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Flashcards in final exam review guide Deck (23)
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Natural Rights

Certain rights or values are inherent in or universally cognizable by human nature


The invisible hand

An unseen force or mechanism that guides individuals to unwittingly benefit society through pursuit of their own private interests


Indirect duty views of animal welfare

Kantian theory: humans have no direct duties to animals because they are not self-conscious and are there merely as a means to an end. but in reality our duty to them is indirect through human interest in them



Gives inventors protection for their innovation. gives the right to exclusive use of the item or licensing the use to others for a fee. expires after 20 years


Employment at will

Employer can hire/fire whoever they want for whatever reason. individuals are free to work for whoever they want and may quit for any reason


Employment equity

Engage in proactive employment practices to increase the representation for four designted groups: women, disabilized persons, aboriginal peolpe, and visible minorities. The Act states "Employment equity means more than trating persons the same way but also requires special measures and the accomodation of differences


Sexual harrassment

In workplace, professional, or social situation, involving the making of unwanted sexual advances or obscene remarks


Global climate change

Warming of oceans and atmospher due to GHG emissions leading to larger, more intense fluctuations in weather patterns and climate.



Political and economic theory of social organization that advocates means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole


Immiseration of Workers

(Capitalism) methods for raising social productivity of labour are put into effect at the cost of the individual worker. Eg lower wages, more hours



Worker is alienated from their humanity because they can only express labour



The exclusive possesion or control of supply or trade of a commodity or service.



A state of limited competition where a market is shared by a small number of producers or sellers



The exclusive legal right, given to an originator or an assignee to print, publish perform, film, or record literary, artistic, or musical material, and to authorize others to do the same


Compensatory Justice

Individuals should be compensated for effort they have expended or harms they have suffered. doesnt aim to punish for a crime/sin but rather to compensate the victim


Retributive justice

Principle of justice in which we give back to the giver what they initially gave. I 4 I


Distributive justice

Concerned with the just distribution of societal burdens and benefits. Who gets good work? who gets shit work?


Kantian deontology

Moral rightness is determined by ones motivation to act in accordance with thier duty


Entitlement theory

a distibution is just if everyone is entitled to the holding they possess under the distribution. initial acquisition (how someone first comes to own common property), transfering property to others (voluntary or exchange), rectification ho to deal with stealing and compensation


Two principles of justice (rawlsian)

Each person has an equal right to the most extensive basic liberties compatible with similare benefits for all. socil and economic inequalities are arranged so that 1) they are the greatest benefit of the least advantaged persons in society. 2) attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity



To have a just distribution each member of society should get competely equal shares of the burdens and benefits. there are no relevant differences among members of society to justify unequal treatment



Distribution based on free exchange. no distribution is just or unjst, any distribution of benefits and burdens have resulted from free choices of the members of society


Veil of ignorance

To see if a pronciple is just or not determines whether or not you would select it from behind the veil of ignorance. if you dont know what position youd be in (rich, poor, race, age) would you want that to be the guiding principle