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Nursing Fundamentals Exam 1 & 2 > Final Exam Review > Flashcards

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1

What are the 4 Aims of Nursing?

1) To promote health
2) To prevent illness
3) To restore health
4) To facilitate coping with disability or death

2

What are the 4 types of skills a nurse must possess in order to meet the 4 Aims of Nursing?

1) Cognitive Skills
2) Technical Skills
3) Interpersonal Skills
4) Ethical/Legal Skills

3

What are the 6 different roles nurses play in all settings?

1) Caregiver
2) Communicator, Teacher/Educator
3) Counselor
4) Leader
5) Researcher
6) Advocate

4

How do you measure a patient for compression stockings?

From the ankles to 2-3 inches below the gluteal fold.

5

Define effleurage.

Light gliding strokes, used when giving a ack massage.

6

What should you do if a patient becomes chilled during a bed bath?

1) Adjust room temperature
2) Use an additional bath blanket

7

What should you do if the patient becomes unstable during a bed bath?

1) Bathe the patient in stages

8

What should the nurse do if a he/she notices a large amount of bleeding from the gum line while providing oral hygiene?

1) Stop the brushing
2) Allow PT to gently rinse outh with water
3) Check recent platelet level
4) Use toothete to provide oral care if possible

9

What should the nurse do if the patient begins to bite the toothbrush while providing oral hygiene?

1) Do not jerk the toothbrush out
2) Wait for the patient to relax mouth before removing the toothbrush
3) Continue with care

10

What is the order in which the nurse should perform a focused assessment?

1) Normal - Inspection > Palpation > Percussion > Auscultation
2) Abdomen - Inspection > Auscultation > Percussion > Palpation

11

Define Tympany

A loud drum-like sound heard over an AIR-FILLED organ. If you hear a drum-like sound over another non air-filled organ (i.e., the stomach) then it's called flatness.

12

How many many ounces in a cup?

8 fl oz = 1 cup

13

When would you use the bell vs the diaphragm of the stethoscope?

1) Diaphragm - High-pitched sounds (i.e., normal heart sounds, bowel sounds, breath sounds).
2) Bell - Low-pitched sounds (i.e., heart murmurs and bruits).

14

Define Remission and Exacerbation.

1) Remission - When the disease is present but the person does not experience symptoms.
2) Exacerbation - When the symptoms of a disease reappear.

15

Explain the Weber test

Used to assess for bone conduction of sound via a tuning fork.

16

How many ounces in 1 liter?

32 fl ounces = 1 liter

17

How many pounds in 1 kg?

2.2lbs = 1kg

18

How many mL in 1 ounce?

1 ounce = 30 mL

19

What is the order for donning and removing PPE?

1) Don PPE - Gown > mask > goggles > gloves
2) Remove PPE - Gloves > goggles > gown > mask

20

Give an example of a condition (disease) that requires airborne precautions?

1) TB
2) Chicken pox

21

Where are core and surface temperatures taken?

1) Core temp sites - tympanic ad rectal
2) Surface temp sites - sublingual and axillary

22

How many teaspoons in a tablespoon?

3 tsp = 1 Tbs

23

What are the 3 phases of the working relationship?

1) Orientation Phase
2) Working Phase
3) Termination Phase

24

What is Cerumen and Pediculosis?

1) Cerumen - Ear Wax
2) Pediculosis - Lice

25

How many mL in a Tablespoon?

1 Tablespoon = 30 mL

26

Define Atelectasis

Incomplete expansion or collapse of part of the lungs.

27

What is the formula to convert Fahrenheit into Celsius ad vice versa?

1) C = (F-32)/1.8

2) F = C x 1.8 + 32

28

What are some comon conditions (diseases) that require contact precautions?

1) MRSA
2) VRE
3) C. Diff
4) Hep-A (spread via feces)

29

How many inches in 1 cm?

1 inch = 2.5 cm

30

R.A.C.E

1) Rescue anyone in immediate danger
2) Activate the fire code system and notify appropriate pesonnel
3) Confine fire by closing doors an windows
4) Evacuate patients ad other people to a safe area

31

What is the order in which awareness is lost?

Individual who have impaired awareness first lose time orientation > place orientation > person orientation

32

What are the 4 stages of infection?

