Flashcards in Final Exam Material - Quizzes and Practice Exam Deck (30):
Which of the following is a respiratory gas?
a) Carbon dioxide
c) Both carbon dioxide and oxygen
d) Neither carbon dioxide or oxygen
Both carbon dioxide and oxygen
Respiratory gases move to the exchange surfaces via _________________ and cross the
exchange surfaces via ______________.
Move to Exchange via Covective Transport
Cross Exchange via Diffusion
Which of the following correctly describes the direction of movement of oxygen across
the gas exchange membrane?
a) From high PCO2 to low PCO2
b) From high PCO2 to low PO2
c) From high PO2 to low PO2
d) From high PO2 to low PCO2
From high PO2 to low PO2
Name the 6 parts of the conducting airways (anatomical dead space) in mammals
nostrils, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles
In what part of the avian respiratory tract does gas exchange occur?
Which two muscle groups contract during normal inspiration in mammals?
a) Abdominal muscles and internal intercostals
b) Diaphragm and internal intercostals
c) External intercostals and diaphragm
d) None- inspiration is a passive process
External intercostals and diaphragm
The PO2 of the air in the alveoli is equal to the PO2 of atmospheric air.
The amount of air that comes in and out of the lungs with each breath is called the
Which specific part of the brain plays a key role in the regulation of respiratory rate?
a) Hering-Breuer complex of the medulla
b) Hering-Breuer complex of the pons
c) Pre-Botzinger complex of the medulla
d) Pre-Botzinger complex of the pons
Pre-Botzinger complex of the medulla
Which of the following correctly lists the physiological conditions (in the body/blood)
that you would expect to trigger an increase in respiratory rate?
a) Decreased PCO2, decreased pH, decreased PO2
b) Decreased PCO2, increased pH, increased PO2 c) Increased PCO2, decreased pH, decreased PO2 d) Increased PCO2, increased pH, increased PO2
Which of the following statements about inspiration in birds is false?
a) The posterior air sacs fill with ‘fresh’ air
b) The anterior air sacs fill with ‘stale’ air
c) Air moves through the parabronchi in the anterior to posterior direction
d) The internal intercostals and the thoracic muscles contract
Air moves through the parabronchi in the anterior to posterior direction
Blood hemoglobin is made up of _______ heme + globin subunits?
1,2,3, or 4?
In what form is the majority of oxygen carried through the bloodstream?
a) As dissolved O2
b) As a carbamate ion
c) As O2 bound to hemoglobin
d) As bicarbonate ion
As O2 bound to hemoglobin
Which of the following correctly lists the factors that decrease hemoglobin’s affinity for oxygen, encouraging O2 delivery to the tissues?
a) Increased PCO2, increased pH, increased (2,3)BPG
b) Increased PCO2, decreased pH, increased (2,3)BPG
c) Increased PCO2, increased pH, decreased (2,3)BPG
d) decreased PCO2, increased pH, decreased (2,3)BPG
What is the name of the effect that describes the increased affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen in the physiologic conditions present in the lungs and a decreased affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen in the physiologic conditions present in the systemic tissues (such as the muscle)?
In what chemical form is the majority of CO2 carried as in the bloodstream?
Which of the following is the major buffering system for H+ ions produced during the carbonic anhydrase reaction in the bloodstream?
a) Plasma proteins
b) Carbamate ions with hemoglobin
c) Carbamate ions with plasma proteins
d) The imidazole groups of the histidine molecules in hemoglobin
The imidazole groups of the histidine molecules in hemoglobin
Roles of the circulatory system.
Delivery of substances around body
The ____________ delivers deoxygenated blood coming from the body into the
______________ of the heart
Vena cava -delivers deO2 blood into the Right Atrium
What is the name of the blood vessel that supplies oxygen and nutrients to the muscle cells of the heart (ie. to the myocardium)?
b) Coronary artery
c) Pulmonary artery
d) Pulmonary vein
Gas and nutrient exchange occurs mainly through which blood vessels?
a) Arteries and veins
b) Arteries, veins and capillaries
c) Capillaries only
d) Veins and capillaries
This blood vessel in the microcirculatory bed has a smooth muscle layer that can contract
or relax, and in so doing regulates the blood flow through the entire microcirculatory bed
for that tissue.
This term refers to a period of cardiac muscle contraction?
b) End diastolic volume
c) Stroke volume
During which phase of the cardiac cycle is the entire heart in diastole, but the A-V valve
a) Atrial contraction
b) Isovolumetric contraction
c) Isovolumetric relaxation
d) Ventricular filling
During which phase of the cardiac cycle is the ventricle in systole, with the aortic valve
a) Atrial contraction
b) Isovolumetric contraction
c) Ventricular ejection
d) Ventricular relaxation
Which region of the heart depolarizes spontaneously and generates the rhythm of heart
a) AV node
b) AV valve
c) Common bundle
d) SA node
The ___________________ nervous system will generally cause the heart muscle to
hyperpolarize slightly, ______________ the heart rate
a) Parasympathetic, decreasing
b) Parasympathetic, increasing
c) Sympathetic, decreasing
d) Sympathetic, increasing
Parasympathetic will hyperpolarize the
Which of the following would be expected to increase the amount of resistance to blood
a) Decrease in blood pressure
b) Decrease in blood viscosity
c) Increase in vessel radius
d) Increase in the length of the blood vessel (fluid path)
Increase in the length of the blood vessel (fluid path)
The arterial portion of systemic circulation is ___________ pressure and ____________
a) High, high
b) High, low
c) Low, high
d) Low, low
High pressure and High resistance