Final Exam Material - Quizzes and Practice Exam Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Exam Material - Quizzes and Practice Exam Deck (30):
1

Which of the following is a respiratory gas?
a) Carbon dioxide
b) Oxygen
c) Both carbon dioxide and oxygen
d) Neither carbon dioxide or oxygen

Both carbon dioxide and oxygen

2

Respiratory gases move to the exchange surfaces via _________________ and cross the
exchange surfaces via ______________.

Move to Exchange via Covective Transport
Cross Exchange via Diffusion

3

Which of the following correctly describes the direction of movement of oxygen across
the gas exchange membrane?
a) From high PCO2 to low PCO2
b) From high PCO2 to low PO2
c) From high PO2 to low PO2
d) From high PO2 to low PCO2

From high PO2 to low PO2

4

Name the 6 parts of the conducting airways (anatomical dead space) in mammals

nostrils, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles

5

In what part of the avian respiratory tract does gas exchange occur?

Parabronchi

6

Which two muscle groups contract during normal inspiration in mammals?
a) Abdominal muscles and internal intercostals
b) Diaphragm and internal intercostals
c) External intercostals and diaphragm
d) None- inspiration is a passive process

External intercostals and diaphragm

7

The PO2 of the air in the alveoli is equal to the PO2 of atmospheric air.

False

8

The amount of air that comes in and out of the lungs with each breath is called the
___________.

Tidal volume

9

Which specific part of the brain plays a key role in the regulation of respiratory rate?
a) Hering-Breuer complex of the medulla
b) Hering-Breuer complex of the pons
c) Pre-Botzinger complex of the medulla
d) Pre-Botzinger complex of the pons

Pre-Botzinger complex of the medulla

10

Which of the following correctly lists the physiological conditions (in the body/blood)
that you would expect to trigger an increase in respiratory rate?
a) Decreased PCO2, decreased pH, decreased PO2
b) Decreased PCO2, increased pH, increased PO2 c) Increased PCO2, decreased pH, decreased PO2 d) Increased PCO2, increased pH, increased PO2

Increased PCO2
Decreased pH
Decreased PO2

11

Which of the following statements about inspiration in birds is false?
a) The posterior air sacs fill with ‘fresh’ air
b) The anterior air sacs fill with ‘stale’ air
c) Air moves through the parabronchi in the anterior to posterior direction
d) The internal intercostals and the thoracic muscles contract

Air moves through the parabronchi in the anterior to posterior direction

12

Blood hemoglobin is made up of _______ heme + globin subunits?
1,2,3, or 4?

4

13

In what form is the majority of oxygen carried through the bloodstream?
a) As dissolved O2
b) As a carbamate ion
c) As O2 bound to hemoglobin
d) As bicarbonate ion

As O2 bound to hemoglobin

14

Which of the following correctly lists the factors that decrease hemoglobin’s affinity for oxygen, encouraging O2 delivery to the tissues?
a) Increased PCO2, increased pH, increased (2,3)BPG
b) Increased PCO2, decreased pH, increased (2,3)BPG
c) Increased PCO2, increased pH, decreased (2,3)BPG
d) decreased PCO2, increased pH, decreased (2,3)BPG

Increased PCO2
Decreased pH
Increased (2,3)BPG

15

What is the name of the effect that describes the increased affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen in the physiologic conditions present in the lungs and a decreased affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen in the physiologic conditions present in the systemic tissues (such as the muscle)?

Bohr Effect

16

In what chemical form is the majority of CO2 carried as in the bloodstream?

Bicarbonate ion

17

Which of the following is the major buffering system for H+ ions produced during the carbonic anhydrase reaction in the bloodstream?
a) Plasma proteins
b) Carbamate ions with hemoglobin
c) Carbamate ions with plasma proteins
d) The imidazole groups of the histidine molecules in hemoglobin

The imidazole groups of the histidine molecules in hemoglobin

18

Roles of the circulatory system.

Delivery of substances around body
Thermoregulation
Protection/immunity

19

The ____________ delivers deoxygenated blood coming from the body into the
______________ of the heart

Vena cava -delivers deO2 blood into the Right Atrium

20

What is the name of the blood vessel that supplies oxygen and nutrients to the muscle cells of the heart (ie. to the myocardium)?
a) Aorta
b) Coronary artery
c) Pulmonary artery
d) Pulmonary vein

Coronary Artery

21

Gas and nutrient exchange occurs mainly through which blood vessels?
a) Arteries and veins
b) Arteries, veins and capillaries
c) Capillaries only
d) Veins and capillaries

Capillaries only

22

This blood vessel in the microcirculatory bed has a smooth muscle layer that can contract
or relax, and in so doing regulates the blood flow through the entire microcirculatory bed
for that tissue.
a) Artery
b) Arteriole
c) Capillary
d) Vein

Arteriole

23

This term refers to a period of cardiac muscle contraction?
a) Diastole
b) End diastolic volume
c) Stroke volume
d) Systole

Systole

24

During which phase of the cardiac cycle is the entire heart in diastole, but the A-V valve
is open?
a) Atrial contraction
b) Isovolumetric contraction
c) Isovolumetric relaxation
d) Ventricular filling

Ventricular filling

25

During which phase of the cardiac cycle is the ventricle in systole, with the aortic valve
open?
a) Atrial contraction
b) Isovolumetric contraction
c) Ventricular ejection
d) Ventricular relaxation

Ventricular ejection

26

Which region of the heart depolarizes spontaneously and generates the rhythm of heart
muscle contraction?
a) AV node
b) AV valve
c) Common bundle
d) SA node

SA node

27

The ___________________ nervous system will generally cause the heart muscle to
hyperpolarize slightly, ______________ the heart rate
a) Parasympathetic, decreasing
b) Parasympathetic, increasing
c) Sympathetic, decreasing
d) Sympathetic, increasing

Parasympathetic will hyperpolarize the

28

Which of the following would be expected to increase the amount of resistance to blood
flow
a) Decrease in blood pressure
b) Decrease in blood viscosity
c) Increase in vessel radius
d) Increase in the length of the blood vessel (fluid path)

Increase in the length of the blood vessel (fluid path)

29

The arterial portion of systemic circulation is ___________ pressure and ____________
resistance
a) High, high
b) High, low
c) Low, high
d) Low, low

High pressure and High resistance

30

This organ is essential for directly regulating fluid output in urine, and therefore also
regulates blood volume and blood pressure?
a) Brain
b) Heart
c) Kidney
d) Lung

Kidney