Final--New Material Flashcards Preview

Toxicology > Final--New Material > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final--New Material Deck (57)
Loading flashcards...
1

Name 4 conditions that are required in order for a mold to grow

1) aerobic conditions
2) feed moisture >14%
3) relative humidity >70%
4) temperature--warm

+/- plant damage

2

Definitive diagnosis of mycotoxicosis comes from identification of ______

the toxin

*NOT the mold*

3

Of the many toxin types, ___ is the most toxic and oncogenic of the aflatoxins

B1

4

What are the 3 outcomes of aflatoxin binding to cellular components?

1) oncogenesis (most potent natural hepatocarcinogen)

2) altered anabolic/catabolic processes (i.e. protein synthesis, inhibited lipid transport, and decreased glycogen)

3) immunosuppression

5

What are the two toxin types assoc. with Tricothecens? Which is more toxic?

1) DON (vomitoxin)

2) DAS (T-2) **more toxic

6

Which body system(s) are primarily impacted by Fumonisin and in which spp.?

Hepatic and neuro

Horses

**Equine leukoencephalomalacia (Moldy corn dz)

7

Fumonisin is assoc. with which type of food/feedstuffs?

corn, corn-based feeds

8

Citrinin & Ochratoxins primarily affect which body system? How? In which TYPES of animals does this most commonly occur?

Citrinin & Ochratoxins= KIDNEYS

Degeneration of proximal tubules--alters reabsorption

**MONOGASTRICS

9

Which toxin can cause early development of mammary tissue and red, swollen vulvas in Gilts? Also describe it's MOA

Zearalenone--binds to estradiol 17-beta receptor and causes hyperestrogenism

10

Describe Fescue's interactions at the following receptors and the response/outcome

1) D1 dopaminergic receptor
2) D2 dopaminergic recepot

1) Inhibition--> vasoconstriction

2) stimulation --> decreases prolactin secretion

11

4 clinical syndromes assoc. with fescue ingestion?

Summer slump
Fescue foot
Fat necrosis
Repro Disorders

12

Though they cause many of the same types of syndromes, what's the primary difference between Ergotism and fescue?

Ergotism does NOT cause fat necrosis like fescue

Ergot= Claviceps spp.

13

A horse showing excessive salivation may have ingested which mycotoxin?

Slaframine

14

Describe the mechanism whereby NSAIDs can cause renal disease?

NSAIDs inhibit prostaglandins that are important for vasodilation--> decreased perfusion pressure to kidney --> ischemia

**NOT directly nephrotoxic

15

NSAIDs primarily cause coagulopathy via inhibition of?

Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) which comes from platelets and normally causes vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation

**remember the function of PGI2

16

For how long must you treat NSAID toxicity? Which NSAID has the longest tx time?

At least THREE HALF-LIVES

Naproxen (Aleve)--> 72hr half-life

17

Salicylates (Aspirin) primarily cause their clinical effect through which mechanism?

Uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation

18

Most the clinical effects of Amphetamines are due to?

Stimulation of CNS and Sympathetic nervous system

19

Cocaine causes its clinical signs via which TWO mechanisms?

1) reuptake inhibitor (serotonin, dopamine, NE)

2) Blockage of voltage-gated Na channels

20

What is the main MOA of Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and how do the CV signs differ from cociane or amphetamines

reuptake inhibitor (5-HT & NE)
*also blocks alpha-1 and muscarinic*

causes tachycardia with HYPOTENSION due to alpha-blockade

21

The primary clinical sign assoc. with serotonin elevations in dogs? (Serotonin syndrome)

Tremors

22

Death from TCAs primarily occurs due to?

Cardiac failure

23

Which drug may be helpful in treating serotonin syndrome and why?

Cyproheptadine; serotonin antagonist

24

Which pathway of metabolism of acetaminophen is assoc. with formation of toxic metabolite? What's the name of the metabolite?

Metabolism by cytochrome P450 creates NAPQI

25

Normally, the toxic effect of NAPQI are mediated by?

Glutathione conjugation

26

Primary system affected by acetaminophen
1) dogs
2) cats

1) liver

2) hematologic (RBCs)

27

How does interpretation of an elevated ALT differ between dogs and cats

It's more significant in cats bc it has a short half-life...so elevations typically mean ongoing damage

28

A specific antidote for acetaminophen toxicity and it's MOA?

