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Flashcards in final, old exams Deck (126):
1

What does the word lentigo mean?

small, pigmented spots on skin with clearly defined edge surrounded my normal appearing skin

2

what is ment by the word nevus

nest, melanocytic nevi are nests of multi layered melanocytes found in moles.

3

what is a nevocellular nevi?

benign tumors of melanocyts that have sharp well defined edges stable in shape size and golor.

4

what is a dysplastic nevi?

Larger tumor of melanocytes that have irregular borders and pigment variation., changing in size, elevated and firm.

5

dysplastic nevus syndrome?

autosomal dominant conditions that give one and increased risk of melanoma

6

what can acanthosis nigricans be an indication of?

hyperinsuleniema associated with obesity or sometimes assiciated with a malignancy

7

what is seborrheic keratosis

stuck on keratin filled epidermal speudocysit

8

what is is called when you suddenly get a lot of seborrheic kerotosis lesions?

signs of leser-trelat, may indicate a underlying malignance

9

What is the test for Psorisis?

Auspits sign, scrape away scale and there is pinpoint bleeding

10

What is the test for Pemphigus?

Nikolskis sign, pressing on blister causes the edges to easily expand and its very breakable.

11

What causes pemphigus?

IgG between epidermal keratinocytes that cause blisters

12

bullae?

blisters

13

what can be a hallmark feature of pemphigus?

intraepidermal acanthosysis

14

what happens if you use steroids on tenia, fungal infections.

it will go away for a bit then come back with a vengance.

15

why does steroids not work on fungus?

because it decreases the immune system so the fungus can get a better foothold.

16

erythema multiforme?

Hypersensitivity to drugs or something, targoid lesions, bullae.

17

what is the most serious form of erythema multiforme?

stevens johnson syndrome, extensive involvement of skin and mucus membranes.

18

Erythema nodosom?

shins, 12-20 year olds, raised erythematous (red) painfull nodules of subcutaneous fat.

19

what is erythema nodosom sometimes associate with?

granulomatous diseases and strep, although most of the time there is no known cause, it goes away on its own eventually.

20

What layers are involved in Squamous cell carcinoma?

Keratinocytes invade down into the dermis, rarely metastasize.

21

what is indicative of keratocanthoma?

rapidly growing dome shaped nodules with a keratin filed center

22

what ususally will cure SCC?

complete excision

23

what is the most common tumor in the western world?

Basal cell carcinoma

24

how invasives is basal cell carcinoma?

locally invasive, arising from basal cells of hair follicles

25

what does basal cell carcinoma look like

pearly borders, papules.

26

what is the growth pattern of BSC?

invasive nests of basaloid cells with a palisading growth pattern

27

Pathology

study of the essential nature and charasteristic of disease, signs, symptoms, complications, patogenesis etc.

28

disease

impairment of the noamal states

29

homeostasis

maitenance of a harmonious environmet within body, cell, etc

30

comorbidity

simultaneous presence of one or more additional disorders that co-occur with primary disease. property of disease that gives it a a specific virulence/sequelae

31

iatrogenic

doctor aquired disease

32

symptoms

subjective from patient view

33

signs

objective from doctors view

34

death

no pulse, heart sound or spontaneous respiration, no nucleus in most cells a cell either

35

sub-clinical

no signs or symptoms of infection because the immune system is keeping the infection down

36

illness

unhealthy condition of the body or mind (sickness/disease)

37

etiology

underlying cause of disease

38

pathogenesis

course that a disease takes from start to finish

39

Morphology

presence/conformation of damaged cells and tissues from the infection

40

functional disease

when a disease is present that impairs bodily process but upon inspection, there are no changes or signs, even microscopically, IBS and migraines, maybe depression

41

syndrome

group of signs and symptoms that occur together and characterize a particular abnormality or condition.

42

Eosin

RED and PINK :stains cytoplasm, RBCs and collagen

43

Hematoxylin

BLUE and PURPLE : unclei, bacteria

44

what are the common causes of cell injury?

hypoxia, infections, immunologic reactions, congenital disorders, chemical injury, physical injory

45

what is the most common cause of cellular injury

hypoxia, inability to synthesize sufficient ATP by aerobic oxidation

46

How do infections cause injury?

direct infection, toxins and inflammatory responses of host

47

Vit A

squamous metaplasia, immune deficiency, night blindness

48

Cit C

scurvy

49

vit D

rickets, osteomalacia

50

Vit K

bleeding diathesis

51

Vit B12

megaloblastic anemia, neuropathy, spinal cord degeneration

52

Folate, B9

megaloblastic anemia, neural tube defects

53

Niacin, B3

pellagra, diarrhea, dermatitis dementia and death

54

when does cloudy swelling occur?

intracellular proteins accumulate in cytoplasm, the leaking is from hypoxia and cellular degeneration.

55

why does cloudy swelling occur?

cell is no longer able to maintain homeostasis of ionic and fluid balance. Lack of ATP shuts down necessary pumps,

56

where do free radicals come from?

oxygen derived, uv light, metabolism, inflammation, smoking, ionizing radiation, air polution

57

what does the release of cytocrome C causes?

triggers apoptosis

58

what releases cytocrome C and why?

Mitochondria when its disfunctional and cant make enough atp it becomes permeable.

