventitia

54

Which one serosa or adventitia has ct

Adventitia

55

Does serosa or adventita have and edge of simple squamos epithelium that is serous producing

Serosa

56

What is the function of the esophagus

Transfer bolus to stomach from the oropharynx

57

What is the surface epithleium of the mucosa of esophagous

Stratified squamos = needed b/c of friction

58

What part of the esophagus contains langerhans cells and what do they do?

The surface epithelium of mucosa that is an APC with some phagocytosis possible

59

What type of connective tissue is with the mucosa of the esophagus

Loos areolar ct

60

Where can esophageal cardiac glands be found

In the lamina propria of the esophagus near the stomach, and pharynx for an inch

61

What is the function of esophageal cardiac glands

Produce neutral mucus to protect esophageal epithelium

62

What layer of the mucosa of the esophagus is a discontinuous layer of the longitudinal muscle

Muscularis mucosae

63

What is the thickness like for muscularis mucosae of the esophagus

Thinner distally by the pharynx and thicker proximally by the stomach

64

What type of ct is in the submucosa of the esophagus

Dense fibroelastic ct

65

Where are esophageal proper glands found

Within the submucosa of the esophagus scatter along its length

66

What do esophageal proper glands do

Produce slightly acidic mucus to lubricate the movement of food

67

How do parasympthetics work in the gut

Stimulate peristalsis, inhibits sphincters and activates secretion

68

How do sympathetics work in the gut

Inhibits peristalsis and contracts sphincters and controls blood flow to gut

69

What part of the esophagus is unique

The muscularis externis

70

What is the layout of muscle in the muscularis externa portion of the esophagus

Upper 1/3 = skeletal muscle, middle 1/3 = smooth and skeletal, lower 1/3 = all smooth muscle

71

Is the esophagus made up of primarily adventitia or serosa

Primarily adventitia except the last 1-2 inches = last 1-2 after diaphargm = serosa

72

What are the two spincters associate with esophagus

Pharyngoesophageal and gastrophageal

73

Which esophageal sphincter deals with acid refulx that can lead to esophageal cancer

The lower gastroesophageal sphincter

74

Where are the 2 sphincters of the esophagus located

Pharyngoesophageal = b/w oropharynx and esophagus, gastroesophageal = b/w esophagus and stomach

75

What are 2 characteristics of physiological sphincters

No thickening of circular muscles in muscularis externus, pressure gradient aids movement (contraction + gravity)

76

What are 3 funcitons of the stomach in list of priority

Storage, nutrient breakdown, continuing digestion of carbs

77

What are gastric pits

Tiny depressions in the stomach’s surface; 1 pit leads to more than one gland

78

What is the surface epithethelium of the mucosa of the stomach

Simple columnar

79

What cells produce thick visable mucus and secrete bicarbonate ions and where are they located

Surface mucous (=surface lining) located in surface epithelium of mucosa of stomach

80

What are the bases of pits within the surface epithelium of stomach

Regenerative cells

81

What does the lamina propria contain in the mucosa of the stomach

Loose, vascular ct present in small amounts between glands

82

What are the 3 layers of the muscularis mucosae in the mucosa of the stomach

Inner circular, outer longitudinal, outermost circular/oblique

83

Which layer of the stomach is highly vascular and is the location of arteriovenous anastomosis

The submucosa

84

What is the function of ava (arteriovenous anastomosis)

To shut down activity and secretion fast

85

What type of plexus is in the submucosa of the stomach

Submucosal (Meissner’s) plexus which is next to the inner circular layer of muscle

86

What is the function of the submucosal plexus of the stomach

To influence the mucosa - ie secretion blood flow any limited contraction

87

What 3 layers are possible in the muscularis externa within the stomach

Innermost oblique (sometimes), middle circular (well developed), outer longitudinal (thin)

88

What type of plexus is located within the muscularis externa of the stomach, its location and function

Myenteric (auerbach) plexus = between circular and longitudinal layer of ms, funx = stimulate muscularis externa

89

Where is serosa located in the stomach

All layers

90

What are 3 regions of stomach

Cardiac, gastric (fundus and body), pyloric

91

Which region of the stomach contains shorter pits leading to glands with coiled base and has primarily surface mucous cells, neck, and few DNES/parietal cells but NO cheif cells

The cardiac region

92

Which region of the stomach is the smallest and obtains much mucus

Cardiace

93

What are 3 regions of gastric glands

Isthmus, DNES cells and Neck cells

94

What do surface mucous of isthmus cells do

Produce thick visavle mucus to trap bicarbonate ions

95

What gastric gland cell protects mucosa from autodigestion and the rougher components of chyme

Surface mucous of Isthmus cells

96

What is another name for DNES cells in the stomach

Enteroendocrine cells

97

What do DNES cells in the stomach produce

Somatostatin (inhibit HCL release and nearby DNES), serotonin/substance P increasing motility, gastrin stimulating HCL and pepsinogen, and regenerative cells

98

What cells are neck cells of the stomach

Neck mucous cells, regenerative cells, parietal cells

99

What cells produce a soluble, less alkaline, mucus to lubricate gastric components

Neck mucous cells in stomach

100

Whatt cells are odd columnar cells with intracellular canaliculi

Parietal cells of neck cells in stomach

101

What do parietal cells in the somach produce

Strong HCL and gastric intrinsic factor

102

How can chronic gastritis lead to pernicious anemia

Low # of parietal cells can lead to low amounts of gastric intrinsic factor that will decrease vitamin B12 absorption necessary for RBC maturation