N-acetylcysteine (NAC)

replenishes glutathione & binds NAPQI

29

How can Glucagon and Insulin be used for treatment of Ca channel blocker intoxication

Both of these work to increases cAMP levels which stimulates release of intracellular Ca from the SR

30

What are the main cardio effects seen with Ca channel blockers? (2)

What do you expect to happen to serum Ca levels?

1) bradycardia

2) AV block (2nd & 3rd degree)

**Ca level remains normal

31

Baclofen is a ______ and is most life-threatening when it affects which body system?

Muscle relaxant

Respiratory (paralysis= death..need ventilator)

32

What two hematologic changes might you expect to see on a blood smear with lead toxicity

Basophilic stippling (disrupted heme synthesis)

Nucleated RBCs

33

Oral administration of what can help to decontaminate the GI tract of lead by inhibiting its absorption

Magnesium sulfate (MGSO4)

34

Concerning chelation therapy for lead toxicity
1) name the 3 chelation drug options
2) which drug is potentially nephrotoxic
3) which drugs would be good to give in combination...describe the MOA

1) Ca-EDTA, Succimer DMSA, Dimercaprol

2) Ca-EDTA

3) Ca-EDTA + Dimercaprol--> CaEDTA pulls it out of bone and dimercaprol enhances it's excretion

35

The main disease seen with zinc toxicity is?

Hemolytic anemia

36

Which form of iron is assoc. with the greatest risk of toxicity

soluble salt forms

37

Free iron in systemic circulation is normally bound by _______ but this can become overwhlemed, leading to clinical signs

Transferrin

38

What chelation agent can be used for iron toxicity? What's a unique side effect of this drug you should warn owners about?

Deferoxamine

Can turn urine bright red (normal)

39

Amanits phalloides mushrooms primarily impact which body system? What are the two principle toxins it produces?

Hepatic

1) amatoxins
2) Phallotoxins

40

The neuro signs caused by Hydrazine-containing mushrooms is primarily due to inhibition of?

GABA

41

With neuro toxic Amanita spp. why do clinical signs fluctuate between neuro depression and stimulation?

Because there a 2 principles toxins

1 toxin is glutamate agonist (excitation)--Ibotenic acid

the other toxin is GABA agonist (depression)--Muscimol

42

Muscarine containing mushrooms cause development of which type of clinical signs? A specific antidote for these?

muscarinic signs(SLUDDE)

**ATROPINE

43

Which spp. of mushroom is assoc. with the development of AKI (nephrotoxic)

Cortinaria spp.

44

Are grapes or raisins more likely to be assoc. with adverse effects?

Raisins (dried form)

45

Grapes/raisins primarily impact which body system?

Renal (nephrotoxic)

46

T/F: Dogs who ingest Macadamia nuts are unlikely to die and owners can probably offer supportive care at home

true!!

These dogs typically just get weak/depressed

47

What are the two methylxanthines we care about?

Caffeine
Theobromine (chocolate)

48

Treatment of _______ toxicity should include a urinary catheter. Why?

Thebromine (chocolate)

Metabolites can be reabsorbed from bladder

49

How does Xylitol causes most of it's clinical signs

strong promoter of insulin release --> hypoglycemia

50

Spp. most susceptible to onions/garlic toxicity have low _____ ______ activity

erythrocyte catalase

51

What body system is primarily effected by onions/garlic?

Hematologic--oxidative injury (heinz bodies) and methemoglobinemia

Hemolysis later on

52

What are the two risks assoc. with ingestion of bread dough

1) ethanol toxicity

2) obstruction/GDV/rupture

53

Though sago palms initially cause GI upset, eventually clinical signs can progress and affect which two other systems?

neuro and hepatic

54

Cardiac glycosides primarily affect which system and by what mechanism?

Cardiovascular

disrupts function of Na/K ATPase pump

55

How do insoluble Ca oxalates cause clinical signs?

They are sharp and released during biting/chewing --> pain in mouth and edema of lips/tongue

56

The soluble Ca oxalata primarily affect which types of animals? Clinical signs are related to....

Large animals

hypocalcemia (oxalates bind systemic Ca)

*stones/renal failure less common

57

Two toxin types assoc. with Blue-green algae and the system they each affect. Which is more common?

1) Microcystins--liver (more common)

2) Anatoxin--neuro