59

what pumps fail in mitochondria causing and influx of Na/ water and efflux of K

Na/K ATPase pumps start to fail

60

pyknosis is what?

degeneration and condensation of necular chromatin

61

Karyorrhexis is what?

nuclear fragmentation,

62

karyolysis is?

dissolution of nucleus

63

what is the significance of anaplasia

cells divide rapidly but do not bear any resemblance to the normal cells, whether in structure or function.

64

What are the two chief findings of anaplasia?

brick like or random pattern, with dramatic increase of nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio.

65

Primay intentions closure

wound edges are close enough to meet and close, decreases scarring

66

Secondary intention closure

wound edges are far apart, so fills from bottom up with granulous tissue and fibrin

67

tertiary intention closure

keep would open to prevent infection etc so can close later

68

hypoplasia

defective formation or incomplete development of a part

69

agenesis iis what?

absence or failure of formation entirely

70

what is another name for primay stem cells?

labile

71

where are labile, primary stem cells found?

in epidermis, GI tract, etc, and are continuously dividing

72

Stable stem cells are what?

low replication but can be induced to divide

73

what stem cell type is found in hepatocytes, renal tubular epithelia, alveoli and pancreatic acini

stable stem cells

74

Where are permanent stem cells found?

don't ever divide, are found in nerve cells, cardiac and skeletal muscles.

75

what are the three stages of fracture healing?

procallous, fibrocartilaginous callous, osseus callous

76

procallous

hematoma to provide anchorage but w/o structureal integrity

77

fibrocartilaginous callous

fibrous ball around fracture

78

pathologic fractures

caused by disease sequale, like osteoporosis etc

79

traumatic fractures

cause by trauma

80

type of traumatic fractures?

transverse, linear, non-displaced, comminutes, greenstick, spiral, compound

81

communited fracture

bone broken into many pieces

82

Karyotype

number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species

83

ideogram

schematic representation of chromosomes showing the relative size of the chromosomes and their banding patterns

84

P arm?

short arm

85

Q arm

long arm

86

how many pairs of autosomes

22 pairs of autosomes

87

how many total pairs of chromosomes

23 pairs total.

88

gene once ment what ?

only protein coding sequence of DNA

89

what is a gene now?

any functional unit of a chromosome outside medical circles.

90

what percent of genome is protein coding?

only about 5%

91

what is locus on chromosome?

exact physical location of a gene on a chromosome, it the same in all people

92

alleles?

used to describe the two or more possible variations of a gene within a population

93

genotype

combo of alleles, it?s the actual sequence

94

penotype

the physical reflection of genotype, presence or absence

95

what is a single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP?

DNA sequence variation of single nucleotide between members of a species or paired chromosomes.

96

where does SNPs occur more often

in non coding reions

97

Imprinting of X chromosome

Naturally occuring in females, X inactivation. Only one of the two X chromosomes will be active in cell.

98

Imprinting in general

some genes are only active when transmitted by specific sexed parent, so in the other partent its inactived.

99

when does imprinting of autosomal genes happen?

during gametogenesis and its maintained in somatic cells.

100

what are the 5 points of control for gene expression?

chromatin, transcriptional, translational, post transcript, translate

101

why would dna wrap around histones

DNA is negative and histones are positively charged.

102

where does histone methylation occur

at CpG islands, it ususally down regulates transcription

103

what does histone acetylation do?

up regulating of transcricption cuz it allow unwinding of DNA from histone.

104

what is promoter region?

CpG islands ususally, where the polymerase is told to sit down and get ready to copy

105

transudate

edema fluid with low protein content and low specific gravity, produces non pitting edema

106

exudates

fluid with high protein content and cells and a higher specific gravity

107

what are the three parts of virchows triad?

hypercoagulability, stasis and vascular wall injury

108

What causes hypercoaguability?

clotting disorders, oral contraceptives, malignancy, pregnancy sepsis

109

what causes stasis?

atrial fibrillation, immobility, venous obstruction, venous insufficency,

110

vascular wall injury?

trauma/surgery, venepuncture, heart valve disease, replcement, atherosclerosos, catherters.

111

embolism

moving clot in bloodstream that leaves site of orgin and it occludes vessel

112

what is thrombosis?

non moving clot in arteries, heart chambers, causings infarct, etc.

113

when do fat emboli happen?

bone fractures

114

most common thrombosis?

thromboemboli

115

gas emboli

decompression sickness

116

amniotic fluid emboli

labor complications

117

tumor emboli

bacteria, drug use

118

where do most pulmonary emboli arise from

deep vein thrombosis, diagnosed by spiral CT

119

what is the most common outcome from pulmonary emboli?

nothing, 75% are asymptomatic and go away on their own

120

newspaper test?

transeudate fluid is if you can read news paper through test tube of fluid

121

countries with highes HIV?

African, South africa, nigeria, kenya Mozambique and india

122

why do 10% of hemopheliacs not progress to AIDS

maybe they don't have CCR5 receptors

123

Acute phase of HIV

infection, reduced CD4 with viremia, seroconversion, mono, flulike symptoms

124

lantent phase HIV

lymphadenopathy, viral replication. Low virema, oppurtunistic infection, 10 years

125

what are the two neoplasms that are often seen in AIDS

hairy leukoplakia and kaposi sarcoma, then non hodgkin lymhoma

126

what labs to monitor HIV infection

CD4 count, and HIV1 RNA viral load via PCR