103

What cells are base cells in the stomach

Chief, parietal, DNES

104

What do cheif cells produce

Primarily pepsinogen, and some gastric lipase

105

What cells are in the pyloric region of the stomach

Surface mucous, DNES, parietal, neck mucous

106

What is the anatomical sphinctr between the pylorus of the stomach and the duodenum

Pyloric sphincter

107

What are the 2 characteristics of an anatomical sphincter

1. Well develped inner circular layer of muscle in ME
2. Inner circular layer in ME can independently be controled

108

What are the 3 general funx of small intestine

Digestion, absorb nutrients, produce intestinal hormones - using DNES cells

109

What 3 things increase surface area of the small intestine

Plicae circulares, villi, microvilli

110

What is the surface epithelium of the mucosa in the intestinal wall made of

Simple columnar

111

What are the 6 cell types of the mucosa in the intestines

Surface absorptive, goblet, DNES, regenerative, paneth, M cells,

112

What are the surface absorptive cells in the intestinal mucosa

Enterocytes containing microvilli

113

What are the functions of the enterocytes

Abosrb water/nutrients, terminal digestion in glycocalyx (monosaccharides and peptides

114

What are the 2 general causes of peptic ulcer disease

Insufficient protection from HCL and pepsin, and helicobacter pylori

115

Where are the most goblet cells located in the intestinal mucosa

Fewest in duodenum and most in ileum

116

What do the DNES cells produce in the intestinal mucosa

I = CCK stimulating gallbladder contraction and secretion of enzymes, K= GIP inhibiting HCL, S= secretin stimulating pancreas secretion of bicarbonate and inhibit HCL release, and movement of chyme into SI

117

Where are regenerative cells located in the intestinal mucosa

Found in crypts

118

Which cells of the intestinal mucosa are found on the base of crypts and produce lysozymes

Paneth cells

119

Where are m cells of the intestinal mucosa foun

Ileum epithelium over peyer’s patches

120

What do m cells do

Promote humoral immunity

121

What is the lamina propria of the intestines made of

Loos areolar CT

122

Where is the intestinal lamina propria found and what does it border

Found in villus core, borders intestinal glands (crypts of Lieberkuhn)

123

What part of the intestinal lamina propria are lymphatic capillaries that are for lipid absorption

Lacteals in villus core

124

What is the vascular component of the villus core in intestinal lamina propria

Smaller blood vessels

125

What muscle is found in the intestinal lamina propria

Smoot ms, if contracted villi shorten leading to nutrient deficiencies if irritation is prolonged

126

What is the muscularis mucosa like in the intestinal lamina propria

Thin but present, connecting to smooth muscle in vili

127

Where are duoenal (brunner) glands located and what do they produce

Mucous glands in intestinal submucosa that produce alkaline mucous to neutralize chyme

128

What are groups of regularly occuring large lymph nodules

Peryer’s patches

129

What plexus is located in the submucosa of the ileum

Submucosal (meissner’s)plexus

130

What plexus is located in the muscularis externa of the intestines

Myenteric plexus stimulating ME for peristalsis

131

Where are the serosa and adventitia located in the intestines

Serosa = all of jejunum/ileum, first and last duodenum. Adventitia = vertical (descending) portion of duodenum

132

Is the ileocecal valve a physiological or anatomical sphincter?

Its BOTH found b/w ileum and cecum of colon

133

What is the surface epithelium of the appendix mucosa

Simple columnar

134

Is there a lamina propria associated with the appendix

Yes

135

How developed is the muscularis mucosae of the appendix

Poorly developed

136

What are 3 unique aspects of the apendix mucosa

Short crypts (intestinal glands), no villi, no/infrequent paneth cells

137

What are the characteristics of the appendix submucosa

Thick layer with large blood vesels along with lymph nodules

138

What are the 2 functions of the appendix

Humoral immunity and reservoir for good bacteria

139

What are the primary funx of the colon

Absortion of H2O, compaction/lubrication/elimination of feces, produce vitamins as bacterial by products

140

What is the mucosal surface epithelium of the colon

Simple columnar with goblets and surface absorptive cells (colonocytes)

141

What is typical and has intestinal glands (crypts) within the mucosa of the colon

Lamina propria

142

What does the mucosa f the colon lack

Villi and paneth cells

143

What is unique about the muscularis externa of the colon

It is not a normal pattern, outer longitudinal is gathered into bands (teniae coli) and discontinuous

144

What is constant tonus of teniae coli that results in sacculations called

Haustra

145

What is the adventitia and serosa like in the colon

Mixed! - mostly serosa

146

What is the funciton of the rectum

Store fecal material

147

The surface epithelium of the rectum is similar to the colon except for what

1. Significant luminal wall folds exist called transverse rectal folds
2. No teniae coli in ME, longitudinal more complete
3. Luminal wall covering is adventitia

148

How is the surface epithelium of the anal canal different than the colon

Simple columnar transitions to stratified squamos

149

What glands are in the anal canal

Anal glands extend into SM and produce mucus, circumanal glands (apocrine) in skin surround anus

150

What part of the anal canal contains longitudinal folds creating anal columns

Mucosa and submucosa

151

What dissappears in the anal canal

Muscularis mucosa

152

Which part of thhe anal canal has a thick circular layer of smooth muscle in the ME

Internal anal sphincter

153

What part of the anal canal has a striated (voluntary) muscle from pelvic floor (levator ani)

External anal sphincter

154

What is the luminal wall cover of the anal canal

Adventitia