1) Incubation - Interval between the pathogen's invasion of the body and the appearance of SxS of infection.
2) Prodromal Stage - (Most infectious stage) presence of nonspecific, early SxS.
3) Full stage of Illness - Specific SxS
4) Convalescent Period - Recovery period

33

How many ounces in a tablespoon?

1 ounce = 2 tablespoons

34

How many mL in a 1 teaspoon?

1 teaspoon = 5 mL

35

What are some common conditions (diseases) requiring droplet precautions?

1) Flu
2) Bacterial meningitis
3) Pertussis
4) Rubella

36

What's the difference between Ecchymosis and Petechiae?

1) Ecchymosis - A collection of blood in the SQ tissues, causing purplish discoloration.
2) Petechiae - Small hemorrhagic spots caused by capillary bleeding.

37

What is the difference between cyanosis and pallor?

1) Cyanosis - Bluish/grayish discoloration of the skin because of low O2.
2) Pallor - Paleness of the skin resulting from low blood.

38

Are the following lung sounds hear during inspiration or expiration?
1) Crackles
2) Pleural Friction Rub
3) Stridor
4) Wheezes

1) Crackles - Inspiration
2) Pleural Friction Rub - Inspiration and Expiration
3) Stridor - Inspiration
4) Wheezes - Inspiration.
*Crack IN Wheeze OUT!!!!

39

How may mg in 1 grain?

1 grain = 60 mg (65 in some cases)

40

Antiviral medication is most effective when given during which phase of infection?

Prodromal

41

What kind o sound is heard when percussing over fluid or a solid mass?

A dull sound

42

What are adventitious breath sounds?

Sounds not normally heard in the lungs

43

Why should you not use a rectal thermometer on patients with heart problems?

Because a rectal thermometer will stimulate the vagus nerve which slows down heart rate.

44

(T/F) Axillary temp is 1 degree lower than oral temp.

True

45

(T/F) Anemia causes a faster heart rate?

True

46

(T/F) A narrowing of pulse pressure translates to a risk for stroke?

True

47

What is the significance of the following percussion sounds?

1) Dullness - Solid organ
2) Flatness - Soft tissue, fluid
3) Tympany - gastric bubble, hollow, gas
4) Resonance - normal lung
5) - Hyper-resonance - Air trapping in abnormal lung

48

Define tonis and flaccid as it pertains to muscles?

1) Tonis - A steady state of muscle contraction (even at rest).
2) Flaccid - When the muscle has no tone.

49

Describe the 3 types exercises and give examples of each.

1) Isotonic - Involves muscle shortening and active movement. (i.e., swimming, walking, jogging, and bicycling).
2) Isometric - Involves muscle contraction without shortening. (i.e., contractions of the quadriceps and gluteal muscle).
3) Isokinetic - Involves muscle contraction with resistance (i.e., weight lifting).

50

What is the recommended frequency for range of motion exercises?

Recommended 2x a day but ideally once per shift. Do each motion 2 to 5 times.

51

How should the nurse instruct the patient to use a cane?

Canes should be held on the strong side and the weak leg should be moved with the cane.

52

What is the difference between a walker without wheels and a walker with wheels?

1) Walker without wheels - For patients who need help walking.
2) Walker with wheels - For patients who need need balance help.

53

Why should the nurse never have a mask flowing less than 5 L/min?

Because there is a danger of breathing in CO2 if the flow is this low.

54

What kind of valves are on a simple mask and a non-rebreather mask?

1) Simple Mask - 2-way valves. Allows air to flow in and outa.
2) Non-Rebreather Mask - 1-way valve. Only allows air to flow out.

55

(T/F) When providing oxygen therapy, anything more than 2 L/min needs to be humidified.

True

56

Why should you NOT use synthetic fabrics (i.e., wool and polyester) with oxygen tanks?

Because they may be flammable

57

What is the difference between and Ethical Dilemma and Ethical Distress?

1) Ethical Dilemma - Situation that arises when attempted adherence to basic ethical principles result in two conflicting courses of action. (i.e., therapeutic abortion, end of life/beginning of life decisions).
2) Ethical Distress - Occurs when the nurse knows the right thing to do but either personal or institutional factors make it difficult to tool low the right course of action.

