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Flashcards in Midterm Review Deck (80):
1

A neutral or positive expression used in place of one that carries negative associations

euphemism

2

Used to produce a negative effect on someone's attitude about something or to tone down the positive associations it may have

dysphemism

3

Weasler

protection from criticism by weakening or watering down it somewhat and giving the claim's author a way out in case the claim is challenged

4

What does it mean to think critically?

it means to think about thinking

5

T/F. A belief can either be true or false

true

6

What is the same as an opinion and judgment?

beliefs

7

What is the result of a belief that is a declarative

a claim

8

What are the 2 types of claims?

1. subjective
2. objective

9

A type of claim whether true or false is independent of whether people think its true or false

objective claim

10

A type of claim that does depend whether people believe it

subjective claim

11

What does it mean when a deductive argument is valid? sound?

an argument is valid if isn't possible for the premise(s) to be true and the conclusion is false. an argument is sound if the premise is valid AND true

12

euphemism

a neutral or positive expression used in place of one that carries negative associations

13

weasler

help protect it from criticism by watering it down somewhat, weakening it, an giving the claim's author way out in case the claim is challenged

14

Innuendo

the power of suggestion to say something bad about someone or something

15

hyperbole

exaggeration or extravagant overstatement

16

dysphemism

produces a negative effect on someone's attitude about something or tone down the positive associations ut may have

17

Downplayers

attempt to make someone or something look less important or significant

18

loaded questions

used to imply something without coming out and saying it

19

horse laugh

includes ridicule and vicious humor of all kinds

20

stereotype

a cultural belief or idea about a social group's attributes usually simplified or exaggerated

21

repetition

simply making the same point over and over at every opportunity

22

rhetorical analogy

likens 2 or more things to make one of them appear better or worse than the other

23

rhetorical definitions

rhetorically charged language to express or elicit an attitude about something

24

rhetorical explanations

language of standard explanations to disguise their real purpose, which is to express or elicit an attitude

25

proof surrogate

suggests there is evidence or authority for a claim without actually citing such evidence or authority

26

a mistake in reasoning an argument that doesn't really support or prove the contention it is supposed to support or prove

fallacy

27

Ad hominem

dismiss one's position by dismissing that person; attacking the person, a source who the idea is associated with conclusion could about something else

28

Occurs when a speaker or write tries to persuade us to dismiss a belief by telling us that someone we don't like has that same belief

guilt by association

29

Dismissing what someone is going to say by talking about the person's consistency or character or circumstances

poisoning the well

30

Straw Man

occurs when a speaker or writer attempts to dismiss a contention by distorting or misrepresenting it; putting words in their mouth

31

False Dilemma

what happens when someone tries to establish a conclusion by offering it as the only alternative to something we will find acceptable

32

perfectionist fallacy

nothing in between; restricting options

33

line drawing fallacy

if not either or no difference; assumption there is a crystal-clear line can be drawn between 2 things or no difference

34

what are guilt by association and poisoning the well an example?

ad hominen

35

perfectionist and line drawing fallacy are an example of what fallacy?

false dilemma

36

misplacing the burden of truth

when people try to support or prove their position by misplacing the burden of truth

37

begging the question

restating same idea resulting in going in a loop;

38

appeal to emotion

when a speak or writer "supports" a contention by playing on our emotions rather than by producing a real argument

39

appeal to pity

when a speaker or writer tried to convince us of something by arousing our pity rather than giving a relevant argument

40

2 wrongs make a right

justifying not doing something supporting a negative appraisal of someone else not a positive appraisal of one's own

41

Wishful thinking

occurs when we forget that wanting something to be true is irrelevant to whether it is true

42

Denial

occurs when we forget that wanting something to be false is irrelevant to whether it is false

43

2 wrongs make a right, wishful thinking, and denial are elements of what type of fallacy?

irrelevant fallacies

44

What is the purpose of a cognitive bias?

to skew our apprehension of reality and interfere with out ability to think clearly, process information accurately and reason objectively

45

Better-than-average illusion

occurs when most of a group rates themselves as better than most of the group relative to some desirable characteristics

46

loss aversion

are more strongly motivated to avoid a loss than to accrue a gain

47

bandwagon effect

an unconscious tendency to align one's thinking with that of other people

48

obedience to authority

tendency of humans to obey authority simply for the sake of doing so hardly needs experimental confirmation

49

confirmation bias

tendency to attach more weight to evidence that supports our viewpoints

50

overconfidence

if a person estimates the percentage of correct answers on a subject, the estimate will likely be on the high side, if questions are difficult or the subject matter is unfamiliar

51

availability heuristic

unconsciously assigning a probability to a type of event on the basis of how often one thinks of events of that type

52

fundamental attribution error

tendency to not appreciate that other's behavior is as much constrained by events and circumstances as our own would be if we were in their position

53

belief bias

tendency to evaluate reasoning by the believability of its conclusion

54

negativity bias

tendency people have to weight negative information more heavily than positive information when evaluating things

55

false consensus effect

inclination we may have to assume that our attitudes and those held by people around us are shared by society at large

56

in-group bias

easier to form negative opinions of people who don't belong to our own group; we perceive members of our group exhibit more variety and individuality

57

Define vagueness

can't say with certainty what is or is not included or excluded

58

Define ambiguity

could mean more than one thing

59

Semantic ambiguity

ambiguous phrase or word

60

Grouping ambiguity

unclear if word being used to refer to a group collectively or to members of the group individually

61

Syntatic ambiguity

a claim is open to 2 or more interpretations because of its structures (syntax)

62

Define generality

lack of specificity

63

What id an argument?

a collection of claims; consideration of accepting a claim

64

What are the 2 parts of an argument?

a premise and conclusion

65

How many premises can an argument possess?

one or more

66

Define premise in the terms of an argument

reasons why; a reason for accepting the other part

67

Define conclusion in the terms of an argument

what you believe; what the premise supposedly supports

68

ethos

ethics

69

pathos

emotions

70

logos

logic; rationale

71

What is an issue?

a question

72

t/f an issue is neither objective or subjective

false, an issue can either be subjective or objective

73

Which type of argument goes from specific to general?

inductive argument

74

Which type of argument demonstrates?

deductive argument

75

Which type of argument supports?

inductive argument

76

Which type of argument goes from general to specific?

deductive argument

77

Can a deductive argument be true/false or weak/strong?

no, that is the purpose of an inductive argument

78

t/f a deductive argument is considered valid and sound

True

79

Deductive argument

if premises are true the conclusion has to be true

80

inductive argument

the premise supports the conclusion