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Flashcards in Final Review Deck (43):
1

List all fallacies of induction

1. hasty generalizations
2. accident
3. weak analogy
4. appeal to authority
5. appeal to population
6. post hoc ergo propter hoc
7. cum hoc, propter hoc
8. slippery slope

2

List the 2 formal fallacies

1. affirming the consequent
2. denying the antecedent

3

List the 3 miscalculating probabilities

1. Gambler's fallacy
2. overlooking prior probabilities
3. overlooking false positives

4

A fallacy that is a weak argument based on debatable or unimportant similarities between 2 or more things

weak/false analogy

5

A fallacy in which a speaker or write commits fallacy when he or she assumes that the fact that one event came after another established that it was caused by another

Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc

6

Cum Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc

when a speak or write commits this fallacy when he or she assumes that the fact that 2 events happen at the same time established that one caused the other

7

Slippery Slope

a fallacy in which an argument resets on an unsupported warning that is controversial and tendentious, to the effect that something will progress by degrees to an undesirable outcome

8

Fallacious appeal to authority

when he or she tries to support a contention by offering as evidence the opinion of a nonauthoritative source

9

What 5 ways to commit a hasty generalization?

1. anecdote
2. exceptional cases
3. biased sample
4. too small of sample
5. self-selected

10

What are 2 ways to commit fallacy of popular belief?

1. fallacious appeal to common practice
2. bandwagon fallacy

11

Accident fallacy

occurs when a speak or write assumes that a general statement automatically applies to a specific case

12

Type of hasty generalization that occurs when someone generalizes about members who are included by their own decision

self-selection fallacy

13

Type of hasty generalization that occurs a generalization about a large population on an atypical or skewed sample

fallacy of biased sample

14

In an induction argument what are the premises suppose to do to conclusion?

the premise(s) support(s) the conclusion

15

How are inductive arguments evaluates?

whether they are strong or weak

16

What are 3 to reason inductively?

1. argument from analogy
2. generalize from a sample
3, cause and effect

17

What makes an argument by analogy strong?

the more numerous and diversified the similarities between the premise and conclusion analogues and if there are more than one premise-analogues that are numerous and diversified

18

What makes an argument by analogy weak?

the more numerous and diversified the differences between the premise analogue and conclusion analogue and too few premise analogues that are more numerous and diversified in differences

19

What fallacy is associated with argument from analogy?

weak/false analogy

20

Explain generalizing from a sample

when you reason that all, most or some percentage of all members of a population have an attribute because all, most, or some percentage of a sample of the population have that attribute

21

What are 3 ways that generalizing from a sample is weak?

1. the more atypical (biased) the sample the weaker the generalization
2. the less diversified the sample. the weaker the generalization
3. if the sample is too small to mirror the overall the population, the generalization is weak

22

Which types of samples are best to generalize about a population?

if a sample is unbiased, large and diversified

23

Which type of fallacy is best associated with generalize from a sample?

hasty generalizations

24

What are 3 principles often used to arrive at a cause and effect relationships?

1. paired unusual event principle
2. covariation
3. common variable principle

25

Paired Unusual Event Principle

if something unusual happens look for something else unusual that has happened and consider whether it might be the cause

26

Covariation

when a variation in 1 phenomenon is accompanied by a variation in another phenomenon

27

Common Variable Principle

a variable common to multiple occurrences of something may be related to it causally

28

How do we evaluate cause and effect?

1. use common sense and background knowledge
2. confirm the hypothesis

29

What fallacy is associated with cause and effect relationships?

post hoc, ergo propter hoc

30

Which 3 ways can we confirm cause and effect hypothesis?

1. randomized controlled experiments
2. prospective observational studies
3. retrospective observational studies

31

What is the significance of a retrospective observational study?

going backwards, people already have the effect . the purpose is to observe if they have the same cause

32

What is the significance of a prospective observational study?

going forward, looking to see if people will have the same effect

33

What is the significance of a randomized controlled group?

to control who is in which group

34

T/F All moral judgments expresses a moral value judgment

false

35

What is a value judgment?

assesses the merit, desirability, or praiseworthiness of someone or something

36

What is a moral value judgment?

a claim assessing the moral rightness of a person or action

37

What is the consistency principle?

the first principle of moral reasoning which states that if separate cases aren't different in any relevant way, they should be treated the same way, and if separate cases are treated in the same way, they should not be different in any relevant way

38

Gambler's Fallacy

past events and future events are independent

39

overlooking False positives

cannot determine probability that are x's are y's without knowing proportion of non-x's that are y

40

Legal Moralism

if x is immoral then x is illegal

41

Harm principle

the only legitimate basis for forbidding X is it does harm to others

42

Offense Principle

a law forbidding X is justifiable if X is offensive to others

43

Legal Paternalism

A person should/can be forbidden to do X for that person's own good