58

Define the following terms.
1) Beneficence
2) Nonmaleficence
3) Justice

1) Beneficence - Doing good
2) Nonmaleficence - Preventing bad, doing no harm
3) Justice - Distributes benefits, risks and costs fairly

59

Define the following terms:
1) Fidelity
2) Veracity
3) Altruism

1) Fidelity - Keeping promises and commitments made to others
2) Veracity - Truth telling
3) Altruism - A concern for others

60

What are the 4 elements of LIABILITY that. Must be established to prove that malpractice or negligence has occurred?

1) Duty
2) Breach of Duty
3) Causation
4) Damages

61

Informed consent is a process, a mere signature does not guarantee each of the elements of consent. What are the elements of consent?

1) disclosure
2) comprehension
3) competence
4) Voluntariness

62

What are the stages of Erickson's theory of development?

1) Trust vs. Mistrust - Infancy
2) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt - Toddler
3) Initiative vs. Guilt - Preschool
4) Industry vs. Inferiority - School-Age
5) Identity vs. Role Confusion - Adolescence
6) Intimacy vs. Isolation - Young adult
7) Generativity vs. Stagnation - Middle adulthood
8) Ego Integrity vs. Despair - Later adulthood

63

What should the nurse do if the patient complains of severe cramping with the introduction of an enema solution?

Lower solution container and check temperature and flow rate. If the solution is too cold or or flow rate too fast, severe cramping may occur.

64

Why should the nurse never have a mask flowing less than 5 L/min?

Because there is a danger of breathing in CO2 if the flow is this low.

65

What kind of valves are on a simple mask and a non-rebreather mask?

1) Simple Mask - 2-way valves. Allows air to flow in and outa.
2) Non-Rebreather Mask - 1-way valve. Only allows air to flow out.

66

(T/F) When providing oxygen therapy, anything more than 2 L/min needs to be humidified.

True

67

Why should you NOT use synthetic fabrics (i.e., wool and polyester) with oxygen tanks?

Because they may be flammable

68

What does Freud say the following parts of the mind do/represent?
1) Unconscious Mind
2) Id
3) Ego
4) Superego

1) Unconscious Mind - Just that
2) Id - Self gratification
3) Ego - Conscious mind
4) Super Ego - Conscience

69

List Maslow's hierarchy of needs from most important to least important.

Physiological > Safety > Belonging (love) > Self-esteem > Self-actualization

70

What is the difference between and Ethical Dilemma and Ethical Distress?

1) Ethical Dilemma - Situation that arises when attempted adherence to basic ethical principles result in two conflicting courses of action. (i.e., therapeutic abortion, end of life/beginning of life decisions).
2) Ethical Distress - Occurs when the nurse knows the right thing to do but either personal or institutional factors make it difficult to tool low the right course of action.

71

Define the following terms.
1) Beneficence
2) Nonmaleficence
3) Justice

1) Beneficence - Doing good
2) Nonmaleficence - Preventing bad, doing no harm
3) Justice - Distributes benefits, risks and costs fairly

72

Define the following terms:
1) Fidelity
2) Veracity
3) Altruism

1) Fidelity - Keeping promises and commitments made to others
2) Veracity - Truth telling
3) Altruism - A concern for others

73

What are the 4 elements of LIABILITY that. Must be established to prove that malpractice or negligence has occurred?

1) Duty
2) Breach of Duty
3) Causation
4) Damages

74

Informed consent is a process, a mere signature does not guarantee each of the elements of consent. What are the elements of consent?

1) disclosure
2) comprehension
3) competence
4) Voluntariness

75

What are the stages of Erickson's theory of development?

1) Trust vs. Mistrust - Infancy
2) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt - Toddler
3) Initiative vs. Guilt - Preschool
4) Industry vs. Inferiority - School-Age
5) Identity vs. Role Confusion - Adolescence
6) Intimacy vs. Isolation - Young adult
7) Generativity vs. Stagnation - Middle adulthood
8) Ego Integrity vs. Despair - Later adulthood

76

What should the nurse do if the patient complains of severe cramping with the introduction of an enema solution?

Lower solution container and check temperature and flow rate. If the solution is too cold or or flow rate too fast, severe cramping may occur.